Publications by authors named "Seyed Ali Mard"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Maternal Morphine Exposure and Post-Weaning Social Isolation Impair Memory and Ventral Striatum Dopamine System in Male Offspring: Is an Enriched Environment Beneficial?

Neuroscience 2021 May 2;461:80-90. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Maternal opioids abuse has some deleterious consequences on next generations. Besides, children's rearing conditions can affect the behavioral states and brain plasticity in their later life. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal morphine (MOR) treatment and post-weaning rearing conditions on memory, pain threshold, and the ventral striatum dopaminergic activity in male offspring. Female Wistar rats were treated twice daily either with escalating doses of MOR or with normal saline (NS) one week before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, the male pups were assigned to six groups and then raised for an 8-week period under three different conditions: standard (STD), isolated (ISO) or enriched environment (EE). The behavioral tests, including passive avoidance task, novel object recognition, and tail-flick test, were also performed. Moreover, the ventral striatum dopamine's content (DA), mRNA expressions of dopamine receptor 1(D1R) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2R), and dopamine transporter (DAT) were evaluated. The obtained data showed that maternal MOR exposure and post-weaning social isolation could dramatically impair memory in offspring, while EE could reverse these adverse outcomes. Moreover, results of tail flick latency indicated the increased pain threshold in EE animals. At molecular level, maternal MOR injections and social isolation reduced DA levels and altered expressions of D1R, D2R, and DAT within the ventral striatum of these male offspring. However, post-weaning EE partially buffered these changes. Our finding signified the effects of maternal MOR exposure and social isolation on the behaviors and neurochemistry of brain in next generation, and it also provided evidence on reversibility of these alterations following EE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.02.024DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of anthropometric indices with cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults: a study in Iran.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2020 Dec 4. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Shariati Hospital, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, North Kargar Street, Tehran 1411713135, Iran.

Aims: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in the world. Many modifiable risk factors have been reported to synergistically act in the development of CVDs. We aimed to compare the predictive power of anthropometric indices, as well as to provide the best cut-off point for these indicators in a large population of Iranian people for the prediction of CVDs and CVD risk factors.

Methods And Results: All the data used in the present study were obtained from Khuzestan comprehensive health study (KCHS). Anthropometric indices, including BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), HC (hip circumference), WHR (waist-to-hip ratio), WHtR (waist-to-height ratio), ABSI (a body shape index), as well as CVD risk factors [dyslipidaemia, abnormal blood pressure (BP), and hyperglycaemia] were recorded among 30 429 participants. WHtR had the highest adjusted odds ratios amongst anthropometric indices for all the risk factors and CVDs. WC had the highest predictive power for dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.622, 0.563; specificity 61%, 59%; sensitivity 69%, 60%; cut-off point 87.95, 92.95 cm, respectively], while WHtR had the highest discriminatory power for abnormal BP (AUC = 0.585; specificity 60%; sensitivity 65%; cut-off point 0.575) and WHR tended to be the best predictor of CVDs (AUC = 0.527; specificity 58%; sensitivity 64%; cut-off point 0.915).

Conclusion: In this study, we depicted a picture of the Iranian population in terms of anthropometric measurement and its association with CVD risk factors and CVDs. Different anthropometric indices showed different predictive power for CVD risk factors in the Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjcn/zvaa007DOI Listing
December 2020

Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Psychological Disorder or Poverty? Results of a Large Cross-sectional Study in Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2020 12 1;23(12):821-826. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disease with no exact laboratory or imaging findings. IBS is more common in areas with a history of psychological trauma and war. This study aims to report the prevalence and possible determinants of IBS in southwestern Iran, an area with a notable history of war.

Methods: We randomly enrolled 1849 permanent residents in 29 cities aged 20 to 65 years. A validated for Farsi version Rome III criteria and a questionnaire, including demographic data and health history, were administered to each subject. Participants who fulfilled the Rome III criteria were categorized into three groups: Diarrhea dominant (IBS-D), Constipation dominant (IBS-C), and Mixed type (IBS-M).

Results: The total prevalence of IBS was 3.2%, with 70% of subjects being of Arab descent (=0.004). IBS was more common in females, singles, illiterate subjects, and people younger than 30 years; however, none of these differences were statistically significant. People with depression, anxiety, self-report of psychological disorders, and very low socioeconomic status had a significantly higher prevalence of IBS (<0.05). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, very low socioeconomic status had an independent role in IBS predictivity (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.01-5.15).

Conclusion: This study shows a higher prevalence of IBS symptoms in a population-based study in the region compared to counterparts in other regions of Iran. Considering the higher prevalence of self-reported psychological disorders, further studies are recommended to focus on the exact diagnosis of mental disorders and their influence on IBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.109DOI Listing
December 2020

Hepatoprotective properties of p-coumaric acid in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2020 Nov-Dec;10(6):633-640

Alimentary Tract Research Center, Physiology Research Center, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Objective: The liver as a highly metabolic organ, has a crucial role in human body. Its function is often impressed by changes of the blood flow, hypovolemic shock, transplantation, etc. Maintaining liver function is a major challenge and there are many approaches to potentiate this organ against different stresses. Antioxidants protect organs against oxidative stress. P-coumaric acid (PC) as an oxidant has many beneficial effects. Therefore, PC was used as a pretreatment to test its potential against oxidative stress induced by liver Ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

Materials And Methods: In order to test the potential hepatoprotective effect of PC against IR injury, five groups of rats were used: Normal (NC; intact group); Sham; p-coumaric acid (PC); IR-CO, and PC-IR. PC, Sham, NC, PC-IR and IR-CO groups that received vehicle or p-coumaric acid at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days as pretreatment before IR induction. Animals in PC-IR, and IR-CO groups underwent hepatic IR injury. Liver levels of antioxidants were determined and functional liver tests were done. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was done to determine the structural changes of the liver. Gene expression of caspase-3 was also assessed.

Results: Hepatic IR injury disrupted liver function by increasing the levels of AST, and ALT, and decreasing GSH, SOD and catalase. PC significantly decreased liver inflammation, reverted liver functional enzymes and antioxidants levels to normal, reduced the gene expression of caspase-3 in PC-IR rats compared to the IR-CO group.

Conclusion: These findings revealed that PC through improving liver´s antioxidants, liver functional tests and down-regulating apoptotic gene protein, caspase-3, protects the liver against injury induced by IR.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711293PMC
December 2020

The Khuzestan Comprehensive Health Study (KCHS): Methodology and Profile of Participants.

Arch Iran Med 2020 10 1;23(10):653-657. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide, with a disproportionally rising burden among low- and middle-income populations. While preventable risk factors highly contribute to this burden, population-based studies assessing these factors and the health status of these populations, are scarce.

Methods: The Khuzestan Comprehensive Health Study (KCHS)-a cross sectional study-was conducted between 2016-2019, including 30,506 Iranians aged 20 to 65 years, from 27 counties of Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran. KCHS aimed to provide a comprehensive health overview by investigating the prevalence and risk factors of NCDs and psychological disorders, along with viral hepatitis as a common communicable disease. Upon registration, 15 mL of blood and anthropometric measurements were obtained from participants. Afterwards, several interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed to gather data on demographics, socioeconomic status, sleep quality, physical activity, lifestyle habits, nutrition, and medical history.

Results: The mean ± SD age of participants was 41.7 ± 11.9 years. The majority were female (64.3%), of the Arab ethnicity (49%), married (83%), and urban residents (73.1%). About 70% had an educational level below high school diploma. Overall, 10.8%, 5.2%, and 2.8% of participants had used cigarettes, hookah, and drugs at least once in their lifetime, respectively. While body mass index and serum cholesterol levels were higher in females, blood pressure was higher in males (<0.001).

Conclusion: KCHS assessed many aspects of health in the Khuzestan province. In addition to develop a biobank along with a comprehensive dataset, KCHS will serve as a valuable infrastructure for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.82DOI Listing
October 2020

Objective Structured Practical Examination in Experimental Physiology Increased Satisfaction of Medical Students.

Adv Med Educ Pract 2020 29;11:651-659. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Medical education is a dynamic process, which needs to be improved to meet the new expectations of medical practitioners, health workers, and communities from different countries. An important part of medical students' education is to select an appropriate assessment method. In this regard, the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) can evaluate practical capabilities in a suitable step-wise, scientific, targeted and scheduled manner with direct consideration of student's performance during programmed test stations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes of the OSPE utilization versus traditional practical examination (TPE) for evaluating students in experimental physiology.

Methods: Totally, 120 medical students were chosen as the participants of this study: 1. TPE group (TPE used as a final exam; n=40); 2. TPE + OSPE group (TPE applied for half of topics and OSPE for another half; n=41); and 3. OSPE group (OSPE performed as a final exam; n=39). In order to evaluate the effect of OSPE, the average final grade of studied groups was compared. In addition, a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, consisting of 10 questions was used to evaluate the students' attitudes toward using this method.

Results: The obtained results showed that the total grade in TPE group was significantly higher in comparison to TPE+OSPE and OSPE groups (respectively, P<0.01 and P<0.05), while according to students' expression, the average score for all of the items in feedback questionnaire was increased significantly in TPE+OSPE and OSPE groups compared with TPE group (P<0.001).

Conclusion: In summary, feedback from students showed that they were in favor of OSPE compared with the TPE, and according to their statements in a feedback questionnaire, OSPE can improve learning in physiology as well as increasing students' satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S264120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532885PMC
September 2020

Effect of Ginger Powder Supplementation in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Clin Exp Gastroenterol 2020 23;13:35-45. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Alimentary Tract Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Clinical Research Development Unit, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disorders. The main causes of NAFLD are associated with insulin resistance, severe lipid metabolism disorders, oxidative stress and inflammation. Previous studies have reported that ginger has positive metabolic results.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ginger powder supplement on lipid profiles, insulin resistance, liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant status in patients with NAFLD.

Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 46 people with NAFLD were parted into two groups and subjected to the ginger or placebo capsules (3 capsules daily, each containing 500 mg of ginger or wheat flour) over 12 weeks. All patients received a diet with balanced energy and physical activity during the intervention period. Liver ultrasonography, anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters were measured before and after intervention.

Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups in the baseline variables at the beginning of the study. At the end of the study, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), fasting blood glucose, and insulin resistance index (HOMA), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and fetuin-A in the group receiving a ginger supplement significantly decreased compared to placebo. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in body weight, fasting insulin, HDL-C, triglyceride, adiponectin, alpha-tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), fatty liver index (FLI), fatty liver grade and blood pressure.

Conclusion: The ginger supplement may be used as a complementary therapy along with existing therapies to reduce insulin resistance, liver enzymes and inflammation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEG.S234698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986243PMC
January 2020

The effects of myricitrin and vitamin E against reproductive changes induced by D-galactose as an aging model in female mice: An experimental study.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2019 Dec 26;17(11):789-798. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Aging is accompanied by decreasing general function in the cells and tissues. D-galactose (D-gal) induces aging and plays a role in the pathogenesis of it. Myricitrin is a plant-derived antioxidant.

Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of myricitrin on antioxidant defense, sex hormone levels, uterus, and ovarian histology in D-gal-induced aging female mouse model.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 72 female adult NMRI mice, weighing 30-35 gr, 3-4 months old, were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12/each): (I) Control (vehicle; normal saline), (II) D-gal at 500 mg/kg/d for 45 days, (III-V) D-gal + myricitrin-treated groups (these groups received myricitrin at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d, and (VI) D-gal + 100 mg/kg/d vitamin E orally for the last 28 days. The antioxidant indices were done on the basis of colorimetric method, and sex hormone levels were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Histological assessment of the uterus and ovaries were also evaluated.

Results: D-gal impaired the estrous cycle, also degenerative changes occur in the ovarian follicles and damage to the uterus and ovarian tissue occurs. In D-gal group, the level of sex hormones (p = 0.03) and the total antioxidant capacity (p = 0.002) decreased, while the level of malondialdehyde and gonadotropins increased (p = 0.03). Myricitrin at lower doses and vitamin E ameliorated the D-gal effects.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that myricitrin at low doses can effectively prevent D-gal-induced oxidation and aging in mice. The effect of myricitrin was equivalent and sometimes better than vitamin E.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijrm.v17i10.5486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6906854PMC
December 2019

Protective effects of gallic acid on cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias during reperfusion in diabetes.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2019 May;22(5):515-520

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz Iran.

Objectives: Gallic acid (GA), a potent anti-oxidant, plays an important role in reducing diabetic induced cardiac disorders. Therefore, the present investigation was purposed to determine the beneficial effect of GA in cardiac arrhythmias during reperfusion in diabetes induced by alloxan.

Materials And Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into three groups (eight in each group): control (C), diabetic (D), and diabetic treated with GA (D+G) groups. GA was administered by gavage (25 mg/kg, daily) for eight weeks. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg). Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury was performed by ischemia and then reperfusion (30 and 120 min, respectively). The score and magnitude of arrhythmias, creatine kinase (CK-MB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the heart, electrocardiographic, and hemodynamic parameters were measured. One-way ANOVA followed by tests were used for the differences between groups. The percentage of incidence was also evaluated by Fisher's exact test.

Results: The duration (<0.05), onset (<0.01), score and incidence of arrhythmia, QT interval (<0.001), LDH, and CK-MB (<0.05) were significantly elevated and the contractility of the heart (±dp/dt, <0.01), LVSP, QRS complex voltage (<0.05), and heart rate (<0.01) were significantly reduced in the diabetic animals compared with the control rats. However, administration with GA significantly improved these alterations in the diabetic group compared with the diabetic animals.

Conclusion: This study indicated the beneficial effects of GA on cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias during reperfusion in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2019.27563.6726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556507PMC
May 2019

The Effects of Trimetazidine on QT-interval Prolongation and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Diabetic Rats.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2019 02 17;112(2):173-178. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Physiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz - Iran.

Background: Trimetazidine (TMZ) is an anti-ischemic drug. In spite of its protective effects on cardiovascular system, there is no scientific study on the usefulness of TMZ treatment for prolonged QT interval and cardiac hypertrophy induced by diabetes.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of TMZ on QT interval prolongation and cardiac hypertrophy in the diabetic rats.

Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 8) by simple random sampling method. Control (C), diabetic (D), and diabetic administrated with TMZ at 10 mg/kg (T10). TMZ was administrated for 8 weeks. The echocardiogram was recorded before isolating the hearts and transfer to a Langendorff apparatus. Hemodynamic parameters, QT and corrected QT interval (QTc) intervals, heart rate and antioxidant enzymes were measured. The hypertrophy index was calculated. The results were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and paired t-test using SPSS (version 16) and p < 0.05 was regarded as significant.

Results: The diabetic rats significantly indicated increased hypertrophy, QT and QTc intervals and decreased Left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), rate pressure product (RPP), Max dp/dt, and min dp/dt (±dp/dt max), heart rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase in the heart. Treatment with TMZ in the diabetic animals was significantly improved these parameters in comparison to the untreated diabetic group.

Conclusions: TMZ improves QTc interval prolongation and cardiac hypertrophy in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/abc.20180248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371832PMC
February 2019

The Beneficial Effects of Trimetazidine on Reperfusion-Induced Arrhythmia in Diabetic Rats.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2019 May 5;127(5):320-325. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz Iran.

Trimetazidine (TMZ), as an anti-ischemic drug, plays a critical role in protecting against cardiovascular complications induced by diabetes. This study was therefore aimed to evaluate the protective effects of TMZ on reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in the diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250±20 g) were randomly assigned to four (n=8): control rats (C), alloxan induced diabetic rats (D), diabetic rats treated with TMZ (10 mg/kg, D+T10), diabetic rats treated with TMZ (30 mg/kg, D+T30). TMZ was treated orally once daily for 8 weeks. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg). Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) was carried out via 30 min of ischemia and following120-min reperfusion. The magnitude and score of arrhythmia, the left ventricular function, infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), myocardial creatine kinase (CK-MB) and troponin (cTnI) were measured. The findings were evaluated by two-way repeated measures and one-way ANOVA followed by LSD post hoc test and Fisher's exact test for incidence percentage. The duration, incidence and score of arrhythmia (p<0.001), infarct size (p<0.01) were significantly increased, the cardiac contractility (±dp/dt), LDH, CK-MB (p<0.001) and cTnI (p<0.05) were significantly decreased in the diabetic rats in comparison with the control group. However, treatment with TMZ in the diabetic rats was significantly improved the duration (p<0.001), incidence and score of arrhythmia,±dp/dt LDH, CK-MB, cTnI (p<0.05) and infarct size (p<0.01) in comparison with the untreated diabetic group. The present study indicates anti-arrhythmic effect of TMZ in reducing arrhythmias induced by reperfusion in the diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-122881DOI Listing
May 2019

Sodium hydrosulfide upregulates mRNA and protein expression of TGF-α in gastric mucosa in experimental model of stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017 Dec;20(12):1385-1389

Physiology Research Center (PRC), Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Objectives: Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) has been shown to modulate the gastric acid secretion. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on TGF-α expression in gastric mucosa in rats.

Materials And Methods: Eighteen rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (6 per group). To determine the effect of NaHS on gene and protein expression of TGF-α in gastric mucosa in response to gastric acid, the acid output induced by gastric distension. At the end of experiment, rats were euthanized by anesthetics, and gastric effluents, in addition to mucosa were collected to measure the pH of gastric effluents and to quantify protein and gene expression of TGF-α.

Results: The stimulated gastric acid upregulated expression levels of TGF-α in gastric mucosa. These levels were higher in animals pretreated with NaHS.

Conclusion: TGF-α upregulatory effect of sodium hydrosulfate implied that TGF-α is involved in the acid inhibitory effect of NaHS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5723000PMC
December 2017

Effects of gallic acid on hemodynamic parameters and infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion in isolated rat hearts with alloxan-induced diabetes.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Dec 13;96:612-618. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Dept. of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran; Ahvaz Physiology Research center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran; Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran.

Diabetic rats are more susceptible to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury than control rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of gallic acid (GA) on isolated rat hearts with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups: control, untreated diabetic and diabetic animals treated with (GA, 25mg/kg). Diabetes was induced by 120mg/kg alloxan injection. Eight weeks after GA administration, the hearts were isolated and exposed to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. The body weight, blood glucose, hypertrophy index, left ventricular function, infarct size, cardiac markers and oxidative stress were measured. In the diabetic group, body weight, cardiac contractility (±dp/dt), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level (p<0.001), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), rate pressure product (RPP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels (p<0.01) as well as the heart weight (p<0.05) significantly reduced. However, blood glucose, infarct size, hypertrophy index, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, p<0.001) and troponin-I (cTnI) levels (p<0.05) significantly increased in the diabetic rats compared with the control group. Nevertheless, administration of GA improved significantly LVDP, ±dp/dt, infarct size, LDH, CK-MB (p<0.001), blood glucose, the heart weight (p<0.01), body weight, RPP, hypertrophy index, antioxidant enzyme and cTnI levels (p<0.05) in the diabetic rats. The results of this study indicated that in the diabetic rats, left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy significantly induced possibly by oxidative stress. Moreover, GA as a potent antioxidant improved both left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.014DOI Listing
December 2017

Disturbance effects of PM₁₀ on iNOS and eNOS mRNA expression levels and antioxidant activity induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart: protective role of vanillic acid.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Mar 10;23(6):5154-65. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Faculty, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Myocardial infarction is the acute condition of myocardial necrosis that occurs as a result of imbalance between coronary blood supply and myocardial demand. Air pollution increases the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of particulate matter (PM) on oxidative stress, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) level induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury, and the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA) in the isolated rat heart. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10), namely control, VAc, sham, VA, PMa (0.5 mg/kg), PMb (2.5 mg/kg), PMc (5 mg/kg), and PMc + VA groups. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) was instilled into the trachea through a fine intubation tube. Two days following the PM10 instillation, the animal's hearts were isolated and transferred to a Langendorff apparatus. The hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), xanthine oxidase (XOX), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured using special kits. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine levels of iNOS and eNOS mRNA. An increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), S-T elevation, and oxidative stress in PM10 groups was observed. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induction showed a significant augment in the expression of iNOS mRNA level and a significant decrease in the expression eNOS mRNA level. This effect was more pronounced in the PM groups than in the control and sham groups. Vanillic acid caused a significant decrease in LVEDP, S-T elevation, and also a significant difference in eNOS mRNA expression level, antioxidant enzymes, iNOS mRNA expression level, and oxidative stress occurred on myocardial dysfunction after I/R in isolated rat hearts. This study showed that PM10 exposure had devastating effects on the myocardial heart, oxidative stress, and eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression levels. Vanillic acid was able to improve these parameters. Vanillic acid as a potent antioxidant could also provide protection against particulate matter-induced toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5759-xDOI Listing
March 2016