Publications by authors named "Seyed Ahmad Seyed Alinaghi"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A systematic review of ECG findings in patients with COVID-19.

Indian Heart J 2020 Nov-Dec;72(6):500-507. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Since the epidemic of COVID-19 attracted the attention, reports were surrounding electrocardiographic changes in the infected individuals. We aimed at pinpointing different observed ECG findings and discussing their clinical significance.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases. We included eligible original papers, reports, letters to the editors, and case reports published from December 2019 to May 10, 2020.

Results: The team identified 20 articles related to this topic. We divided them into articles discussing drug-induced and non-drug-induced changes. Studies reported an increased risk of QTc interval prolongations influenced by different therapies based on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin. Although these medications increased risks of severe QTc prolongations, they induced no arrhythmia-related deaths. In the non-drug-induced group, ST-T abnormalities, notably ST elevation, accounted for the most observed ECG finding in the patients with COVID-19, but their relation with myocardial injuries was under dispute.

Conclusion: This systematic review suggests that identifying ECG patterns that might be related to COVID-19 is vital. Provided that physicians do not recognize these patterns, they might erroneously risk the lives of their patients. Furthermore, important drug-induced ECG changes provide awareness to the health-care workers on the risks of possible therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2020.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661958PMC
January 2021

COVID-19 Treatment Success After Repeat Courses of Azithromycin: a report of three cases.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,. Iran.

Azithromycin has been considered as a possible therapeutic agent for COVID-19 patients. However, there is lim-ited data on its efficacy. We describe three patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who did not respond to the initial treatment but improved dramatically upon adding azithromycin with a successful outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520999201126203510DOI Listing
November 2020

Postoperative COVID-19 pneumonia in an asymptomatic patient: a case report.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Postal Code:1419733141, Tehran,. Iran.

The recent outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China has rapidly spread throughout the world and there are many reports of symptoms ranging from malaise to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by this in-fection. However, few reports have been discussed surgical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. In this report, we described a case of an elderly female developed with postoperative pulmonary complications after uneventful elective minor surgery. The patient was asymptomatic before the operation with no history of cough or fever. After surgery, the patient developed respiratory distress and chest radiological imaging revealed bilateral ground-glass opacities. It seems any type of surgeries requiring local anesthesia or general anesthesia may contribute to worsening outcomes in patients with covid19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520999201111195845DOI Listing
November 2020

Multifocal Osteolytic Lesions in Skull Bone with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,. Iran.

Bone Tuberculosis of the skull base as well as maxillofacial and oral cavity involvement can occur rarely and on-ly occur in about 3% of the cases in systemic diseases or in case of pulmonary involvement. A 37-year-old patient with fe-ver and swelling in his face and neck referred to our center. After MRI and CT scan it was revealed that multiple erosions and destructions are seen in the Hard Palate bones, the pre-maxillary process, alveolar ridge, and the floor of maxillary sinus on both sides. In the Ziel Nelson staining, there were 5 bacilli in each field. He received standard anti-tuberculosis and clar-ithromycin. In the follow up, 3 months later, the patient's condition improved and MRI showed significant remission. The present case confirms that tuberculosis may occur in patients with skull bone involvement and Osteolytic Lesions that early diagnosis and treatment can result in gaining good outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520999201111200140DOI Listing
November 2020

Predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19-a systematic review.

Eur J Integr Med 2020 Dec 17;40:101226. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

School of Public Health, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859, United States.

Introduction: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, disease diagnosis is essential for optimal management and timely isolation of infected cases in order to prevent further spread. The aim of this study was to systematically review the assessment of risk and model the predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Variables associated with hospital mortality using bivariate analysis were included as potential independent predictors associated with mortality at the  < 0.05 levels.

Results: We included 114 studies accounting for 310,494 patients from various parts of the world. For the purpose of this analysis, we set a cutoff point of 10% for the mortality percentages. High mortality rates were defined as higher than 10% of confirmed positive cases and were given a score of two, while low mortality (<10%) was assigned the score of one. We then analyzed the associations between 72 variables and the observed mortality rates. These variables included a large range of related variables such as demographics, signs and symptoms and related morbidities, vital signs, laboratory findings, imaging studies, underlying diseases, and the status of countries' income, based on the United Nation's classifications.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that older age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus conferred a significant increased risk of mortality among patients with COVID-19. In the multivariate analysis, only diabetes mellitus demonstrated an independent relationship with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationship between possible risk factors with COVID-19 mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2020.101226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568488PMC
December 2020

Disseminated TB in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Tuberculosis considered as a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, may invade all organs but mainly affects the lungs [1].In overall, disseminated TB is rare in immunocompetent patients and its association with seborrheic keratosis has never been reported. We reported a54-year-old man with a complaint prolonged fever, abdominal pain, weight loss and lymphadenopathy without any immunosuppression who was eventually treated based on the diagnosis of diffuse tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200528152739DOI Listing
May 2020

A Patient with COVID-19 Disease in a Referral Hospital in Iran: A Typical Case.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(4):559-562

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

After the initial outbreak of the new Coronavirus in Wuhan at the end of December 2019, many new cases were reported in other provinces of China and also many other countries over the world, including South Korea, Italy, Iran, Japan, and 68 other countries. We present a case report of a 61-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus who was referred to the emergency department of a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran. The patient presented with fever, chills, and myalgia within three days. Laboratory analysis showed increased levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and mild leukopenia. SARS-CoV-2 PCR test -under the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoH&ME) guidelines- was conducted and the result was positive. The chest X-ray showed bilateral ground-glass opacity. O2 saturation was 87% (without O2 therapy). The patient was hospitalized and treated with Oseltamivir 75 mg every 12 hours, Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) 400/100 mg every 12 hours and hydroxychloroquine 400 mg stat. The patient's last O2 saturation measured was 93% and she had no fever on the 10th day of hospitalization. Therefore, she was discharged from hospital and quarantined at home according to the Iran Ministry of Health protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200429115535DOI Listing
November 2020

Brucella Pneumonia with Systemic Complications and Pancytopenia: A Case Report.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Liver Transplantation Research Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Iran which is regarded as an endemic region for brucellosis ranked second in brucella prevalence in the world. Pulmonary involvement is a rare complication of brucellosis. In this article, we aimed to report a case of systemic brucellosis complicated with brucella pneumonia. A 39-yearsold man was referred to the emergency department with weakness, productive coughs and severe weight loss during 8 months. Agglutination tests for brucellosis showed high titers suggestive for brucella infection. After 6 days of treatment, the patient clinical state has improved significantly. The patient had systemic signs and bone marrow suppression with pulmonary involvement that his diagnosis confirmed with delay after one year, but with treatment he had a very good outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200422110306DOI Listing
April 2020

Drug resistance patterns in HIV patients with virologic failure in Iran.

Arch Clin Infect Dis 2019 Dec 28;14(6). Epub 2019 Dec 28.

HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

We reviewed the medical charts of 1,700 patients diagnosed with HIV who referred to a central HIV clinic in Tehran between 2004 and 2017. Participants who had a viral load of > 200 copies/mL after six months or more on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were grouped as virologic failure (VF). We assessed the demographic characteristics, diagnosis date, first ART regimen, and resistance to various ART drugs. Out of 1,700 patients, 72 (4.2%) had a treatment failure. Among those with treatment failure, 51.3% were on zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz, 13.9% were on tenofovir + lamivudine + lopinavir/ritonavir, and 12.5% were on tenofovir + emtricitabine + efavirenz. In patients with treatment failure, the highest resistance was to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) combination (44.4%). In these patients, resistance to tenofovir (one of the NRTIs) was 29.1%. The highest treatment failure was observed among patients treated with nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV)-based regimen. Our findings suggest that protease inhibitors should be considered as first-line drugs in ART regimens in VF patients in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/archcid.96531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138207PMC
December 2019

Prevalence of Adverse Drug Reactions to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) among HIV Positive Patients in Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran, Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2017 ;17(2):116-119

Ziaeian Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: The present study assessed the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV positive patients taking antiretroviral therapy referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: This is a cross sectional study regarding side effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in HIV positive patients referred to Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center in Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran, Iran during a period of the year 2009 to 2010. Two hundred patients under antiretroviral treatment evaluated for the side effects of drug based on available records, face to face interviews and written lab data.

Results: Data was collected from a sample of 200 HIV positive patients (72% male). Injection drug use was the most common route of HIV transmission. Co-Infections with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) found in the majority of patients (60.5%). Tuberculosis was the most prevalent opportunistic infection. One hundred eighty eight (94%) patients experienced at least one adverse drug reaction. The most frequent clinical and paraclinical findings were skin rash (28%) and abnormal liver function tests (36%).

Conclusion: Given the high prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV positive patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this study, clinicians should be aware of ADRs at the initiation of ART as complications can affect patients' adherence to the therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526517666170117111350DOI Listing
May 2018

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Tuberculosis Treatment in a Prison of Tehran, Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2016 ;16(3):199-203

Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Shariati Street, Zargandeh, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The human immune system can be impaired due to lack of adherence to treatment among HIV positive patients. This is reflected in lower levels of CD4 count and incomplete viral suppression leading to the disease&#039;s progression and increased risks of opportunistic infections. Little is known about adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and Tuberculosis (TB) treatment and barriers to ART adherence faced by prisoners. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate adherence to ART, treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI), and TB treatment and barriers of ART adherence in the Great Tehran Prison in 2014.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a study to evaluate adherence to ART, latent TB infection treatment, and TB treatment via Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) among HIV positive patients in the Great Tehran Prison in 2014. Furthermore, we examined the barriers of adherence to ART through focus group discussions (FGDs) with 22 people living with HIV in the prison.

Results: The mean of adherence to ART, latent TB infection treatment, and TB treatment were 93.3%, 92.7% and 93.3%, respectively. Addiction, negative drug reactions, bad experiences with staffs, and psychosocial and nutritional problems were cited as the most common barriers to adherence.

Conclusion: It is recommended to implement DOT for ART in Iranian prisons. In addition, through removing the barriers and implementation of DOT for ART, HIV positive prisoners can achieve a complete adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526516666160616111308DOI Listing
February 2017

Psychological, Social, and Familial Problems of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

Int J Prev Med 2015 23;6:126. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran.

Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities of Kermanshah and Tehran. Each group of PLWHA, their families, physicians, and consultants participated in two focus group discussions (FGDs), and a total of eight FGDs were conducted. Six interviews were held with all key people, individually.

Results: Based on the views and opinions of various groups involved in the study, the main problems of PLWHA were: Ostracism, depression, anxiety, a tendency to get revenge and lack of fear to infect others, frustration, social isolation, relationship problems, and fear due to the social stigma. Their psychological problems included: Marriage problems, family conflict, lack of family support, economic hardships inhibiting marriage, and social rejection of patient's families. Their family problems were: Unemployment, the need for housing, basic needs, homelessness, and lack of social support associations.

Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.172540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4736053PMC
February 2016

Quickness of HIV and Tuberculosis Diagnostic Procedures in Prison of Tehran, Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2016 ;16(2):109-12

Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Shariati Street, Zargandeh, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Quickness of diagnosis and getting results in prisons is lower than other settings. The present study aimed to assess the quickness of HIV and Tuberculosis diagnostic process in the Great Tehran Prison.

Materials And Methods: The present study evaluated the quickness of HIV diagnostic testing (ELISA, Western Blot and CD4 count) in the Great Tehran Prison over the period of October 2013 to May 2014. Also, all suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients in the prison were examined for the occurrence of active TB through collecting 35 chest X-rays and 215 sputum specimens for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) testing at the health center laboratory.

Results: The average interval between when test requests were made by a physician and when HIV ELIZA/ Western Blot was obtained was relatively long time. On average, the interval between a physician`s requests for CD4 count to assess the results was eight days. The average time interval between test requests by a physician to deliver sputum samples to the laboratory was four days. However, the average time interval between a physician`s requests for sputum samples to assess the results was 16 days.

Conclusion: Due to the significance of positive and negative results for making decision on diagnosis, initiation and follow up of treatment procedure, the time intervals should become shorter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526516666160105113549DOI Listing
March 2017

Echocardiographic assessment of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure in HIV-positive patients.

Acta Med Iran 2014 ;52(11):827-30

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Flinders University, Flinders, South Australia.

Pulmonary hypertension is rare but is one of the complications that occur due to HIV infection. Symptoms of HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension are often non-specific but the main symptom of the disease is dyspnea. In this cross-sectional study, we measured systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) by echocardiographic methods among HIV-positive patients who received ART. This research is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 170 HIV-positive patients that was conducted in Imam-Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran during 2011-2013. All patients regularly received antiretroviral therapy at least for recent 2 years. There were not any cardiopulmonary symptoms (cough, dyspnea, exertional fatigue and chest discomfort) in these patients. All participants underwent echocardiography to estimate SPAP. The participants comprised 108 males (63.5%) and 62 females (46.5%). The mean age of patients was 41 years old, and the mean duration of HIV infection was 5.5 years. The mean CD4 cell count was 401 cell/µl. The principal regimen of antiretroviral therapy included two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in the hospital. The mean of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was 25 mmHg in the participants; 156 (93.4%) of them had SPAP ≤ 30 mmHg (normal), six (3.6%) had SPAP: 31-35 mmHg (borderline) and five (3%) had SPAP > 35 mmHg (pulmonary hypertension). Our results indicated a significant increase of pulmonary hypertension in asymptomatic HIV-positive patients that had no association with any other risk factor. Also, antiretroviral therapy was not a risk factor for pulmonary hypertension in this study.
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July 2015

Subtype classification of Iranian HIV-1 sequences registered in the HIV databases, 2006-2013.

PLoS One 2014 4;9(9):e105098. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States of America; Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, CA, United States of America.

Background: The rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Iran has increased dramatically in the past few years. While the earliest cases were among hemophiliacs, injection drug users (IDUs) fuel the current epidemic. Previous molecular epidemiological analysis found that subtype A was most common among IDUs but more recent studies suggest CRF_35AD may be more prevalent now. To gain a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Iran, we analyzed all Iranian HIV sequence data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Methods: All Iranian HIV sequences from subtyping studies with pol, gag, env and full-length HIV-1 genome sequences registered in the HIV databases (www.hiv.lanl.gov) between 2006 and 2013 were downloaded. Phylogenetic trees of each region were constructed using Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony methods.

Results: A total of 475 HIV sequences were analyzed. Overall, 78% of sequences were CRF_35AD. By gene region, CRF_35AD comprised 83% of HIV-1 pol, 62% of env, 78% of gag, and 90% of full-length genome sequences analyzed. There were 240 sequences re-categorized as CRF_AD. The proportion of CRF_35AD sequences categorized by the present study is nearly double the proportion of what had been reported.

Conclusions: Phylogenetic analysis indicates HIV-1 subtype CRF_35AD is the predominant circulating strain in Iran. This result differed from previous studies that reported subtype A as most prevalent in HIV- infected patients but confirmed other studies which reported CRF_35AD as predominant among IDUs. The observed epidemiological connection between HIV strains circulating in Iran and Afghanistan may be due to drug trafficking and/or immigration between the two countries. This finding suggests the possible origins and transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS within Iran and provides useful information for designing control and intervention strategies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0105098PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154867PMC
April 2015

The emergence of drug resistant HIV variants and novel anti-retroviral therapy.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013 Jul;3(7):515-22

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

After its identification in 1980s, HIV has infected more than 30 million people worldwide. In the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, anti-retroviral drug resistance results from insufficient anti-retroviral pressure, which may lead to treatment failure. Preliminary studies support the idea that anti-retroviral drug resistance has evolved largely as a result of low-adherence of patients to therapy and extensive use of anti-retroviral drugs in the developed world; however, a highly heterogeneous horde of viral quasi-species are currently circulating in developing nations. Thus, the prioritizing of strategies adopted in such two worlds should be quite different considering the varying anti-retroviral drug resistance prevalence. In this article, we explore differences in anti-retroviral drug resistance patterns between developed and developing countries, as they represent two distinct ecological niches of HIV from an evolutionary standpoint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60106-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3695575PMC
July 2013

Lack of HIV infection among truck drivers in Iran using rapid HIV test.

J Res Med Sci 2010 Sep;15(5):287-9

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HIV infection in Iranian long distance truck drivers using rapid HIV test.

Methods: The study included 400 consecutive participants in Bazargan city, north-west of Iran in the late 2008 and the early 2009.

Results: No HIV infection was observed among these long distance truck drivers.

Conclusions: Although results of this study is plausible compared to other similar studies, repeated surveys are necessary to know the trend of HIV infection in truckers in Iran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3082827PMC
September 2010

Respiratory Complications in Iranian Hospitalized Patients with HIV/AIDS.

Tanaffos 2011 ;10(3):49-54

CAPS and the Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Background: The respiratory tract has been the most commonly affected site of illness in HIV-infected patients. The current study was done to identify the frequency of respiratory complications in a consecutive case series of HIV-positive patients in Iran.

Materials And Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis at the national academic reference medical center of Imam-Khomeini Hospital, in Tehran, Iran. The study included 199 new admissions for 177 HIV-infected patients between 2000 and 2005. Demographic characteristics, risk factors for HIV infection, respiratory complications, and CD4+ lymphocyte counts were evaluated in these patients.

Results: All patients were males. The mean age was 35 years (age range: 15 to 63 years). Among 34 cases with available CD4+ lymphocyte count results, 70.6% had results <200 cells/mm(3). Nearly half the patients (47.7%) had respiratory symptoms. The most common pulmonary complications were cough (86.3%), sputum (71.6%), dyspnea (54.7%), and hemoptysis (10.5%). The most common diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis (27.1%), followed by other bacterial pneumonias (16.6%) and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (4.5%). Intravenous drug users who had history of incarceration had the highest risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (59%), and other bacterial pneumonias (52%).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that respiratory complications are highly frequent in HIV patients in Iran and that pulmonary tuberculosis is still a common complication in HIV infected patients, despite the availability of effective treatment. Results suggest the need for more effective preventive and prophylactic measures, wider use of antiretroviral treatment and effective chemotherapy for Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153161PMC
September 2014

Incidence of Mongolian spots and its common sites at two university hospitals in Tehran, Iran.

Pediatr Dermatol 2010 Jul-Aug;27(4):397-8

Children's Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, and Department of Pediatrics, Lolagar Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

A total of 2,305 consecutive newborns at Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran, and 1,706 at Lolagar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were examined for 2 years (2004-2006). Mongolian spots were found in 11.4% and 37.3% of newborns at Shariati and Lolagar hospitals, respectively. The most frequent site of involvement is the sacral, followed by the gluteal area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1470.2010.01168.xDOI Listing
November 2010