Publications by authors named "Seung-Woon Rha"

414 Publications

P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy in complex percutaneous coronary intervention: A post-hoc analysis of SMART-CHOICE randomized clinical trial.

Cardiol J 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: It remains unclear whether P2Y₁₂ monotherapy, especially clopidogrel, following short-duration dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is associated with favorable outcomes in patients undergoing complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, this study analyzed the efficacy and safety of P2Y₁₂ inhibitor monotherapy, mostly clopidogrel (78%), in complex PCI following short-term DAPT.

Methods: The post-hoc analysis of the SMART-CHOICE trial involving 2,993 patients included 498 cases of complex PCIs, defined by at least one of the following features: 3 vessels treated, ≥ 3 stents implanted, ≥ 3 lesions treated, bifurcation with ≥ 2 stents implanted, and a total stent length of ≥ 60 mm. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The primary safety endpoint included bleeding, defined as Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) types 2 to 5.

Results: Complex PCI group had a higher risk of MACCE (4.0% vs. 2.3%, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-2.89, p = 0.033) and a similar risk of BARC types 2-5 bleeding (2.6% vs. 2.6%, HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.56-1.86, p = 0.939) compared with those without complex PCIs. Patients undergoing complex PCIs, followed by P2Y₁₂ inhibitor monotherapy and 12 months of DAPT exhibited similar rates of MACCE (3.8% vs. 4.2%, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.38-2.21, p = 0.853).

Conclusions: P2Y₁₂ inhibitor monotherapy, mostly clopidogrel, following 3 months of DAPT did not increase ischemic events in patients with complex PCIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2021.0101DOI Listing
September 2021

Ten-Year Trends in Coronary Bifurcation Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Prognostic Effects of Patient and Lesion Characteristics, Devices, and Techniques.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 13;10(18):e021632. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Cardiology Department of Internal Medicine Ajou University Hospital Suwon Republic of Korea.

Background Despite advances in devices and techniques, coronary bifurcation lesion remains a challenging lesion subset in the field of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluate 10-year trends in bifurcation PCI and their effects on patient outcomes. Methods and Results We analyzed 10-year trends in patient/lesion characteristics, devices, PCI strategy, stent optimization techniques, and clinical outcomes using data from 5498 patients who underwent bifurcation PCI from 2004 to 2015. Clinical outcomes 2 years after the index procedure were evaluated in terms of target vessel failure (a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization) and a patient-oriented composite outcome (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and any revascularization). During the 10-year study period, patient and lesion complexity, such as multivessel disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and left main bifurcation, increased continuously (all <0.001). The risk of target vessel failure or patient-oriented composite outcome decreased continuously from 2004 to 2015 (target vessel failure: from 12.3% to 6.9%, log-rank <0.001; patient-oriented composite outcome: from 13.6% to 9.3%, log-rank <0.001). The use of a second-generation drug-eluting stent and decreased target vessel failure risk in true bifurcation lesions were the major contributors to improved patient prognosis (interaction values were <0.001 and 0.013, respectively). Conclusions During the past decade of bifurcation PCI, patient and lesion characteristics, devices, PCI techniques, and patient prognosis have all significantly changed. Despite increased patient and lesion complexity, clinical outcomes after bifurcation PCI have improved, mainly because of better devices and more widespread adoption of procedural optimization techniques and appropriate treatment strategies. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01642992 and NCT03068494.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.021632DOI Listing
September 2021

Real-World Three-Year Clinical Outcomes of Biolimus-Eluting Stents versus Other Contemporary Drug-Eluting Stents in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients: Data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR).

J Interv Cardiol 2021 20;2021:6698582. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Biolimus-eluting stents (BES) are known to be superior to bare-metal stents. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of BES compared to other drug-eluting stents (DES) based on big data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR).

Methods: The study analyzed a total of 9,759 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES. Total death, cardiac death, recurrent MI, revascularization, stent thrombosis, target lesion failure (TLF, composite of cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE, composite of total death, recurrent MI, and revascularization) were analyzed in patients with AMI up to three years. Study populations were divided into BES ( = 2,020), everolimus-eluting stents (EES,  = 5,293), and zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES,  = 2,446) groups.

Results: To adjust baseline potential confounders, an inverse probability weighting (IPTW) analysis was performed. After IPTW, at three years, total death (7.2%, 8.6%, and 9.5%, < 0.001), cardiac death (4.1%, 5.3%, and 6.6%, < 0.001), recurrent MI (1.6%, 2.6%, and 3.2%, < 0.001), TLF (6.5%, 8.1%, and 9.1%, < 0.001), and MACE (15.8%, 17.5%, and 18.2%, < 0.001) were lowest in the BES group compared with the other DES groups in AMI patients. During the 3-year clinical follow-up, the BES group showed better outcomes of MACE (hazard ratio (HR), 0.773; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.676-0.884; < 0.001), TLF (HR, 0.659; 95% CI, 0.538-0.808; < 0.001), total death (HR, 0.687; 95% CI, 0.566-0.835; < 0.001), and cardiac death (HR,0.593; 95% CI, 0.462-0.541; < 0.001) than the EES groups.

Conclusions: In this study, BES was superior to EES or ZES in reducing total death, cardiac death, TLF, and MACE in AMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6698582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315886PMC
July 2021

Effect of Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis on Prognosis in Patients with Vasospastic Angina: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 28;10(15). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Cardiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06649, Korea.

Vasospastic angina (VA) is a functional disease of the coronary artery and occurs in an angiographically normal coronary artery. However, it may also occur with coronary artery stenosis. We investigated the effect of coronary artery stenosis on clinical outcomes in VA patients. Study data were obtained from a prospective multicenter registry that included patients who had symptoms of VA. Patients were classified into two groups according to presence of significant coronary artery stenosis. Among 1920 patients with VA, 189 patients were classified in the "significant stenosis" group. The one-year composite clinical events rate was significantly higher in the significant stenosis group than in the "no significant stenosis" group (5.8% vs. 1.4%, respectively; < 0.001). Additionally, the prevalence of ACS was significantly greater in the "significant stenosis" group (4.8% vs. 0.9%, respectively; < 0.001). After propensity score matching, the adverse effects of significant stenosis remained. In addition, significant stenosis was independently associated with a 6.67-fold increased risk of ACS in VA patients. In conclusion, significant coronary artery stenosis can increase the adverse clinical outcomes in VA patients at long-term follow-up. Clinicians should manage traditional risk factors associated with atherosclerosis and control vasospasm as well as reduce the burden of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347544PMC
July 2021

Impact of initial very low-level low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction patients.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Chungju Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea Heart Center of Chonnam, National University Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Background: Cholesterol control with statins has been shown to have beneficial effects in coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between initial very low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear.

Methods: A total of 8741 (mean age: 64.6 ± 12.7 years, men) consecutive AMI patients treated with drug-eluting stents were entered into the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from November 2011 to December 2015. Patients were divided into six groups according to whether they were taking statins (on-statin group) or not (statin naive group) and depending on their LDL cholesterol level at admission (<70, 70-99, 100-129, 130-159, >160 mg/dl). Clinical outcomes at 24 months in patients with AMI were examined.

Results: The incidence of risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease and heart failure was lower as LDL cholesterol increased, except in the on-statin group. Clinical outcomes, including total mortality at 24 months, showed better outcomes in those with high LDL cholesterol than those with low LDL cholesterol, except in the statin group. In the statin-naïve group, the higher the LDL cholesterol level, the higher the rate of 24-month survival. In a Cox regression model, initial low LDL cholesterol was an independent predictor of mortality at 24 months after adjusting for baseline confounding factors.

Conclusions: At admission, a very low LDL cholesterol level (<70 mg/dL) in statin-naïve AMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention was independently associated with higher mortality at 24 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000001085DOI Listing
August 2021

Differential Factors for Predicting Outcomes in Left Main versus Non-Left Main Coronary Bifurcation Stenting.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 7;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Background: No large-scale study has compared the clinical and angiographic predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with left main bifurcation (LMB) and non-LMB stenting after second-generation DES implantation. Herein, we investigated differential clinical and angiographic factors for predicting outcomes in LMB versus non-LMB stenting.

Methods: A total of 2648 patients with bifurcation lesions treated with second-generation DESs from the retrospective patient cohort were divided into an LMB group ( = 935) and a non-LMB group ( = 1713). The primary outcome was the 7-year incidence of target lesion failure (TLF), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization.

Results: The incidence of TLF was 9.8%. Those in the LMB group were associated with a higher risk of TLF (14.2% versus 7.5%, < 0.001) than those in the non-LMB group. Regarding the LMB group, independent predictors of TLF were chronic kidney disease (CKD), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and two-stenting. Regarding the non-LMB group, CKD, reduced LVEF, old age, diabetes, and small diameter of the main vessel stent were independent predictors of TLF.

Conclusions: The two-stent strategy could potentially increase TLF for the LMB lesions, and achieving the maximal diameter of the main vessel stent could result in better clinical outcomes for non-LMB lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10143024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306985PMC
July 2021

Facilitated Intravascular Ultrasound-Guided Balloon-Assisted Reentry (FIBRE) Technique: A Promising Hope for Failed Complex Lower-Extremity Chronic Total Occlusions Intervention.

Authors:
Seung-Woon Rha

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 Sep 30;30:70-71. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2021.06.122DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of chronic outward force on arterial responses of proximal and distal of long superficial femoral artery stent.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 06 30;21(1):323. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, 148, Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul, 08308, Republic of Korea.

Background: Self-expanding nitinol stent (SENS) implantation is commonly oversized in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), and leads to chronic outward force (COF) and in-stent restenosis (ISR). This study aimed to investigate the impact of COF of oversizing SENS on ISR of SFA.

Methods: In patients with implanted SENS in SFA, intimal hyperplasia especially between proximal segment and distal segment was evaluated by quantitative angiography, and the impact of COF on mid-term angiographic outcomes was investigated. In addition, porcine model with implanted SENS was used to evaluate the impact of COF on angiographic and histopathologic outcomes at 1 month. Excised stented arteries were evaluated by histopathologic analysis.

Results: We analyzed 65 SENS in 61 patients with follow-up angiography at 6 months to 1 year. The baseline diameter was 6.8 ± 0.71 mm and length were 97.0 ± 33.8 mm for the SENS. The ratio of the diameter of the stent to the reference vessel was 1.3 ± 0.24 at the proximal portion and 1.53 ± 0.27 at the distal portion (P < 0.001). In the long SFA stent, stent-to-vessel ratio was significantly higher in the distal stent than in the proximal stent (1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.55 ± 0.25, P = 0.001). ISR incidence was higher at the distal stent (37.3% vs 52.6%, P = 0.029). All 11 pigs survived for 4 weeks after SENS implantation. The vessel diameter was 4.04 ± 0.40 mm (control group) vs 4.45 ± 0.63 mm (oversized group), and the implanted stent diameter was 5.27 ± 0.46 mm vs. 7.18 ± 0.4 mm (P = 0.001). The stent-to-vessel diameter ratio was 1.31 ± 0.12 versus 1.63 ± 0.20 (P < 0.001). After 4 weeks, restenosis % was 29.5 ± 12.9% versus 46.8 ± 21.5% (P = 0.016). The neointimal area was 5.37 ± 1.15 mm vs. 8.53 ± 5.18 mm (P = 0.05). The restenosis % was 39.34 ± 8.53% versus 63.97 ± 17.1% (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: COF is an important cause of restenosis in the distal portion of the SFA stent. Optimal sizing of the SFA stent is important to reduce the incidence of restenosis. Therefore, COF was an important factor of restenosis following distal SFA stenting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02141-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246708PMC
June 2021

Effect of Coronary CTA on Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Randomized Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test whether the success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) increased with pre-procedural coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA).

Background: Coronary CTA provides valuable information before and during CTO-PCI. However, there are no randomized data that explore whether coronary CTA increases its success rate.

Methods: In this multicenter, randomized trial, a total of 400 patients with CTO were randomized to receive PCI with pre-procedural coronary CTA (coronary CTA-guided group; n = 200) or without coronary CTA (angiography-guided group; n = 200) between January 2014 and September 2019. The primary endpoint was the successful recanalization rate, a final TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) grade ≥2, and ≤30% residual stenosis on the final angiogram.

Results: A total of 10 operators performed PCI. Successful recanalization was achieved in 187 patients (93.5%) in the coronary CTA-guided group and in 168 patients (84.0%) in the angiography-guided group (absolute difference, 9.5% [95% confidence interval: 3.4% to 15.6%]; p = 0.003). When comparing the success rates according to the Multicenter CTO Registry of Japan score (J-CTO), the coronary CTA guidance was favored over the angiography-guidance in the subset of J-CTO ≥2 versus in the subset of J-CTO <2 (p interaction = 0.035). Coronary perforations occurred in 2 (1%) and 8 patients (4%) in the coronary CTA- and angiography-guided groups, respectively (p = 0.055). Periprocedural myocardial infarction was not observed in the coronary CTA-guided group, whereas it occurred in 4 patients (2%) in the angiography-guided group (p = 0.123). Total procedure and fluoroscopic times were not different. There were no differences between the groups in the occurrences of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction, or target-vessel revascularization at 1 year.

Conclusions: Pre-procedural coronary CTA-guidance for CTO resulted in higher success rates with numerically fewer immediate periprocedural complications such as coronary perforations or periprocedural myocardial infarction than angiography guidance. Higher success rates were more prominently observed in patients with CTO who had a high J-CTO score than those who did not. (Role of CT Scan for the Successful Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusion; a Randomized Comparison Between 3D CT-guided PCI vs. Conventional Treatment [CT-CTO Trial]; NCT02037698).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.04.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion in Single Coronary Arteries.

Tex Heart Inst J 2021 06;48(2)

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

We retrospectively compared the results of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and optimal medical therapy (OMT) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) in single coronary arteries to determine whether outcomes depend on the artery involved. From January 2004 through November 2015, a total of 731 patients were treated at our center for CTO in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) (234 patients, 32%), left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) (184, 25.2%), or right coronary artery (RCA) (313, 42.8%). We further classified patients by treatment (PCI or OMT) and compared the cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and the composite of total death or myocardial infarction, as well as change in left ventricular ejection fraction from baseline. The 5-year cumulative incidence of MACE was similar between the treatment groups regardless of target vessel. The 5-year cumulative incidence of the composite of total death or myocardial infarction was significantly lower after PCI than after OMT or failed PCI in the LCx (2.6% vs 11.5%; P=0.020; log-rank) and RCA (5.8% vs 17.2%; P=0.002) groups, but not in the LAD group. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that PCI independently predicted a lower incidence of the composite of total death or myocardial infarction in the LCx group (hazard ratio [HR]=0.184; 95% CI, 0.0035-0.972; P=0.046) and the RCA group (HR=0.316; 95% CI, 0.119-0.839; P=0.021). The artery involved does not appear to affect clinical outcomes of successful PCI for single-vessel CTO. Further investigation in a randomized clinical trial is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14503/THIJ-19-7023DOI Listing
June 2021

Stenting versus balloon angioplasty alone in patients with below-the-knee disease: A propensity score-matched analysis.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0251755. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is considered an effective treatment in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, the long-term durability of below-the-knee (BTK) PTA is known to be limited. This study sought to compare the 1-year clinical outcomes following stenting versus balloon angioplasty alone in BTK lesions. This study included 357 consecutive patients (400 limbs, 697 lesions) with BTK lesions who underwent PTA from September 2010 to December 2016. All enrolled patients were treated either by stenting (stent group; 111 limbs of 102 patients) or plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA group; 289 limbs of 255 patients). Stent group includes both primary and provisional stenting. Angiographic outcomes, procedural success, complications, and clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups up to 1 year. After propensity score matching (PSM) analysis, 56 pairs were generated, and the baseline and angiographic characteristics were balanced. The procedural success and complications were similar between the two groups; however, the incidence of procedure-related perforation was higher in the POBA group than in the stenting group [5(11.9%) vs.1 (0.9%), P = 0.009]. Six- to 9-month computed tomography or angiographic follow-up showed similar incidences of binary restenosis, primary patency, and secondary patency. In the 1-year clinical follow-up, there were similar incidences of individual hard endpoints, including mortality, myocardial infarction, limb salvage, and amputation rate, with the exception of target extremity revascularization (TER), which tended to be higher in the stenting group than in the POBA group [21 (20.8%) vs. 11 (10.9%), P = 0.054]. Although there was a trend toward a higher incidence of TER risk in the stenting group, stent implantation, particularly in bail-out stenting seemed to have acceptable 1-year safety and efficacy compared to POBA alone in patients undergoing BTK PTA.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251755PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191955PMC
June 2021

Comparison of 2-Stenting Strategies Depending on Sequence or Technique for Bifurcation Lesions in the Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Era - Analysis From the COBIS (Coronary Bifurcation Stenting) III Registry.

Circ J 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital.

Background: It has not been determined which specific 2-stenting strategy is the best for bifurcation lesions. Our aim was to investigate the clinical outcomes of various 2-stenting strategies in the era of 2nd-generation drug-eluting stents (2G-DES).Methods and Results:We analyzed 454 patients who finally underwent 2-stenting for a bifurcation lesion, from among 2,648 patients enrolled in the COBIS III registry. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF). Patients were analyzed according to stenting sequence (provisional [main vessel stenting first] vs. systemic [side branch stenting first]) and stenting technique (crush vs. T vs. culotte vs. kissing/V stenting). Overall, 4.4 years' TLF after 2-stenting treatment for bifurcation lesion was excellent: TLF 11.2% and stent thrombosis 1.3%. There was no difference in TLF according to 2-stenting strategy (11.1% vs. 10.5%, P=0.990 for provisional and systemic sequence; 8.6% vs. 14.4% vs. 12.9% vs. 12.2%, P=0.326 for crush, T, culotte, kissing/V technique, respectively). Only left main (LM) disease and a shorter duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were associated with TLF. The distribution of DAPT duration differed between patients with and without TLF, and the time-point of intersection was 2.5 years. Also, the side branch was the most common site of restenosis.

Conclusions: The stenting sequence or technique did not affect clinical outcomes, but LM disease and shorter DAPT were associated with TLF, in patients with bifurcation lesions undergoing 2-stenting with 2G-DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0999DOI Listing
June 2021

Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction and the effect of β-blockers after acute myocardial infarction.

Heart Vessels 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, 282 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon, 35015, Republic of Korea.

There is currently an ongoing debate about the 'grey area' of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). We evaluated characteristics, prognosis, and the effect of β-blockers on clinical outcomes in patients with HFmrEF after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We included a total of 10,785 patients and divided them into three groups: EF 40-49% (HFmrEF; n = 2717; reference); EF < 40% (reduced EF [HFrEF]; n = 1194); and EF ≥ 50% (preserved EF [HFpEF]; n = 6874). The primary outcome was 2-year all-cause mortality. HFmrEF was intermediate between HFrEF and HFpEF for baseline characteristics. The risk of all-cause mortality was lower for HFmrEF patients compared to HFrEF patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.710; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.544-0.927; P = 0.012). However, HFmrEF patients tended to be at higher risk for 2-year all-cause mortality than HFpEF patients (adjusted HR 1.235; 95% CI 0.989-1.511; P = 0.090). β-blockers were associated with reductions in all-cause mortality for the entire cohort (adjusted HR 0.760; 95% CI 0.592-0.975; P = 0.031). β-blockers were effective in patients with HFrEF (adjusted HR 0.667; 95% CI 0.471-0.944; P = 0.022), tended to be effective in patients with HFmrEF (adjusted HR 0.665; 95% CI 0.426-1.038; P = 0.072), but not effective in patients with HFpEF (adjusted HR 0.852; 95% CI 0.548-1.326; P = 0.478; interaction P = 0.026). In conclusion, clinical profiles and prognosis of patients with post-AMI HFmrEF are largely intermediate between HFrEF and HFpEF. β-blockers reduced or tended to reduce 2-year all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF or HFmrEF, respectively, but not those with HFpEF after AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-021-01876-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of renin angiotensin system inhibitor on 3-year clinical outcomes in acute myocardial infarction patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function: a prospective cohort study from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR).

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 05 21;21(1):251. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea.

Background: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are usually treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) if ACEIs are not tolerated. However, there is no data regarding the impact of switching from ACEIs to ARBs on long-term clinical outcomes in AMI patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function especially beyond 1 year. To investigate the effectiveness of treatment with ACEIs or ARBs on clinical outcomes over 3 years in AMI patients with preserved LV systolic function following percutaneous coronary intervention.

Method: It is a prospective cohort study using data from a nationwide large scale registry with 53 hospitals involved in treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea. Between March 2011 and September 2015, we enrolled 6236 patients with AMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and had a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 50%. Main outcome measures composite of total death or recurrent AMI over 3 years after AMI. Patients were divided into an ACEI group (n = 2945), ARB group (n = 2197), or no renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASI) treatment (n = 1094). We analyzed patients who changed treatment. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis was also performed.

Results: After the adjustment with inverse probability weighting, the primary endpoints at 1 year, AMI patients receiving ACEIs showed overall better outcomes than ARBs [ARBs hazard ratio (HR) compared with ACEIs 1.384, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.71; P = 0.003]. However, 33% of patients receiving ACEIs switched to ARBs during the first year, while only about 1.5% switched from ARBs to ACEIs. When landmark analysis was performed from 1 year to the end of the study, RASI group showed a 31% adjusted reduction in primary endpoint compared to patients with no RASI group (HR, 0.74; 95% CI 0.56-0.97; P = 0.012).

Conclusions: This result suggests that certain patients got benefit from treatment with ACEIs in the first year if tolerated, but switching to ARBs beyond the first year produced similar outcomes. RASI beyond the first year reduced death or recurrent AMI in AMI patients with preserved LV systolic function. CRIS Registration number: KCT0004990.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02070-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140424PMC
May 2021

P2Y12 Inhibitor Monotherapy Versus Conventional Dual Antiplatelet Therapy or Aspirin Monotherapy in Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Pooled Analysis of the SMART-DATE and SMART-CHOICE Trials.

Am J Cardiol 2021 07 16;150:47-54. Epub 2021 May 16.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Controversy remains regarding the optimal antiplatelet regimen in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy compared with conventional dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and aspirin monotherapy in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Data on 4,453 patients were pooled from SMART-DATE and SMART-CHOICE randomized trials. Antiplatelet therapy regimens were categorized as P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy (P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT), conventional DAPT (12-month or longer DAPT), and aspirin monotherapy (aspirin monotherapy after 6-month DAPT). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE, a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke). Inverse-probability of treatment-weighted (IPTW) analysis was performed. At 1 year, patients in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy had a comparable risk of MACCE compared with those in the conventional DAPT (IPTW-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.655; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.393 to 1.094; p = 0.106), and tended to have a lower risk of MACCE than those in the aspirin monotherapy (IPTW-adjusted HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.347 to 1.058; p = 0.078). The adjusted hazard for the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2 to 5 bleeding was significantly lower in P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy than in conventional DAPT (IPTW-adjusted HR, 0.341; 95% CI, 0.190 to 0.614; p < 0.001) and in aspirin monotherapy (IPTW-adjusted HR, 0.359; 95% CI, 0.182 to 0.708; p = 0.003). In conclusion, among patients with ACS undergoing PCI, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT reduced risk of bleeding compared with conventional DAPT and aspirin monotherapy after 6-month DAPT without increasing MACCE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.03.053DOI Listing
July 2021

Aspirin versus clopidogrel for chronic maintenance monotherapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (HOST-EXAM): an investigator-initiated, prospective, randomised, open-label, multicentre trial.

Lancet 2021 Jun 16;397(10293):2487-2496. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology Centre, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Optimal antiplatelet monotherapy during the chronic maintenance period in patients who undergo coronary stenting is unknown. We aimed to compare head to head the efficacy and safety of aspirin and clopidogrel monotherapy in this population.

Methods: We did an investigator-initiated, prospective, randomised, open-label, multicentre trial at 37 study sites in South Korea. We enrolled patients aged at least 20 years who maintained dual antiplatelet therapy without clinical events for 6-18 months after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DES). We excluded patients with any ischaemic and major bleeding complications. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a monotherapy agent of clopidogrel 75 mg once daily or aspirin 100 mg once daily for 24 months. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, readmission due to acute coronary syndrome, and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleeding type 3 or greater, in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02044250.

Findings: Between March 26, 2014, and May 29, 2018, we enrolled 5530 patients. 5438 (98·3%) patients were randomly assigned to either the clopidogrel group (2710 [49·8%]) or to the aspirin group (2728 [50·2%]). Ascertainment of the primary endpoint was completed in 5338 (98·2%) patients. During 24-month follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 152 (5·7%) patients in the clopidogrel group and 207 (7·7%) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio 0·73 [95% CI 0·59-0·90]; p=0·0035).

Interpretation: Clopidogrel monotherapy, compared with aspirin monotherapy during the chronic maintenance period after percutaneous coronary intervention with DES significantly reduced the risk of the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, readmission due to acute coronary syndrome, and BARC bleeding type 3 or greater. In patients requiring indefinite antiplatelet monotherapy after percutaneous coronary intervention, clopidogrel monotherapy was superior to aspirin monotherapy in preventing future adverse clinical events.

Funding: ChongKunDang, SamJin, HanMi, DaeWoong, and the South Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01063-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-term outcomes of peripheral arterial disease patients with significant coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(5):e0251542. Epub 2021 May 19.

UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Background: Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have known to a high risk of cardiac mortality. However, the effectiveness of the routine evaluation of coronary arteries such as routine coronary angiography (CAG) in PAD patients receiving percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is unclear.

Methods: A total of 765 consecutive PAD patients underwent successful PTA and 674 patients (88.1%) underwent routine CAG. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as angiographic stenosis ≥70%. Patients were divided into three groups; 1) routine CAG and a presence of CAD (n = 413 patients), 2) routine CAG and no CAD group (n = 261 patients), and 3) no CAG group (n = 91 patients). To adjust for any potential confounders that could cause bias, multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression and propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curved analysis at 5-year follow-up.

Results: In this study, the 5-year survival rate of patients with PAD who underwent PTA was 88.5%. Survival rates were similar among the CAD group, the no CAD group, and the no CAG group, respectively (87.7% vs. 90.4% vs. 86.8% P = 0.241). After PSM analysis between the CAD group and the no CAD group, during the 5-year clinical follow-up, there were no differences in the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, strokes, peripheral revascularization, or target extremity surgeries between the two groups except for repeat PCI, which was higher in the CAD group than the non-CAD group (9.3% vs. 0.8%, P<0.001).

Conclusion: PAD patients with CAD were expected to have very poor long-term survival, but they are shown no different long-term prognosis such as mortality compared to PAD patients without CAD. These PAD patients with CAD had received PCI and/or optimal medication treatment after the CAG. Therefore a strategy of routine CAG and subsequent PCI, if required, appears to be a reasonable strategy for mortality risk reduction of PAD patients. Our results highlight the importance for evaluation for CAD in patients with PAD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251542PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133421PMC
May 2021

2021 Korean Society of Myocardial Infarction Expert Consensus Document on Revascularization for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Korean Circ J 2021 Apr;51(4):289-307

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Korea.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a fatal manifestation of ischemic heart disease and remains a major public health concern worldwide despite advances in its diagnosis and management. The characteristics of patients with AMI, as well as its disease patterns, have gradually changed over time in Korea, and the outcomes of revascularization have improved dramatically. Several characteristics associated with the revascularization of Korean patients differ from those of patients in other countries. The sophisticated state of AMI revascularization in Korea has led to the need for a Korean expert consensus. The Task Force on Expert Consensus Document of the Korean Society of Myocardial Infarction has comprehensively reviewed the outcomes of large clinical trials and current practical guidelines, as well as studies on Korean patients with AMI. Based on these comprehensive reviews, the members of the task force summarize the major guidelines and recent publications, and propose an expert consensus for revascularization in patients with AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2021.0043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022023PMC
April 2021

Smoking may be more harmful to vasospastic angina patients who take antiplatelet agents due to the interaction: Results of Korean prospective multi-center cohort.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(4):e0248386. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Cardiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The interaction between smoking and the use of antiplatelet agents on the prognosis of vasospastic angina (VA) is rarely investigated.

Methods: VA-Korea is a nation-wide multi-center registry with prospective design (n = 1812). The primary endpoint was the composite occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), symptomatic arrhythmia, and cardiac death. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model were for statistical analysis. Also, we conducted interaction analysis in both additive and multiplicative scales between smoking and antiplatelet agents among VA patients. For additive scale interaction, relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was calculated and for multiplicative scale interaction, the ratio of hazard ratio (HR) was calculated. All statistical analysis conducted by Stata Ver 16.1.

Results: Patients who were smoking and using antiplatelet agents had the highest incidence rate in the primary composite outcome. The incidence rate was 3.49 per 1,000 person-month (95% CI: 2.30-5.30, log-rank test for primary outcome p = 0.017) and HR of smoking and using antiplatelet agents was 1.66 (95%CI: 0.98-2.81). The adjusted RERI of smoking and using antiplatelet agents was 1.10 (p = 0.009), and the adjusted ratio of HR of smoking and using antiplatelet agents was 3.32 (p = 0.019). The current study observed the interaction between smoking and using antiplatelet agents in both additive and multiplicative scales.

Conclusions: Smoking was associated with higher rates of unfavorable clinical outcomes among VA patients taking antiplatelet agents. This suggested that VA patients, especially those using antiplatelet agents should quit smoking.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248386PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018640PMC
September 2021

Korean Multicenter Registry Study of EPIC Stents for the Treatment of Iliac Artery Disease: K-EPIC Registry.

Korean Circ J 2021 May 27;51(5):441-451. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yongin Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yongin, Korea.

Background And Objectives: The EPIC™ stent is a self-expanding, nitinol stent that has been designed to enhance flexibility and provide expansion within vessels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of the EPIC™ stent when used to treat iliac artery diseases in a prospective Korean multicenter registry.

Methods: A total of 138 patients with iliac artery diseases who received endovascular treatment with EPIC™ stents at 9 Korean sites were enrolled in a prospective cohort and followed for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the 1-year freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR). The secondary endpoints were 1-year clinical patency and freedom from major adverse events (MAEs).

Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 66.8±8.5 years and most subjects were male (86.2%). The most frequent lesion type was Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus B (43.5%) and the majority (56.5%) of the target lesions were located in the common iliac artery. Procedural success was obtained in 99.3% of patients. The freedom from TLR and the clinical patency at 1-year follow-up were 94.9% and 92.3%, respectively. The 1-year rate of MAEs was 5.1%. Combined coronary artery disease (hazard ratio [HR], 5.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-30.89; p=0.035) and smaller stent diameter (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.88; p=0.023) were identified as independent risk factors of TLR after EPIC™ stent implantation.

Conclusions: The EPIC™ stents demonstrated excellent immediate and 1-year efficacy and safety outcomes in iliac artery lesions in this multicenter, prospective, registry-based study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112179PMC
May 2021

P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after coronary stenting according to type of P2Y12 inhibitor.

Heart 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of).

Objective: To compare P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with 12-month DAPT according to the type of P2Y12 inhibitor in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: The Smart Angioplasty Research Team: Comparison Between P2Y12 Antagonist Monotherapy vs Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients Undergoing Implantation of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents (SMART-CHOICE) randomised trial compared 3-month DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy with 12-month DAPT. In this trial, 2993 patients undergoing successful PCI with drug-eluting stent were enrolled in Korea. As a prespecified analysis, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT versus 12-month DAPT were compared among patients receiving clopidogrel and those receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitor (ticagrelor or prasugrel), respectively. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or stroke at 12 months after the index procedure.

Results: Among 2993 patients (mean age 64 years), 58.2% presented with acute coronary syndrome. Clopidogrel was prescribed in 2312 patients (77.2%) and a potent P2Y12 inhibitor in 681 (22.8%). There were no significant differences in the primary endpoint between the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and the DAPT group among patients receiving clopidogrel (3.0% vs 3.0%; HR: 1.02; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.65; p=0.93) as well as among patients receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitors (2.4% vs 0.7%; HR: 3.37; 95% CI 0.77 to 14.78; p=0.11; interaction p=0.1). Among patients receiving clopidogrel, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy compared with DAPT showed consistent treatment effects across various subgroups for the primary endpoint. Among patients receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitors, the rate of bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium types 2- 5) was significantly lower in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group than in the DAPT group (1.5% vs 5.0%; HR: 0.33; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.87; p=0.03).

Conclusions: Compared with 12-month DAPT, clopidogrel monotherapy after 3-month DAPT showed comparable cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing PCI.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02079194.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318821DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficacy and safety of nebivolol in Korean patients with hypertension by age and sex: a subanalysis from the BENEFIT-KOREA study.

Clin Hypertens 2021 Mar 15;27(1). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

A. Menarini Korea Ltd., Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: BENEFIT-KOREA (BEnefits after 24 weeks of NEbivolol administration For essential hypertensIon patients wiTh various comorbidities and treatment environments in Korea) study, an observational study in South Korea, demonstrated the efficacy and safety of nebivolol in Asian patients with essential hypertension with and without comorbidities in real-world settings. We present a subanalysis of the efficacy and safety of nebivolol across age and sex in the BENEFIT-KOREA cohort.

Methods: Adult South Korean patients with essential hypertension participated in the prospective, single-arm, open, observational BENEFIT-KOREA study; 3011 patients received nebivolol as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse rate at 12 and 24 weeks were evaluated. Participants were divided into three age groups-young males and females: < 50 years; middle-aged males and females: ≥50 years to < 70 years; and older males and females: ≥70 years.

Results: The mean age of study participants was 63.5 ± 12.9 years; majority were between 50 and 69 years of age and 40.4% were females. A significant decrease was observed in mean SBP, DBP, and pulse rate from baseline at 12 and 24 weeks in males and females across all age groups analyzed (all P < 0.001 vs. baseline), with no significant difference in mean reduction in SBP and DBP from baseline between sex within the age groups. Majority of reported adverse events were mild. The incidence of adverse events was lower in young participants versus middle-aged and older participants.

Conclusions: Our subanalysis from the real-world BENEFIT-KOREA study in Asian patients with essential hypertension demonstrated the efficacy and safety of once-daily nebivolol across age groups with no between-sex differences.

Trial Registration: Name of the registry: clinicaltrials.gov.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03847350 . Date of registration: February 20, 2019 retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40885-021-00165-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958700PMC
March 2021

Initial diastolic dysfunction is a powerful predictor of 5-year mortality in peripheral arterial disease patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

Heart Vessels 2021 Oct 9;36(10):1514-1524. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, 148, Gurodong-ro, Seoul, Guro-gu, 08308, South Korea.

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and heart failure share common risks and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, it is unknown whether cardiac function can be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in patients with PAD. In total, 902 patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for PAD were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three groups according to the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): reduced EF (< 40%, n = 62); mid-range EF (40-49%, n = 76); and preserved EF (≥ 50%, n = 764). Echocardiographic (EF, ratio of mitral inflow velocity to annular velocity E/e' ≥ 15, and others) and clinical parameters were tested using stepwise logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors of 5-year mortality. A higher proportion of patients with reduced EF had ischemic heart disease than those with preserved EF (77.4% vs. 56.8%, p < 0.001). Up to 5 years, patients with reduced EF and mid-range EF showed a higher incidence of total death than those with normal EF. However, there was no difference in the incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization among the three groups. After multivariable adjustment, the ratio of E/e' ≥ 15 was the only strong predictor of total mortality (hazard ratio 6.14; 95% confidence interval 3.7-10.1; p < 0.01). Patients with PAD and reduced EF undergoing PTA had a higher incidence of total death during the 5-year follow-up. Initial tissue Doppler E/e' ≥ 15, a non-invasive estimate of left atrial filling pressure, was the only independent predictor of long-term mortality. The relationship between PAD and HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-021-01823-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Sex-related impact on clinical outcomes of patients treated with drug-eluting stents according to clinical presentation: Patient-level pooled analysis from the GRAND-DES registry.

Cardiol J 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The contribution of sex and initial clinical presentation to the long-term outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still debated.

Methods: Individual patient data from 5 Korean-multicenter drug-eluting stent (DES) registries (The GRAND-DES) were pooled. A total of 17,286 patients completed 3-year follow-up (5216 women and 12,070 men). The median follow-up duration was 1125 days (interquartile range 1097-1140 days), and the primary endpoint was cardiac death at 3 years.

Results: The clinical indication for PCI was stable angina pectoris (SAP) in 36.8%, unstable angina pectoris (UAP) or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in 47.4%, and STEMI in 15.8%. In all groups, women were older and had a higher proportion of hypertension and diabetes mellitus compared with men. Women presenting with STEMI were older than women with SAP, with the opposite seen in men. There was no sex difference in cardiac death for SAP or UAP/NSTEMI. In STEMI patients, the incidence of cardiac death (7.9% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.001), all-cause mortality (11.1% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.001), and minor bleeding (2.2% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.043) was significantly higher in women. After multivariable adjustment, cardiac death was lower in women for UAP/NSTEMI (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.89, p = 0.005), while it was similar for STEMI (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.65-1.44, p = 0.884).

Conclusions: There was no sex difference in cardiac death after PCI with DES for SAP and UAP/NSTEMI patients. In STEMI patients, women had worse outcomes compared with men; however, after the adjustment of confounders, female sex was not an independent predictor of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2021.0008DOI Listing
February 2021

Age and sex dependent association of uric acid and incident hypertension.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 04 29;31(4):1200-1208. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: A previous meta-analysis suggested that the relationship between hyperuricemia and hypertension may be stronger in younger individuals and women. We aimed to investigate the age and sex dependent association of uric acid (UA) and incident hypertension.

Methods And Results: We analyzed data from the Health Examinees Study, a community-based prospective cohort study conducted in Korea from 2004 to 2013. It included 29,088 non-hypertensive subjects aged 40-79 (age, 52.5 ± 7.8 years; men, 31.4%) who had serum UA measurement and participated in the follow-up survey. The risk factors of hypertension were assessed using Cox regression. Over a mean 3.8 years of follow-up, 1388 men (15.2%) and 1942 women (9.7%) were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Upon age- and sex-based stratification, the risk of hypertension was highest in hyperuricemic subjects aged 40-49 years (HR: women, 2.16; men, 1.30). Across the entire cohort, the risk of incident hypertension was higher in groups with higher serum UA levels, and highest in women aged 40-49 years (HR, 1.44; P < 0.001). On multivariable linear regression analysis, the higher the baseline serum UA level, the greater the increase in blood pressure during follow-up, and this effect was strongest in women aged 40-49 years (β = 0.87 and P < 0.01 for systolic blood pressure).

Conclusions: The relationship between uric acid and incident hypertension tended to be dependent on age and sex. Younger women are at highest risk of UA-related incident hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.12.015DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of baseline platelet count with all-cause mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University, College of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: We sought to evaluate baseline platelet count as a prognostic indicator in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Methods: Data of 13,085 patients with AMI were retrieved from a prospective nationwide AMI registry from November 2011 to December 2015. Using Cox hazards models, cumulative risks for adverse outcomes were compared among patients with baseline platelet count of less than 150 K/µL (lowest quartile), 150 to 249 K/µL, 250 to 349 K/µL (reference) and equal to or greater than 350 K/µL (higher quartile). The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included myocardial infarction, re-hospitalisation for heart failure, and stroke.

Results: During a median follow-up of 2.1 years, a steep U-shaped association was observed for the occurrence of all-cause mortality (p for non-linearity <0.001). For stroke, a similar U-shaped curve was also seen (p for non-linearity = 0.095). After multiple adjustments, the lowest and higher quartiles of baseline platelet count were positively associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.120; 95% confidence interval: 1.345-3.341; p = 0.001, and adjusted hazard ratio: 1.642; 95% confidence interval: 0.957-2.817; p = 0.072, respectively). Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses even after excluding patients with age ≥75 years or patients with heart failure.

Conclusions: In patients with AMI, baseline platelet count demonstrated a U-shaped association with an increased risk of all-cause mortality at two years. If validated, these findings suggest that baseline platelet count could serve as a preferred prognostic marker in AMI due to its low cost and universal availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872620925257DOI Listing
May 2020

New onset diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular events in Korean patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving high-intensity statins.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2021 02 4;22(1):11. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Korea.

Background: High-intensity statin therapy is typically used in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for secondary prevention. However, there have been consistent concerns regarding its association with diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effect of high-intensity atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) and cardiovascular outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period.

Methods: Data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry were collected from November 2011 to October 2015, and 13,104 patients with AMI were enrolled from major cardiovascular centers. Among them, 2221 patients without diabetes who had been administered with high-intensity atorvastatin (40-80 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) were investigated. The atorvastatin and rosuvastatin groups were evaluated for the incidence of NODM and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization cases in the following 3 years.

Results: Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Event-free survival rate of NODM was not significantly different between the atorvastatin and rosuvastatin groups (92.5% vs. 90.8%, respectively; Log-rank P-value = 0.550). The event-free survival rate of MACE was also not significantly different between atorvastatin and rosuvastatin groups (89.0% vs. 89.6%, respectively; Log rank P-value = 0.662). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that statin type was not a prognostic factor in the development of NODM and MACE.

Conclusions: Administering high-intensity atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in patients with AMI produced comparable effects on NODM and clinical outcomes, suggesting their clinical equivalence in secondary prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-021-00476-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863364PMC
February 2021

Stress-associated neurobiological activity is linked with acute plaque instability via enhanced macrophage activity: a prospective serial 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging assessment.

Eur Heart J 2021 05;42(19):1883-1895

Multimodal Imaging and Theranostic Lab, Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul 08308, Republic of Korea.

Aims: Emotional stress is associated with future cardiovascular events. However, the mechanistic linkage of brain emotional neural activity with acute plaque instability is not fully elucidated. We aimed to prospectively estimate the relationship between brain amygdalar activity (AmygA), arterial inflammation (AI), and macrophage haematopoiesis (HEMA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as compared with controls.

Methods And Results: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) imaging was performed within 45 days of the index episode in 62 patients (45 with AMI, mean 60.0 years, 84.4% male; 17 controls, mean 59.6 years, 76.4% male). In 10 patients of the AMI group, serial 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed after 6 months to estimate the temporal changes. The signals were compared using a customized 3D-rendered PET reconstruction. AmygA [target-to-background ratio (TBR), mean ± standard deviation: 0.65 ± 0.05 vs. 0.60 ± 0.05; P = 0.004], carotid AI (TBR: 2.04 ± 0.39 vs. 1.81 ± 0.25; P = 0.026), and HEMA (TBR: 2.60 ± 0.38 vs. 2.22 ± 0.28; P < 0.001) were significantly higher in AMI patients compared with controls. AmygA correlated significantly with those of the carotid artery (r = 0.350; P = 0.005), aorta (r = 0.471; P < 0.001), and bone marrow (r = 0.356; P = 0.005). Psychological stress scales (PHQ-9 and PSS-10) and AmygA assessed by PET/CT imaging correlated well (P < 0.001). Six-month after AMI, AmygA, carotid AI, and HEMA decreased to a level comparable with the controls.

Conclusion: AmygA, AI, and HEMA were concordantly enhanced in patients with AMI, showing concurrent dynamic changes over time. These results raise the possibility that stress-associated neurobiological activity is linked with acute plaque instability via augmented macrophage activity and could be a potential therapeutic target for plaque inflammation in AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1095DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of Asian dust-derived particulate matter on ST-elevation myocardial infarction: retrospective, time series study.

BMC Public Health 2021 01 7;21(1):68. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Background: Dust storms affect human health by impairing visibility and promoting interactions with microscopic organisms, such as bacteria and fungi. Although ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) differ mechanistically, few studies have investigated the incidence of cardiovascular diseases according to infarction type; these studies have yielded inconsistent findings. This study aimed to examine whether PM size (< 2.5 μm (PM) and < 10 μm (PM)) modifies the effect of Asian dust on acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with separate analyses for STEMI and NSTEMI.

Methods: MI-related data from 9934 emergency visits were collected from the Korea AMI Registry from 2005 to 2017. Asian dust events were defined as days with visibility of ≤10 km. Generalized linear models were used to analyze data with natural cubic splines. To examine potential modifiers, analyses were stratified by age, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI).

Results: No significant associations were observed between Asian dust and AMI. By adjusting for different lag structures, a significant effect was exclusively observed in STEMI. For moving average lags, the largest value at lag 5 (relative risk [RR] 1.083; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.007-1.166) for single and lags 0-7 (RR 1.067; 95% CI: 1.002-1.136) was observed for PM; for PM, the largest significant effect was observed at lag 4 (RR 1.075; 95% CI: 1.010-1.144) for single and lags 0-7 (RR 1.067; 95% CI: 1.002-1.136). RRs were significantly higher in < 65-year-olds than in ≥65-year-olds. Additionally, RRs between the BMI < 25 and BMI ≥ 25 groups were not different; statistically significant effects were observed for concentration at lags 0-5 (RR: 1.073; 95% CI: 1.002-1.150) and lags 0-6 (RR: 1.071; 95% CI: 1.001-1.146) in the BMI < 25 group. A negative exposure-response association was observed between daily average visibility-adjusted PM and STEMI and daily average visibility-adjusted PM in < 65-year-olds.

Conclusions: Reducing PM and PM emissions, particularly during the days of Asian dust, may be crucial and reduce STEMI and AMI incidence among < 65-year-olds. These results indicate that the Asian dust alarm system needs revision to protect vulnerable populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-10067-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791846PMC
January 2021

Role of arterial stiffness in the association between hand grip strength and cardiovascular events: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

J Hypertens 2021 06;39(6):1203-1209

Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Republic of Korea.

Background: Hand grip strength (HGS) has been associated with cardiovascular events. However, the exact mechanism responsible for the inverse association between HGS and cardiovascular events has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess whether arterial stiffness mediates this association.

Methods: We studied 1508 participants (age; 60 ± 5, men; 47.5%) from the Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study. Participants were assessed for various parameters of arterial stiffness as well as HGS. The augmentation index (AIx) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were evaluated by using an applanation tonometer and automated waveform analyzer, respectively. Carotid intima medial thickness (IMT) was measured by B-mode ultrasonogram with a 7.5-MHz linear array transducer. HGS was evaluated using a Jamar dynamometer.

Results: With increased grip strength, AIx decreased (r = 0.437, P < 0.001). baPWV (r = 0.044, P = 0.107) and carotid IMT (r = 0.005, P = 0.856) had no significant correlation with grip strength. This trend was consistently observed regardless of hypertension, but was more pronounced in participants with hypertension.

Conclusion: HGS was significantly correlated with AIx, but not with baPWV and carotid IMT. Our findings suggest that central arterial stiffness could mediate the association between HGS and cardiovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002753DOI Listing
June 2021
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