Publications by authors named "Seung Jae Lee"

472 Publications

Eyeless Worms Can Run Away from Dangerous Blues.

Mol Cells 2021 08;44(8):623-625

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2021.0201DOI Listing
August 2021

Clopidogrel Resistance in Patients With Stroke Recurrence Under Single or Dual Antiplatelet Treatment.

Front Neurol 2021 10;12:652416. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

The factors associated with clopidogrel resistance in patients with stroke recurrence receiving single or dual antiplatelet treatment (SAPT or DAPT) may differ. This study compared the high on-treatment platelet reactivities (HPRs) and the factors associated with clopidogrel resistance in recurrent ischemic stroke patients receiving clopidogrel or aspirin and clopidogrel. We enrolled and allocated 275 recurrent ischemic stroke patients to the clopidogrel and DAPT groups and compared their demographics, conventional risk factors, and P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs). Clopidogrel resistance was categorized as PRU higher than 275. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the factors underlying clopidogrel resistance during SAPT and DAPT. In total, 145 (52.7%) and 130 (47.3%) patients received clopidogrel and DAPT, respectively at recurrence. The risk factors of the two groups were not significantly different, except that coronary artery disease was more frequent in the DAPT group. The PRU was higher (255 ± 91 vs. 221 ± 84; = 0.002) and clopidogrel resistance was more frequent (45.5 vs. 31.5%; = 0.018) in the SAPT than in the DAPT group. Hyperlipidemia was associated with clopidogrel resistance during SAPT, and smoking (Odds ratio = 0.426, 95% confidence interval 0.210-0.861; = 0.018) had a protective effect against clopidogrel resistance. For those receiving DAPT, old age, female, low hemoglobin A1c level, and high ARU were associated with clopidogrel resistance. HPR and clopidogrel resistance were more frequent in recurrent ischemic stroke patients receiving clopidogrel than in those receiving DAPT. Smoking was independently associated with less clopidogrel resistance among those receiving clopidogrel SAPT but not in those receiving DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.652416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383201PMC
August 2021

Relationship between alcohol consumption and insulin resistance measured using the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance: A retrospective cohort study of 280,194 people.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 09 8;31(10):2842-2850. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Alcohol consumption causes metabolic disorders and is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, some studies suggested that low level alcohol consumption improves insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of alcohol consumption on insulin resistance using the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).

Methods And Results: This study included 280,194 people without diabetes who underwent comprehensive health examinations more than twice between 2011 and 2018. The levels of alcohol intake were obtained through a self-questionnaire. All subjects were divided into two groups based on the Korean standard cut-off value of HOMA-IR, 2.2. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to assess the risk of insulin resistance according to alcohol consumption. The mean age of the study subjects was 38.2 years and 55.7% were men. During the follow-up period (median 4.13 years), HOMA-IR progressed from <2.2 to ≥2.2 in 64,443 subjects (23.0%) and improved from ≥2.2 to <2.2 in 21,673 subjects (7.7%). In the parametric survival analysis, alcohol consumption was associated with improvement of HOMA-IR (HR [95% CI], 1.09[1.03-1.14], 1.11[1.06-1.17] and 1.20[1.13-1.26], respectively). In the analysis classified according to changes in alcohol consumption amounts, increased alcohol consumption tended to prevent the progression of HOMA-IR (0.97[0.96-0.99]; p = 0.004). However, the association between the changes in alcohol consumption amounts and improvement of HOMA-IR was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: This retrospective observational study has shown that alcohol consumption can improve insulin resistance and increased alcohol consumption amounts may have preventive effects on the progression of HOMA-IR compared to the baseline level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.06.023DOI Listing
September 2021

Genome of the Southern Giant Petrel Assembled Using Third-Generation DNA Sequencing and Linked Reads Reveals Evolutionary Traits of Southern Avian.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

The southern giant petrel , a large seabird of the southern oceans, is one of only two members of the genus and is the largest species in the order Procellariiformes. Although these two families account for the vast majority of the avian fauna inhabiting the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, studies on the status of some populations and the associated genetic data are currently extremely limited. In this study, we assembled the genome of by integrating Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time sequencing and the Chromium system developed by 10x Genomics. The final genome assembly was 1.248 Gb in size with a scaffold N50 length of 27.4 Mb and a longest scaffold length of 120.4 Mb. The genome contains 14,993 predicted protein-coding genes and has 11.06% repeat sequences. Estimated historical effective population size analysis indicated that the southern giant petrel underwent a severe reduction in effective population size during a period coinciding with the early Pleistocene. The availability of this newly sequenced genome will facilitate more effective genetic monitoring of threatened species. Furthermore, the genome will provide a valuable resource for gene functional studies and further comparative genomic studies on the life history and ecological traits of specific avian species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11072046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300169PMC
July 2021

Lewy Body-like Inclusions in Human Midbrain Organoids Carrying Glucocerebrosidase and α-Synuclein Mutations.

Ann Neurol 2021 Sep 10;90(3):490-505. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Program in Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

Objective: We utilized human midbrain-like organoids (hMLOs) generated from human pluripotent stem cells carrying glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA1) and α-synuclein (α-syn; SNCA) perturbations to investigate genotype-to-phenotype relationships in Parkinson disease, with the particular aim of recapitulating α-syn- and Lewy body-related pathologies and the process of neurodegeneration in the hMLO model.

Methods: We generated and characterized hMLOs from GBA1 and SNCA overexpressing isogenic embryonic stem cells and also generated Lewy body-like inclusions in GBA1/SNCA dual perturbation hMLOs and conduritol-b-epoxide-treated SNCA triplication hMLOs.

Results: We identified for the first time that the loss of glucocerebrosidase, coupled with wild-type α-syn overexpression, results in a substantial accumulation of detergent-resistant, β-sheet-rich α-syn aggregates and Lewy body-like inclusions in hMLOs. These Lewy body-like inclusions exhibit a spherically symmetric morphology with an eosinophilic core, containing α-syn with ubiquitin, and can also be formed in Parkinson disease patient-derived hMLOs. We also demonstrate that impaired glucocerebrosidase function promotes the formation of Lewy body-like inclusions in hMLOs derived from patients carrying the SNCA triplication.

Interpretation: Taken together, the data indicate that our hMLOs harboring 2 major risk factors (glucocerebrosidase deficiency and wild-type α-syn overproduction) of Parkinson disease provide a tractable model to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms for progressive Lewy body formation. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:490-505.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26166DOI Listing
September 2021

Combinatorial Approach Using and Mammalian Systems for Aging Research.

Mol Cells 2021 Jul;44(7):425-432

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea.

Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in organisms over time. Organisms as diverse as the nematode and mammals share signaling pathways that regulate aging and lifespan. In this review, we discuss recent combinatorial approach to aging research employing and mammalian systems that have contributed to our understanding of evolutionarily conserved aging-regulating pathways. The topics covered here include insulin/IGF-1, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and sirtuin signaling pathways; dietary restriction; autophagy; mitochondria; and the nervous system. A combinatorial approach employing high-throughput, rapid systems, and human model mammalian systems is likely to continue providing mechanistic insights into aging biology and will help develop therapeutics against age-associated disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2021.0080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8334350PMC
July 2021

Genome survey and microsatellite motif identification of Pogonophryne albipinna.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jul;41(7)

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

The genus Pogonophryne is a speciose group that includes 28 species inhabiting the coastal or deep waters of the Antarctic Southern Ocean. The genus has been divided into five species groups, among which the P. albipinna group is the most deep-living group and is characterized by a lack of spots on the top of the head. Here, we carried out genome survey sequencing of P. albipinna using the Illumina HiSeq platform to estimate the genomic characteristics and identify genome-wide microsatellite motifs. The genome size was predicted to be ∼883.8 Mb by K-mer analysis (K = 25), and the heterozygosity and repeat ratio were 0.289 and 39.03%, respectively. The genome sequences were assembled into 571624 contigs, covering a total length of ∼819.3 Mb with an N50 of 2867 bp. A total of 2217422 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified from the assembly data, and the number of repeats decreased as the length and number of repeats increased. These data will provide a useful foundation for the development of new molecular markers for the P. albipinna group as well as for further whole-genome sequencing of P. albipinna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20210824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292760PMC
July 2021

Reconciliation of Two Cognitive Models in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An fMRI Study.

Psychiatry Investig 2021 Jun 24;18(6):545-552. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Although cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fall into two categories: cognitive deficit models and dysfunctional belief models, these approaches have their own ways and have hardly been reconciled. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential relationships between cognitive deficit (using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, WCST) and dysfunctional belief (measured by scales of dysfunctional beliefs) mediated by neural activity in OCD patients.

Methods: Thirty OCD patients and 30 healthy participants performed the WCST condition and a baseline MATCH condition during the 3T-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition.

Results: Engagement of additional frontoparietal networks with poorer performance of WCST was found during the fMRI scan in OCD patients. Selected regions of interest from activated regions have positive relationships with dysfunctional beliefs and with the unacceptable thoughts symptom dimension in the OCD group.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that alteration in frontoparietal networks related to cognitive deficits can be associated with dysfunctional beliefs while performing conventional neurocognitive tasks and this association with dysfunctional beliefs may be pronounced in the unacceptable thoughts domain-dominant OCD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256141PMC
June 2021

Total Meniscus Reconstruction Using a Polymeric Hybrid-Scaffold: Combined with 3D-Printed Biomimetic Framework and Micro-Particle.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksandae-ro, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea.

The meniscus has poor intrinsic regenerative capability, and its injury inevitably leads to articular cartilage degeneration. Although there are commercialized off-the-shelf alternatives to achieve total meniscus regeneration, each has its own shortcomings such as individualized size matching issues and inappropriate mechanical properties. We manufactured a polycaprolactone-based patient-specific designed framework via a Computed Tomography scan images and 3D-printing technique. Then, we completed the hybrid-scaffold by combining the 3D-printed framework and mixture micro-size composite which consists of polycaprolactone and sodium chloride to create a cell-friendly microenvironment. Based on this hybrid-scaffold with an autograft cell source (fibrochondrocyte), we assessed mechanical and histological results using the rabbit total meniscectomy model. At postoperative 12-week, hybrid-scaffold achieved neo-meniscus tissue formation, and its shape was maintained without rupture or break away from the knee joint. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis results showed obvious ingrowth of the fibroblast-like cells and chondrocyte cells as well as mature lacunae that were embedded in the extracellular matrix. Hybrid-scaffolding resulted in superior shape matching as compared to original meniscus tissue. Histological analysis showed evidence of extensive neo-meniscus cell ingrowth. Additionally, the hybrid-scaffold did not induce osteoarthritis on the femoral condyle surface. The 3D-printed hybrid-scaffold may provide a promising approach that can be applied to those who received total meniscal resection, using patient-specific design and autogenous cell source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13121910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229034PMC
June 2021

Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Is Better than Conservative Treatment in Elderly Patients with Acute Cholecystitis After Percutaneous Transhepatic Gallbladder Drainage.

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Surgery, Konyang University Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, 158, Gwanjeodong-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon, 35365, South Korea.

Background: It is unclear whether cholecystectomy is beneficial after percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) in elderly patients with acute cholecystitis (AC).

Methods: This single-center, retrospective study included 202 patients aged >80 years with AC without common bile duct (CBD) stones who underwent PTGBD between January 2010 and December 2019.

Results: One hundred and forty-two patients underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC), and 60 underwent conservative treatment, specifically PTGBD removal (PTGBD-R) in 36 patients and PTGBD maintained (PTGBD-M) in 24 patients. The postoperative major complication (POMC) rate in the ELC group was 8.5%. The cumulative incidence for recurrence of biliary events (BE) in the PTGBD-R group was 22.2%. The cumulative incidence for PTGBD-related complication in the PTGBD-M group was 70.8%. Mortality after initial treatment was not significantly different between the three groups (2.8% vs. 2.8% vs. 8.3%, p=0.381). In multivariate analysis, a Charlson age comorbidity index ≥6 and body mass index ≤19 were significant risk factors for POMC after ELC, and a closed cystic duct was a significant risk factor for recurrent BE after PTGBD-R.

Conclusion: ELC is recommended in AC after PTGBD for selected patients aged >80 years without CBD stones due to the high recurrence rate of BE after PTGBD-R and the difficulty associated with PTGBD-M.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-021-05067-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Preservative-free Latanoprost Eyedrops Compared with Preserved Prostaglandin Analogues in Patients with Open-angle Glaucoma.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2021 06 4;35(3):235-241. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of preservative-free (PF) latanoprost in glaucoma patients.

Methods: In this prospective, open-label, observational study, a total of 27 primary open-angle glaucoma patients who used benzalkonium chloride-preserved prostaglandin analogues for at least 6 months were enrolled. After changing the eye drops to PF lataprost, the intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular surface symptoms and signs were evaluated in all patients on days 0 (first visit, D0), 45 (D45), and 90 (D90).

Results: Mean IOP remained stable during the study period (14.0 ± 2.4 mmHg at D0, 13.9 ± 2.0 mmHg at D45, 13.7 ± 2.2 mmHg at D90; p = 0.603). Mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, and best-corrected visual acuity were similar before and after eye drops replacement. Bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, corneal staining, and conjunctival staining were significantly decreased over 90 days (p = 0.025, p < 0.001, p = 0.020, respectively). The ocular surface disease index score showed a statistically significant improvement from 26.4 ± 18.5 at D0 to 19.8 ± 17.0 at D45 and 15.7 ± 15.6 at D90 (p < 0.001). In the evaluation of ocular tolerability, burning symptoms and dryness were significantly decreased (p = 0.001, p = 0.040).

Conclusions: The effects of PF latanoprost on reducing IOP were comparable with those of benzalkonium chloride-preserved prostaglandin analogues, but side effects on the ocular surface were much less pronounced when PF latanoprost was used. With this efficacy, PF latanoprost could slow the progression of glaucoma by increasing patient compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2021.0010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200585PMC
June 2021

Transfer RNA-derived fragments in aging Caenorhabditis elegans originate from abundant homologous gene copies.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12304. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.

Small RNAs that originate from transfer RNA (tRNA) species, tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), play diverse biological functions but little is known for their association with aging. Moreover, biochemical aspects of tRNAs limit discovery of functional tRFs by high throughput sequencing. In particular, genes encoding tRNAs exist as multiple copies throughout genome, and mature tRNAs have various modified bases, contributing to ambiguities for RNA sequencing-based analysis of tRFs. Here, we report age-dependent changes of tRFs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We first analyzed published RNA sequencing data by using a new strategy for tRNA-associated sequencing reads. Our current method used unique mature tRNAs as a reference for the sequence alignment, and properly filtered out false positive enrichment for tRFs. Our analysis successfully distinguished de novo mutation sites from differences among homologous copies, and identified potential RNA modification sites. Overall, the majority of tRFs were upregulated during aging and originated from 5'-ends, which we validated by using Northern blot analysis. Importantly, we revealed that the major source of tRFs upregulated during aging was the tRNAs with abundant gene copy numbers. Our analysis suggests that tRFs are useful biomarkers of aging particularly when they originate from abundant homologous gene copies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91724-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192933PMC
June 2021

Testicular germ cell-specific lncRNA, , is required for complete expression of Y chromosome genes and a normal offspring sex ratio.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 9;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea.

Heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) regulates the transcription of the male-specific region of the mouse Y chromosome long arm (MSYq) multicopy genes only in testes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this tissue specificity remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the testicular germ cell-specific long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), , displays a characteristic spatiotemporal expression pattern in the nuclei of round and elongating spermatids. -knockout male mice produced sperm with abnormal head morphology and exhibited reduced fertility accompanied by a female-biased sex ratio in offspring. Molecular analyses revealed that interacts with HSF2 and thereby activates expression of the MSYq genes. We designate as testicular germ cell-specific HSF2-interacting lncRNA (). Together, our study is the first to demonstrate that the testis specificity of HSF2 activity is regulated by the lncRNA and establishes a -HSF2-MSYq molecular axis for normal Y-bearing sperm qualities and consequent balanced offspring sex ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg5177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189594PMC
June 2021

An Unusual Case of Aortic and Mitral Valve Involved -Induced Endocarditis: Rare Zoonosis with Devastating Outcome.

J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4250/jcvi.2021.0050DOI Listing
May 2021

Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Glomus Tympanicum Tumors Presenting with Pulsatile Tinnitus.

J Clin Med 2021 May 27;10(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 13620, Korea.

We reviewed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with glomus tympanicum tumors (GTTs) presenting with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). We explored whether transcanal sound recording-spectro-temporal analysis (TSR-STA) usefully evaluated changes in PT. The medical records of 13 patients who underwent surgical removal of GTTs were reviewed retrospectively. Two patients underwent preoperative endovascular embolization. Changes in PT, pre- and postoperative audiometry data, TSR-STA results, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. PT was the chief complaint in eight patients (61.5%) and resolved immediately after surgical intervention in all. Two patients exhibited ipsilateral, pseudo-low-frequency hearing loss (PLFHL); surgical GTT removal elicited postoperative improvements in the ipsilesional low-frequency hearing thresholds. Five patients underwent TSR-STA using previously described methods. TSR-STA revealed definite rise-and-fall patterns; surgical tumor removal abated this pattern in one patient, but, for the other four, the patterns did not change greatly post-intervention. Thus, GTT-related PT can be treated successfully (via surgical GTT removal) without complications. In selected cases, preoperative embolization reduces intraoperative hemorrhage. In PT patients with PLFHL, a detailed otoendoscopic examination of the middle ear is required to rule out a GTT. TSR-STA may usefully (and objectively) assess postoperative improvements in GTT-related PT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198089PMC
May 2021

Aconitine Neurotoxicity According to Administration Methods.

J Clin Med 2021 May 16;10(10). Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Neurology, Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 54907, Korea.

We evaluated the toxic effects of aconitine on the human nervous system and its associated factors, and the general clinical characteristics of patients who visited the emergency room due to aconitine intoxication between 2008 and 2017. We also analyzed the differences related to aconitine processing and administration methods (oral pill, boiled in water, and alcohol-soaked), and the clinical characteristics of consciousness deterioration and neurological symptoms. Of the 41 patients who visited the hospital due to aconitine intoxication, 23 (56.1%) were female, and most were older. Aconitine was mainly used for pain control (28 patients, 68.3%) and taken as oral pills (19 patients, 46%). The patients showed a single symptom or a combination of symptoms; neurological symptoms were the most common (21 patients). All patients who took aconitine after processing with alcohol showed neurological symptoms and a higher prevalence of consciousness deterioration. Neurological symptoms occurred most frequently in patients with aconitine intoxication. Although aconitine intoxication presents with various symptoms, its prognosis may vary with the processing method and prevalence of consciousness deterioration during the early stages. Therefore, the administration method and accompanying symptoms should be comprehensively investigated in patients who have taken aconitine to facilitate prompt and effective treatment and better prognoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155921PMC
May 2021

Emerging functions of circular RNA in aging.

Trends Genet 2021 Sep 17;37(9):819-829. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, South Korea. Electronic address:

Circular RNA (circRNA) is a closed, single-stranded transcript widely detected in eukaryotes. Recent studies indicate that the levels of circRNAs change with age in various tissues in multiple species, ranging from nematodes to mammals. Here we discuss the functional roles of circRNAs in animal aging and longevity. We review studies regarding the differential expression of circRNAs that contributes to cellular senescence and the pathogenesis of aging-associated diseases. We explore the features of aging-associated circRNAs by discussing their potential as biomarkers of aging, tissue specificity, physiological roles, action mechanisms, and evolutionarily conserved characteristics. Our review provides insights into current progress in circRNA research and their significant functions in the aging process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2021.04.014DOI Listing
September 2021

Fatty Liver Is Associated with Low N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in a Healthy Population.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 1;10(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea.

Fatty liver (FL), insulin resistance (IR) and obesity often coexist, but data on the independent impacts of these factors on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels are scarce. We examined the impact of FL, IR and obesity on NT-proBNP levels using a large set of cross-sectional data. The associations of FL, IR and obesity with NT-proBNP were analyzed in 39,923 healthy adult participants. IR was estimated using a homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. A multivariable regression model was conducted to identify associations between NT-proBNP and FL on abdominal ultrasound. FL, IR and obesity showed independent inverse associations with NT-proBNP after multiple adjustments for baseline characteristics. In a multivariable regression model adjusting for IR and obesity, FL was independently associated with lower levels of NT-proBNP (estimates, Exp(β) 0.864, 0.849-0.880). The combination of FL and IR was a powerful dual indicator, lowering NT-proBNP levels approximately 25% in the generally healthy study population. In conclusion, FL was independently associated with lower NT-proBNP levels. FL and a high HOMA-IR index are a powerful indicator combination for lower NT-proBNP levels. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between FL and NT-proBNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037377PMC
April 2021

Korean Version of the Thought-Action Fusion Scale: The Evidence for Its Psychometric Properties.

Psychiatry Investig 2021 Apr 15;18(4):348-356. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Counseling Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: The Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS) is a self-reported instrument used to measure a cognitive bias, namely, thoughtaction fusion (TAF), in which intrusive thoughts have moral and actual consequences. The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the 19-item TAFS (K-TAFS) in Korean samples.

Methods: In this study, 628 university students and 93 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) completed the K-TAFS and several other psychological scales. Descriptive analyses, correlations, group comparisons, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed.

Results: The results of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a two-factor structure with TAF-Morality and TAFLikelihood that best fits the data in the university sample. The reliability analyses showed that TAFS and its factors had excellent internal consistencies. Regarding the concurrent validity, positive correlations were observed between TAF-Likelihood and cognitive fusion, while the TAFS scores did not show any consistent correlations with other symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Compared to the university students, the OCD patients showed higher TAFS scores and their obsessive-compulsive symptoms were significantly associated with both TAF-Morality and TAF-Likelihood.

Conclusion: Overall, the findings of this study support the reliability and validity of the K-TAFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103018PMC
April 2021

Peroxiredoxin V Silencing Elevates Susceptibility to Doxorubicin-induced Cell Apoptosis ROS-dependent Mitochondrial Dysfunction in AGS Gastric Cancer Cells.

Anticancer Res 2021 Apr;41(4):1831-1840

College of Medicine, Yanbian University, Yanji, P.R. China;

Background/aim: Peroxiredoxin V (Prx V) plays crucial roles in cellular apoptosis and proliferation in various cancer cells by regulating the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels.

Materials And Methods: Here, we examined the possible regulatory effects of Prx V on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cellular apoptosis and its mechanisms in the human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS cells).

Results: Our findings suggest that Prx V knockdown may significantly increase the DOX-induced apoptosis by aggravating intracellular ROS accumulation. We also found that DOX-induced mitochondrial ROS levels and membrane permeability were significantly higher in short hairpin Prx V cells than in mock cells, and these phenomena were dramatically reversed by ROS scavenger treatment. Prx V knockdown also significantly upregulated the cleaved caspase 9, 3, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated agonist of cell death/Bcl2 protein expression levels, suggesting that Prx V knockdown activates mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling pathways.

Conclusion: Taken together, this study suggests that Prx V may be a strong molecular target for gastric cancer (GC) chemotherapy, and further elucidates the role of Prx V in oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14949DOI Listing
April 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Perciformes, Nototheniidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 18;6(3):1032-1033. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome of was studied using NGS technology with PacBio platform. The mitochondrial genome size was 19,374bp and it had 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. There were 4 types of stop codons which were TAA, TAG, AGG and T(AA) but start codon type was only one (ATG). The contents of GC were 44.09% and AT contents were 55.91%. To conduct phylogenetic analysis, 12 species in 3 families were used. The result suggested that was close to in Nototheniidae. This study would provide a fundamental data for molecular evolution of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1899070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995823PMC
March 2021

Effects of Age, Sex, and Obesity on N-Terminal Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in the General Population.

Circ J 2021 04 30;85(5):647-654. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine.

Background: Data regarding complex relationships between age, sex, obesity and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) remain scarce. Thus, we investigated sex-specific associations of obesity and NT-proBNP levels among adults in the general healthy population in Korea.Methods and Results:The associations of age, sex and obesity-associated parameters (waist circumference [WC], body mass index [BMI] and body weight) with NT-proBNP were analyzed in 39,937 healthy adult participants. Multivariable regression models adjusted for factors known to affect NT-proBNP were used to identify associations between NT-proBNP and obesity-related parameters. NT-proBNP levels were higher in females than males. Older age was also associated with higher NT-proBNP levels in the overall population (P<0.001). When accounting for age in multivariable linear regression models, there was a strong inverse association between WC, BMI, and NT-proBNP in females and a weaker inverse association in males, with a significant difference between the sexes (P interaction <0.001). After adjusting for the effects of WC and BMI on each other, abdominal obesity was associated with lower NT-proBNP levels in females but not males (P interaction <0.001).

Conclusions: In this large sample of young and healthy Asians, younger age, male sex, and increases in obesity-related parameters were related to lower levels of NT-proBNP. Further comprehensive studies are needed to understand the factors affecting NT-proBNP levels in different populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1104DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis and Characteristic Properties of Crosslinked Chitosan with Epichlorohydrin for Nitrate Removal from Water.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 09;21(9):4974-4979

Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Suncheon-si, Jeollanam-do 57922, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we prepared chitosan beads cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (CB-ECH) to improve the removal of nitrate in groundwater. It was confirmed that CB-ECH exhibited higher thermal stability and well-developed nano-pores compared to the pure chitosan beads (CB) by the thermogravimetric analyzer, nitrogen gas adsorption and desorption isotherm, and field emission scanning microscopy analysis. The CB-ECH showed a higher nitrate adsorption amount than the pure CB. Nitrate adsorption behaviors of CB-ECH were further investigated using adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, adsorption energy distribution, and Gibbs free energy distribution models. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of nitrate ion on CB-ECH were well explained by the Sips isotherm and homogeneous surface diffusion model, respectively. It was also found from the AED analysis that the CB-ECH represent the heterogeneous adsorption behaviors for nitrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19271DOI Listing
September 2021

High Quality AlN Layer Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrates by Hydride Vapor-Phase Epitaxy: A Route for Cost Efficient AlN Templates for Deep Ultraviolet Light Devices.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Sep;21(9):4881-4885

LumiGNtech Co., Ltd., Gwangmyeong, Gyeonggi 14322, Republic of Korea.

We report the characteristics of AlN epilayers grown directly on cylindrical-patterned sapphire substrates (CPSS) by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE). To evaluate the effect of CPSS, we analyzed the threading dislocation densities (TDDs) of AlN films grown simultaneously on CPSS and flat sapphire substrate (FSS) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corresponding TDD is measured to be 5.69 x 10 cm for the AlN sample grown on the CPSS that is almost an order of magnitude lower than the value of 3.43 × 10 cm on the FSS. The CPSS contributes to reduce the TDs originated from the AlN/sapphire interface via bending the TDs by lateral growth during the coalescence process. In addition, the reduction of direct interface area between AlN and sapphire by CPSS reduce the generation of TDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19258DOI Listing
September 2021

Discontinuity Predictions of Porosity and Hydraulic Conductivity Based on Electrical Resistivity in Slopes through Deep Learning Algorithms.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 18;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea.

Electrical resistivity is used to obtain various types of information for soil strata. Hence, the prediction of electrical resistivity is helpful to predict the future behavior of soil. The objective of this study is to apply deep learning algorithms, including deep neural network (DNN), long-short term memory (LSTM), and gated recurrent unit (GRU), to determine the reliability of electrical resistivity predictions to find the discontinuity of porosity and hydraulic conductivity. New DNN-based algorithms, i.e., LSTM-DNN and GRU-DNN, are also applied in this study. The electrical resistivity values are obtained using 101 electrodes installed at 2 m intervals on a mountaintop, and a Wenner array is selected to simplify the electrode installation and measurement. A total of 1650 electrical resistivity values are obtained for one measurement considering the electrode spacing, and accumulated data measured for 15 months are used in the deep learning analysis. A constant ratio of 6:2:2 among the training, validation, and test data, respectively, is used for the measured electrical resistivity, and the hyperparameters in each algorithm are moderated to improve the reliability. Based on the deep learning model results, the distributions of porosity and hydraulic conductivity are deduced, and an average depth of 25 m is estimated for the discontinuity depth. This paper shows that the deep learning technique is well used to predict electrical resistivity, porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and discontinuity depth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922864PMC
February 2021

Reduced insulin/IGF1 signaling prevents immune aging via ZIP-10/bZIP-mediated feedforward loop.

J Cell Biol 2021 May;220(5)

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea.

A hallmark of aging is immunosenescence, a decline in immune functions, which appeared to be inevitable in living organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we show that genetic inhibition of the DAF-2/insulin/IGF-1 receptor drastically enhances immunocompetence in old age in C. elegans. We demonstrate that longevity-promoting DAF-16/FOXO and heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF-1) increase immunocompetence in old daf-2(-) animals. In contrast, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (PMK-1), a key determinant of immunity, is only partially required for this rejuvenated immunity. The up-regulation of DAF-16/FOXO and HSF-1 decreases the expression of the zip-10/bZIP transcription factor, which in turn down-regulates INS-7, an agonistic insulin-like peptide, resulting in further reduction of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS). Thus, reduced IIS prevents immune aging via the up-regulation of anti-aging transcription factors that modulate an endocrine insulin-like peptide through a feedforward mechanism. Because many functions of IIS are conserved across phyla, our study may lead to the development of strategies against immune aging in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202006174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941181PMC
May 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Whole genome survey and microsatellite motif identification of Artemia franciscana.

Biosci Rep 2021 03;41(3)

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Artemia is an industrially important genus used in aquaculture as a nutritious diet for fish and as an aquatic model organism for toxicity tests. However, despite the significance of Artemia, genomic research remains incomplete and knowledge on its genomic characteristics is insufficient. In particular, Artemia franciscana of North America has been widely used in fisheries of other continents, resulting in invasion of native species. Therefore, studies on population genetics and molecular marker development as well as morphological analyses are required to investigate its population structure and to discriminate closely related species. Here, we used the Illumina Hi-Seq platform to estimate the genomic characteristics of A. franciscana through genome survey sequencing (GSS). Further, simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were identified for microsatellite marker development. The predicted genome size was ∼867 Mb using K-mer (a sequence of k characters in a string) analysis (K = 17), and heterozygosity and duplication rates were 0.655 and 0.809%, respectively. A total of 421467 SSRs were identified from the genome survey assembly, most of which were dinucleotide motifs with a frequency of 77.22%. The present study will be a useful basis in genomic and genetic research for A. franciscana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20203868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955100PMC
March 2021
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