Publications by authors named "Sergio A Useche"

22 Publications

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Could Road Safety Education (RSE) Help Parents Protect Children? Examining Their Driving Crashes with Children on Board.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 31;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

Recent evidence suggests that driving behavior and traffic safety outcomes of parents may be influenced by the extent to which they receive information and education on road safety, as well as the fact of driving with their children on board, which may increase their risk perception. However, there are no studies specifically addressing the case of crashes suffered while driving with children. Hence, this study aimed to describe the relationship between road safety education-related variables and parents' traffic safety outcomes while driving with children on board. For this cross-sectional study, data was retrieved from a sample composed of 165 Spanish parents-all of them licensed drivers-with a mean age of 45.3 years. Through binary logistic regression (logit) analysis, it was found that factors such as gender, having received road safety education (RSE), and having been sanctioned for the performance of risky driving behavior contribute to modulating the likelihood of suffering crashes while driving with children on board. Gender differences showed a riskier status for male parents. In this study, a set of risk factors explaining the involvement in traffic crashes when driving with children as passengers was identified among parents: gender, traffic sanctions, valuation, and exposure to road safety campaigns. Also, substantial limitations in the self-reported degree of received RSE were found, especially considering that risky driving behavior and traffic crash rates with children on board still have a high prevalence among parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037421PMC
March 2021

Bicycle Rider Behavior and Crash Involvement in Australia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 1;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Faculty of Psychology-INTRAS Research Centre, University of Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

This research investigated how behaviours and attitudes of bicycle riders influence crash frequency and severity. The study recruited 1102 Australian bicycle riders for an online survey. The survey comprised questions on demographics, frequency of riding and the number and severity of traffic crashes during the last five years. The survey included the Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire and the Cyclist Risk Perception and Regulation Scale. Overall, there were low levels of errors and violations reported by participants indicating that these behaviours were on average never or rarely exhibited while riding a bicycle. Conversely, participants reported high levels of engagement in positive behaviours and reported high levels of traffic rule knowledge and risk perception. Higher rates of violations and errors were associated with increased crash likelihood, while higher rates of positive behaviours were associated with reduced rates of crash involvement in a period of 5 years. The findings highlight the relationship between errors, total crashes and crash severity Further promotion of positive behaviours amongst riders may also help to reduce the risk of crashes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967758PMC
March 2021

Comparing oculomotor efficiency and visual attention between drivers and non-drivers through the Adult Developmental Eye Movement (ADEM) test: A visual-verbal test.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(2):e0246606. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and compare drivers' and non-drivers' outcomes in the Adult Developmental Eye Movement test (ADEM), a visual-verbal test that measures the time needed to read series of numbers in both a vertical and horizontal reading pattern. A set of driving parameters (i.e., experience, risk exposure, and day and night perceived difficulty) and demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, and academic level) were considered as potential predictors of the test performance.

Methods: For this cross-sectional study, 302 healthy subjects (age range 20 to 86 years old) completed a self-reported questionnaire aimed at retrieving data on the independent variables, and underwent the ADEM in order to obtain the dependent outcomes. 214 (70.9%) of the participants were drivers. Non-parametric analyses and multilevel linear regression were used to assess differences between the variables and a prediction model. Also, some correlations were evaluated through the Spearman test.

Results: Drivers showed significantly better test performance than non-drivers. The age, driving experience, and perceived difficulty in driving at night were obtained as potential predictors of the test performance with the applied linear regression model.

Conclusion: The ADEM may be a practical, non-expensive, easy-to-apply tool in the assessment of drivers, useful for obtaining or renewing the driving license. This test may help in the detection of impairments in the saccadic efficiency that could have a detrimental effect on the driving performance.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246606PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864424PMC
February 2021

Not gendered… but different from each other? A structural equation model for explaining risky road behaviors of female and male pedestrians.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Feb 17;150:105942. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2313, United States. Electronic address:

As alternative transportation is getting more and more fashionable, and more people worldwide are "shifting" to walking trips, even for their daily commuting, traffic crashes suffered by pedestrians are still a great concern for road safety and public health researchers and practitioners. In this regard, risky or "aberrant" road behaviors have emerged, during the last few years, as a key issue to be considered for crash prevention. Nevertheless, the idea of a "generic pedestrian" is getting re-evaluated, and analyzing key features, such as gender, seems to be crucial for understanding pedestrians' performance and safety outcomes.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of gender on pedestrians' both deliberate (traffic violations) and undeliberate (errors) risky walking behaviors, considering a set of theoretically based demographic and psychosocial variables as their potential predictors.

Method: For this cross-sectional study, data from 1070 Spanish pedestrians (60 % females and 40 % males, aged between 16 and 79) from the 17 regions of Spain, responding to an electronic questionnaire, were analyzed through a multi-group structural equation modeling (MGSEM) approach.

Results: Although age, handheld device-interaction, and sensation-seeking seem to have a similar effect on the errors and violations reported by both genders (similarities), factors such as risk perception, educational level and the misbehaviors observed in other road users are significant predictors only in the case of male pedestrians. On the other hand, road distractions have been shown to play a significant role in females' errors and violations, while males' road distractions seem to only affect their involuntary risky behaviors.

Conclusion: The findings of this study support the influence of gender in the statistical explanation of both deliberate and undeliberate walking risky road behaviors, also depicting the differential role of certain demographic and psychosocial factors when we compare male and female pedestrians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105942DOI Listing
February 2021

Are Latin American cycling commuters "at risk"? A comparative study on cycling patterns, behaviors, and crashes with non-commuter cyclists.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Feb 1;150:105915. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

FACTHUM.Lab (Human Factor and Road Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: As part of the transformation of urban transportation dynamics, commuter cycling has acquired a high relevance as an alternative mode of transport in different countries, and Latin America seems to be one of the main focus of this worldwide "revolution". However, the high rates of crashes and injuries suffered by commuters have become a relevant issue in the field of road safety, especially in emerging regions with low cycling tradition, where social and infrastructural gaps may endanger the cyclists' safety.

Objectives: This study had two objectives. First, to compare key safe cycling-related variables between cycling commuters and non-commuters; and second, to differentially asses the effect of individual and cycling-related variables on their self-reported crash rates.

Method: For this cross-sectional research, the data provided by 577 Latin American urban cyclists from three countries (Argentina, Colombia and Mexico) with a mean age of 32.7 years was used. They answered a questionnaire on cycling habits, risk perception, rule knowledge, cycling behaviors and riding crashes.

Results: The outcomes of this study showed that, despite having a higher risk perception, cycling commuters perform deliberate risky cycling behaviors (traffic violations) more frequently, and they suffer more crashes; cycling commuters report higher rates of psychological distress, and a lower degree of rule knowledge and protective behaviors than non-commuters. Furthermore, structural similarities and differences in the explanation of cycling crashes were found across commuters and non-commuters.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that non-commuters, whose purposes for cycling are more aimed at leisure and occasional trips, perform less risky behaviors but suffer more cycling distractions, whereas commuters are comparatively more exposed to behavioral-based safety risks, and suffer more frequent crashes. Since recent evidence forecasts that urban cycling will keep growing in Latin American cities, it is necessary to implement policies and educational/training improvements that may enhance the safety and health of cyclists in these countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105915DOI Listing
February 2021

Perception of Dating Violence in Teenage Couples: A Cross Validation Study in Spain and Colombia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 17;17(18). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

Background: dating violence, or violence in teenage couples, is a socially interesting topic, due to its prevalence and its possible use in predicting violence in adult couples. The perception of violence, or the detection of abusive behaviors by teenagers and young people (which can be considered as equivalent concepts), is essential to prevent violence itself. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to determine which behaviors are identified as abusive by teenagers and young people, and the severity that they attribute to them-meaning how they perceive them. Moreover, we will be able to determine whether there are differences between boys and girls in two countries: Spain and Colombia.

Methods: for this study, we used two samples from both countries, with a total of 389 teenagers (50.9% females and 49.1% males) who were, on average, 16.56 years old (SD = 1.94 years). We analyzed the factorial invariance depending on sex and country of the sample and the different profiles of violence perception.

Results: we found evidence of the internal validity of the questionnaire for what concerns the perception of inter-partner violence. The results point out that the perception of violence in the relationship is composed of two factors related to each other (Multiple and Emotional Abuse), which are invariant depending of sex and country of origin of the sample. The internal consistency of the test is adequate (>0.90). The analysis of the violence perception profiles indicates that Spanish teenagers have a higher perception of it, and, also, that girls hold a higher perception than boys.

Conclusions: the results of this research have shown how dating violence (or violence in teenage couples) is differentially perceived not only between genders, but also across cultural contexts. Moreover, these outcomes may enhance the development of possible evidence-based interventions approaching the social problem generated by violence in teenage couples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558602PMC
September 2020

Are Your Eyes "on the Road"? Findings from the 2019 National Study on Vision and Driving Safety in Spain.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 4;17(9). Epub 2020 May 4.

Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

: Vision is an undisputable contributor to the explanation of many human-factor related traffic crashes happening every day. The Inland Transport Committee (ITC), the United Nations regulatory platform, included on 1st April 2020 special action on the vision of road users inside the ITC Recommendations for Enhancing Road Safety Systems. The results of this wide-scale study on drivers' vision health conducted in Spain perfectly illustrates the need of global action and its potential impact on the public health figures and the burden of potentially preventable traffic causalities. : The aim of this study was to assess three key visual health issues (i.e., visual acuity, visual field campimetry and glare recovery) among Spanish drivers, in order to formulate implications and possible guidelines to enhance road safety. This cross-sectional study examined the visual health of a representative sample of 3249 drivers (70% females and 30% males) with a mean age of 41 ( = 13) years, gathered from all the 17 autonomous communities of Spain. : The tests performed allowed to determine that 15% of Spanish drivers have a poor photopic vision, while 38% of them present an inadequate mesopic vision. Further, 23% of drivers have deficiencies in peripheric visual field campimetry, and the average time for full-vision recovery after a 10-s glare was 27 s. Sex, age and driver type (professional vs. non-professional) differences were found for the study variables. : The findings of this study support the idea that certain demographic-based population groups of drivers present several unaddressed deficiencies and impairments in visual health. Overall an estimated 29.5% of Spanish drivers present visual issues, that need to be attended in order to enhance the prevention of driving crashes and the road safety of all road users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246664PMC
May 2020

Multidimensional prediction of work traffic crashes among Spanish professional drivers in cargo and passenger transportation.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2020 Apr 10:1-8. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

University of Valencia, Spain.

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different environmental, mechanical and individual factors associated with fatalities and serious injuries caused by work traffic accidents among cargo and passenger transport drivers (CPTD) in Spain. For this cross-sectional study, national data on work traffic accidents collected in Spain during the last 3 years were analyzed through a regression modeling approach, in order to predict the severity of traffic crashes involving CPTD. Using binary logistic regression analyses, it was found that the type of road and accident, the meteorological, light and vehicle conditions, individual characteristics and risky driving behaviors significantly predict the risk of fatal work traffic accidents and serious injuries. These findings highlight the importance of combining organizational efforts with national road safety policies in order to generate a traffic safety culture among CPTD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2020.1732102DOI Listing
April 2020

Behavioral Health at School: Do Three Competences in Road Safety Education Impact the Protective Road Behaviors of Spanish Children?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 3;17(3). Epub 2020 Feb 3.

DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, 46022 València, Spain.

: Education in road safety (also known as Road Safety Education-RSE) constitutes, nowadays, an emergent approach for improving present and future road behaviors, aiming at taking action against the current, and concerning, state-of-affairs of traffic crashes, through a behavioral perspective. In the case of children, and despite their overrepresentation in traffic injury figures, RSE-based strategies for behavioral health in transportation remain a "new" approach, whose impact still needs to be empirically tested. : The aim of this study is to assess the impact of three key road safety skills of the Positive Attitudes, Risk perception and Knowledge of norms (PARK) model, addressed in RSE-based interventions, on the safe road behavior of Spanish children. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 1930 (50.4% males and 49.6% females) Spanish children attending primary school, with a mean age of 10.1 (SD = 1.6) years, was gathered from 70 educational centers across all Spanish regions, through a national study on RSE and road safety. : Road safety skills show a positive relationship with children's self-reported safe behaviors on the road. However, the knowledge of traffic norms alone does not predict safe behaviors: it needs to be combined with risk perception and positive attitudes towards road safety. Furthermore, the degree of exposure to previous RSE interventions was shown to have an effect on the score obtained by children in each road safety skill; on the other hand, road misbehaviors observed in parents and peers had a negative impact on them. : The outcomes of this study suggest that education in road safety is still a key process for the acquisition of safe habits, patterns and behaviors among young road users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037320PMC
February 2020

Job stress and emotional exhaustion at work in Spanish workers: Does unhealthy work affect the decision to drive?

PLoS One 2020 13;15(1):e0227328. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (University Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of València, Valencia, Spain.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships among the following elements: unhealthy work indicators (job stress and emotional exhaustion at work), the decision to drive (or not), and driving crashes suffered by Spanish workers.

Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a full sample of 1,200 Spanish drivers (44% women and 56% men) was used, their mean age being 42.8 years. They answered a questionnaire divided into three sections: demographic and driving-related data; burnout, job stress, and life stress; and self-reported road behaviors and driving safety indicators.

Results: Overall, 41.6% of drivers reported emotional exhaustion at work. Furthermore, 80.2% of the participants showing substantial signs of job stress or exhaustion had experienced one or more important stressful life events during the previous year. Job stress was associated with the number of driving crashes suffered along the last 3 years. Also, and especially in situations where drivers admit not feeling well enough to drive, job stress and emotional exhaustion seem to be independent from the decision to drive, and from perceiving these variables as potential impairers of driving performance.

Conclusions: First of all, this study showed a high prevalence of job stress and emotional exhaustion symptoms experienced at work by Spanish workers. Moreover, significant relationships were found among self-rated driving performance, workplace stress and burnout indicators, which suggests that job stress and emotional exhaustion levels may, indeed, impair driving performance, but they do not influence the decision to drive or not. In other words, even when they are significantly affected by job stress or emotional exhaustion at work, most Spanish drivers still drive.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227328PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957144PMC
April 2020

Perceived benefits and constraints in vehicle automation: Data to assess the relationship between driver's features and their attitudes towards autonomous vehicles.

Data Brief 2019 Dec 16;27:104662. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Spain.

This data article examines the association driver's features, perceptions and attitudes towards autonomous vehicles (AVs). The data was collected using a structured self-administrable and online-based questionnaire, applied to a full sample of 1205 Spanish drivers. The data contains 4 parts: the full set of bivariate correlations between study variables; descriptive statistics and graphical trends for each main study variable according to gender, age group and city/town size; and, finally, the dataset for further explorations in this regard. For more information, it is convenient to read the full article entitled "" [1].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6838434PMC
December 2019

Well-being, behavioral patterns and cycling crashes of different age groups in Latin America: Are aging adults the safest cyclists?

PLoS One 2019 28;14(8):e0221864. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, El Bosque University, Bogotá, Colombia.

Objectives: This study aimed at analyzing the cycling safety-related factors and the mental health indicators of elderly cyclists in comparison with other age groups.

Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data of 911 bicyclists from two Latin American countries that have been experiencing a substantial growth of urban cycling during the last few years: Colombia and Argentina. Participants responded to an e-questionnaire on bicycling behaviors, mental health and cycling safety.

Results: Aging adults reported lower rates of risky behaviors and traffic crashes (around .38 in five years), and, on the other hand, more cycling protective behaviors, a higher risk perception and a better knowledge of traffic norms than both other adults (26-50 years old) and young cyclists (<26). Cycling behaviors and crashes were found to be significantly related to mental health indicators, the latter being higher in aging cyclists. However, this population remains more prone to distractions experienced while cycling than other age groups.

Conclusions: Although the behavioral features of aging adults were comparatively "safer" than the ones displayed by other age groups, factors such as cycling distractions and this population's over-representation in traffic crashes suggest the need of enforcing policymaking for a better integration of this age segment in alternative transportation dynamics.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221864PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6713343PMC
March 2020

Trait driving anger and driving styles among Colombian professional drivers.

Heliyon 2019 Aug 8;5(8):e02259. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Carrer del Serpis 29, 3rd Floor, DATS, 46022, Valencia, Spain.

This study analyzes the association between trait driving anger and driving styles in a sample of Colombian professional drivers. Additionally, the internal and external validity of the Deffenbacher's Driving Anger Scale (DAS-14) was examined in the study population. The DAS-14 and the Spanish Version of the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory (S-MDSI) were administered to 492 urban bus and taxi operators. Average trait driving anger scores in the study population were similar to those reported in previous validation studies from Spain, Argentina, China, and Malaysia. After deleting three cross-loaded items, confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-dimensional latent structure for the DAS-14, similar but not equal to the previous Spanish speaking validations. This factorial structure fits the data reasonably well. Finally, linear regression analyses revealed that the three factors of the DAS-14 (impeded progress by others, illegal driving, and direct hostility) significantly predict adaptive and maladaptive driving styles. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the DAS-14 is a reasonably reliable measure of driving anger traits among professional drivers, and it also provides relevant insights for the prevention of risky driving styles in this occupational group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6700342PMC
August 2019

Psychosocial Work Factors, Job Stress and Strain at the Wheel: Validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) in Professional Drivers.

Front Psychol 2019 2;10:1531. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Development and Advising in Traffic Safety Research Group, University Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Introduction: Psychosocial work environment has been related to many negative health outcomes in different workforces. However, evidence in this regard is still limited in the case of transport workers, and most of the tools used in research, often excessively generic, do not fully consider the specific key stressors, and adverse issues present in the psychosocial environment of professional driving.

Objective: Thus, the purpose of this study was to obtain a complete description of the validation of measurement applied to psychosocial factors at work in professional drivers, using the Enterprise version (2018) of COPSOQ-III.

Methods: The data was collected from 726 Spanish professional drivers, and the analyses were conducted using the competitive Confirmatory Factor Analysis or CFA, obtaining basic psychometric properties and an optimized structure for the instrument applied to active transport workers.

Results: The results suggest a clear factorial structure, high factorial weights, internal consistency, and an improved adjustment to the psychosocial conditions of this group, excluding a set of items with low psychometrical adjustment and keeping the five-factor structure of the questionnaire: demands, influence and development, interpersonal relationships and leadership, job insecurity, and strain-effects and outcomes.

Conclusion: Overall, what was found in this study supports the hypothesis that the validated version of COPSOQ in professional drivers, together with complementary information sources specific for their work environment, may have a relevant research value and some important practical implications for the improvement of the occupational safety, and health within the typically vulnerable industry of transportation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6614297PMC
July 2019

Commuting accidents of Spanish professional drivers: when occupational risk exceeds the workplace.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2019 Jul 10:1-9. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

c INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia , Spain.

Work traffic accidents are an issue both in Spain and all over the world, and specific evidence on commuting accidents is scarce. Even though both industrial safety and welfare have been improved during the last decades, the commuting accidents rate is growing worldwide. . The aim of this study was to examine and describe the characteristics of commuting traffic crashes of Spanish professional drivers. . For this cross-sectional study, commuting accidents suffered by drivers during the last 12 years were analyzed. Crossed and heatmap-based analyses were performed in order to establish patterns and driver-based differences among commuting crashes. . Commuting crashes' features were found to be associated with demographic and job-related variables of professional drivers. Drivers' gender, time slots (peak/off-peak hours) and the specific hour of the event explained different trends in accident severity and characteristics. . The results of this study suggest that commuting accidents involving professional drivers differ in demographic and situational issues from general and on-duty professional drivers' traffic crashes. Also, since in Spain commuting crashes are occupational accidents, more numerous and better actions should be taken in this regard, especially considering the association of professional drivers' accidents with fatigue and shift-working.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2019.1619993DOI Listing
July 2019

Workplace burnout and health issues among Colombian correctional officers.

PLoS One 2019 12;14(2):e0211447. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Introduction: Correctional employees typically work under adverse conditions that may enhance the occurrence of different negative psychological states. Burnout constitutes a high-risk phenomenon that may affect people's physical/mental health and welfare, especially in vulnerable occupational groups.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the burnout profile of correctional officers, and to associate their burnout profile with health issues and lifestyle factors.

Methods: The full sample was composed of 219 Colombian correctional officers with a mean age of 30.18 years. A questionnaire composed of three sections was employed: demographic data, burnout, and health information.

Results: A high proportion of participants reported burnout indicators, also significantly correlated to their health indicators and lifestyle factors. Cluster analyses were used in order to characterize the burnout/age (model A) and burnout/age/psychological disturbance (model B) profiles of correctional officers. Furthermore, significant differences were found when comparing frequencies of alcohol consumption and physical exercise (lifestyle indicators) and perceived social support of officers depending on their profile.

Conclusions: the discussion focused on the negative impact of burnout on health, and on the importance of strengthening occupational programs aimed at reducing the impact of hazardous working conditions that contribute to the development of burnout, and to the arise different mid and long-term health complains among correctional workers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211447PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372146PMC
November 2019

When age means safety: Data to assess trends and differences on rule knowledge, risk perception, aberrant and positive road behaviors, and traffic crashes of cyclists.

Data Brief 2019 Feb 23;22:627-634. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Department of Methodology for the Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, Spain.

This data article examines the association between age, knowledge of traffic rules, risk perception, risky and positive behaviors on the road and traffic safety outcomes of cyclists. The data was collected using a structured self-administrable and online-based questionnaire, applied to a full sample of 1064 cyclists. The data contains 4 parts: descriptive statistics; graphical trends for each study variable according to age; Post-Hoc (Tukey-HSD) comparisons between cyclists classified in the different age groups; and, finally, the dataset for further explorations in this regard. For further information, it is convenient to read the full article entitled "" (Useche et al., 2019) [1].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.12.066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327100PMC
February 2019

Work stress and health problems of professional drivers: a hazardous formula for their safety outcomes.

PeerJ 2018 20;6:e6249. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

INTRAS (University Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Several empirical studies have shown that professional drivers are a vulnerable occupational group, usually exposed to environmental stressors and adverse work conditions. Furthermore, recent studies have associated work-related stress with negative job performances and adverse health outcomes within this occupational group, including cardiovascular diseases and unsafe vehicle operation.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the working conditions and the health status of this occupational group, and to evaluate the association between the Demand-Control model of job stress and their self-reported health and safety outcomes.

Methods: A pooled sample of 3,665 Colombian professional drivers was drawn from five different studies. The Job Content Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire were used to measure work stress and self-reported mental health, respectively. Additionally, professional drivers self-reported health problems (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and overweight) and health-related risky behaviors (smoking and sedentary behavior).

Results: Regarding the Job Demands-Control (JDC) model, it was found that approximately a third part of Colombian professional drivers suffer from high job strain (29.1%). Correlational and multivariate analyses suggest that de JDC model of stress is associated with the professional drivers' mental health, traffic accidents and fines, but not with other physical and behavioral health-related outcomes, which are highly prevalent among this occupational group, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, overweight, smoking and sedentary behavior.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that (a) stressful working conditions are associated with health and lifestyle-related outcomes among professional drivers, and (b) that evidence-based interventions are needed in order to reduce hazardous working conditions, job stress rates and their negative impact on the health of this occupational group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304262PMC
December 2018

Working Conditions, Job Strain, and Traffic Safety among Three Groups of Public Transport Drivers.

Saf Health Work 2018 Dec 2;9(4):454-461. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Working conditions and psychosocial work factors have acquired an important role explaining the well-being and performance of professional drivers, including those working in the field of public transport. This study aimed to examine the association between job strain and the operational performance of public transport drivers and to compare the expositions with psychosocial risk at work of three different types of transport workers: taxi drivers, city bus drivers, and interurban bus drivers.

Method: A sample of 780 professional drivers was drawn from three transport companies in Bogota (Colombia). The participants answered the Job Content Questionnaire and a set of sociodemographic and driving performance questions, including age, professional driving experience, work schedules, and accidents and penalties suffered in the last 2 years.

Results: Analyses showed significant associations between measures of socio-labor variables and key performance indicators such road traffic accidents and penalties. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis contributed to explain significantly suffered accidents from key variables of the Job Demand-Control model, essentially from job strain. In addition, throughout analyses, significant differences were found in terms of perceived social support, job strain, and job insecurity.

Conclusion: Work stress is an issue that compromises the safety of professional drivers. This research provides evidence supporting a significant effect of job strain on the professional driver's performance. Moreover, the statistically significant differences between taxi drivers, city bus drivers, and interurban bus drivers in their expositions to work-related stress suggest the need for tailored occupational safety interventions on each occupational group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2018.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284153PMC
December 2018

Distraction of cyclists: how does it influence their risky behaviors and traffic crashes?

PeerJ 2018 12;6:e5616. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Undisputedly, traffic crashes constitute a public health concern whose impact and importance have been increasing during the past few decades. Specifically, road safety data have systematically shown how cyclists are highly vulnerable to suffering traffic crashes and severe injuries derived from them. Furthermore, although the empirical evidence is still very limited in this regard, in addition to other human factors involved in cycling crashes, distractions while cycling appear to be a major contributor to the road risk of cyclists.

Objectives: The main objectives of this study were, first, to explore the prevalence and trends of cycling distractions within an international sample of bike users, and second, to determine the influence of such distractions on road crashes suffered by cyclists, simultaneously considering the explanatory role of risky behaviors (errors and traffic violations) as potentially mediating variables between cycling distractions and traffic crashes.

Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data obtained from 1,064 cyclists-61.2% male and 38.8% female-from 20 different countries, who answered an on-line questionnaire on cycling-related features, habits, behaviors and accidents.

Results: The prevalence of different cycling distractions oscillated between 34.7% and 83.6%. The most common distractions were those related to the behavior of other users, physical elements of the road, weather conditions and phone calls. Age trends and differences were also found, thus establishing a positive association between age and distractibility during cycling. Furthermore, the effect of distractions on traffic crashes of cyclists was significant when tested together with age, risk perception and risky behaviors on the road.

Conclusion: The results of this study support the hypotheses that distractions have a major prevalence among bike users, and that they play a significant role in the prediction of the traffic crash rates of cyclists, through the mediation of risky behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139010PMC
September 2018

Does gender really matter? A structural equation model to explain risky and positive cycling behaviors.

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Sep 14;118:86-95. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

PRECOVIR (Prevention of Risk Behaviour on the Road) Research Group, INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Carrer del Serpis 29, 3(rd) Floor, 46022, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: While the use of bicycles as mean of transport is growing worldwide, the increasing rates of traffic crashes involving cyclists have turned into a relevant scientific, public health, and road safety concern. According to several studies, and despite the fact that some countries are taking part in preventive actions, the data indicate that the problem of cycling injuries implies high costs for the community welfare, for the economy, and for healthcare systems, thus proving a clear need for solutions. In this regard, and considering the available empirical evidence, risky and positive riding behaviors have gained significant weight in terms of explaining, intervening in, and preventing traffic crashes of cyclists, and some evidence suggests that gender may influence the road behavior of users.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of gender on cyclists' risky and positive riding behavior, considering a set of demographic, psychosocial and bike-use-related variables as potential predictors.

Method: For this cross-sectional study, data from 1064 cyclists (61.2% males and 38.8% females, aged between 17 and 80) from 20 countries, responding an electronic survey, were analyzed through a multi-group structural equation modeling approach.

Results: Although hourly intensity, psychological distress and level of knowledge of traffic rules similarly predict the risky road behaviors of both genders, age and risk perception are significant behavioral predictors only in the case of male cyclists. On the other hand, positive behaviors of men are predicted by cycling intensity, knowledge of traffic rules and risk perception, while in the case of women psychological distress predicts -to a significant extent- positive behaviors. Age had no significant effect on the explanation of positive behaviors.

Conclusion: The findings of this study support the influence of gender in the statistical explanation of risky and protective behaviors, and they also reveal differentiating variables predicting the riding behavior of male and female cyclists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.05.022DOI Listing
September 2018

Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers.

Accid Anal Prev 2017 Jul 8;104:106-114. Epub 2017 May 8.

Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, El Bosque University, Av/Cra 9 No. 131A-02. Bogotá, Colombia. Electronic address:

Introduction: There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two.

Method: A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR).

Results: Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving.

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained.

Practical Applications: This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce risky driving behaviors and promote safety in the professional drivers' jobs and on the road.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.023DOI Listing
July 2017