Publications by authors named "Sergey Morozov"

122 Publications

Proton transport mechanism and pathways in the superprotonic phase of MH(AO) solid acids from molecular dynamics simulations.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Physics of Nanoscale Systems, South Ural State University, 76 Lenin Avenue, Chelyabinsk 454080, Russia.

The proton transport mechanism in superprotonic phases of solid acids has been a subject of experimental and theoretical studies for a number of years. Despite this, details of the mechanism still need further clarification. In particular in the M3H(AO4)2 family of crystals, where M = NH4, K, Rb, Cs, and A = S, Se, the proton diffusion is mostly considered in the (001) plane, whereas it is relatively high in the [001] direction as well. In this paper, we report the results of our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the Cs3H(SeO4)2 superprotonic phase and propose an atomic-level mechanism of proton transport and pathways both in the (001) plane and along the [001] direction. It turned out that structural configurations formed by hydrogen-bonded tetrahedral anions during the proton diffusion are more complicated and diverse than those considered so far in the literature. Our predicted values of the proton conductivity and activation energy agree well with available experimental data. This validates the reliability of the computational results obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp00757bDOI Listing
August 2021

MAPK and Notch-Mediated Effects of Meso-Xanthin F199 Compounds on Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis of Human Melanocytes in Three-Dimensional Culture.

Biomed Res Int 2021 20;2021:8463161. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, 8 Baltiyskaya Str., 125315 Moscow, Russia.

Meso-Xanthin (Meso-Xanthin F199™) is a highly active antiaging injection drug of the latest generation. The main acting compound is fucoxanthin, supplemented with several growth factors, vitamins, and hyaluronic acid. Previous examination of fucoxanthin on melanocytes showed its ability to inhibit skin pigmentation through different signaling pathways focused on suppression of melanogenic-stimulating receptors. In turn, the anticancer property of fucoxanthin is realized through MAPK and PI3K pathways. We aimed to evaluate the effect of fucoxanthin and supplemented growth factors on melanocyte growth and transformation at a proteomic level. The effect of fucoxanthin on melanocytes cultivated in three-dimensional (3D) condition was examined using high-throughput proteomic and system biology approaches to disclose key molecular events of the targeted action. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of cell differentiation and ubiquitination processes. We found that the negative regulation of and largely determines the inhibition of NF-B and MAPK2. Besides, fucoxanthin selectively inhibits cell differentiation via negative regulation of Raf signaling and the upstream activation of IL-1 signaling. It is assumed that inhibition of Raf influences the Notch-4 signaling and switches off the MAPK/MAPK2 cascade. Blockage of MAPK/MAPK2 is feasible due to suppression of Ras and NF-B by the addressed action of , , and . Suggestively, Meso-Xanthin F199™ can manage processes of proliferative activity and inhibition of apoptosis due to composition of fucoxanthin and growth-stimulating factors, which may increase the risk of skin cancer development under certain condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8463161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315846PMC
July 2021

Supercritical water oxidation of chlorinated waste from pulp and paper mill.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 18;283:131239. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 1, Acad. Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk, Russia.

The article presents the research results of the oxidation of watered toxic waste from the pulp and paper industry (sludge-lignin, the empirical formula of organic matter CHNSClO) in supercritical water-oxygen (SCW/O) fluid. The experiments were carried out using a flow tube reactor at a pressure of 25 MPa, temperature gradient along its vertical axis (from top to bottom: 390-600 °C), sludge-lignin flow rate of 9.5-14.5 g/min, oxygen ratio OR = 0.73-2.52, using NaOH (1.6 wt%) as a catalyst. Employing gas chromatography - mass spectrometry, polychlorophenols were identified in the composition of sludge-lignin, in which 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was the main component. The total yield of extracted phenols and chlorophenols per sludge-lignin organic matter was 20.82 and 2.88 μg/g, respectively. It is revealed that the conversion rate of sludge-lignin in SCW/O fluid is limited by heterogeneous oxidation of the carbonized residue, and is determined by the O content in the reaction mixture. At OR ≥ 1.16, only CO, CO, N, and NO were detected in the volatile oxidation products. An increase in OR from 0.73 to 2.52 leads to a decrease in the total content of phenols (from 45540.1 to 129.3 μg/dm) and chlorophenols (from 51.4 to 2.2 μg/dm) in the water collected at the reactor outlet. It is shown that 2,6-dichlorophenol and 2-chlorophenol are the most resistant to oxidation. From the analysis of the initial sludge-lignin and mineral residues, it follows that the bulk of the chlorine contained in its organic matter is converted into NaCl in the course of oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131239DOI Listing
June 2021

Braincase anatomy of extant Crocodylia, with new insights into the development and evolution of the neurocranium in crocodylomorphs.

J Anat 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

Present-day crocodylians exhibit a remarkably akinetic skull with a highly modified braincase. We present a comprehensive description of the neurocranial osteology of extant crocodylians, with notes on the development of individual skeletal elements and a discussion of the terminology used for this project. The quadrate is rigidly fixed by multiple contacts with most braincase elements. The parabasisphenoid is sutured to the pterygoids (palate) and the quadrate (suspensorium); as a result, the basipterygoid joint is completely immobilized. The prootic is reduced and externally concealed by the quadrate. It has a verticalized buttress that participates in the canal for the temporal vasculature. The ventrolateral processes of the otoccipitals completely cover the posteroventral region of the braincase, enclose the occipital nerves and blood vessels in narrow bony canals and also provide additional sutural contacts between the braincase elements and further consolidate the posterior portion of the crocodylian skull. The otic capsule of crocodylians has a characteristic cochlear prominence that corresponds to the lateral route of the perilymphatic sac. Complex internal structures of the otoccipital (extracapsular buttress) additionally arrange the neurovascular structures of the periotic space of the cranium. Most of the braincase elements of crocodylians are excavated by the paratympanic pneumatic sinuses. The braincase in various extant crocodylians has an overall similar structure with some consistent variation between taxa. Several newly observed features of the braincase are present in Gavialis gangeticus and extant members of Crocodylidae to the exclusion of alligatorids: the reduced exposure of the prootic buttress on the floor of the temporal canal, the sagittal nuchal crest of the supraoccipital projecting posteriorly beyond the postoccipital processes and the reduced paratympanic pneumaticity. The most distinctive features of the crocodylian braincase (fixed quadrate and basipterygoid joint, consolidated occiput) evolved relatively rapidly at the base of Crocodylomorpha and accompanied the initial diversification of this clade during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. We hypothesize that profound rearrangements in the individual development of the braincases of basal crocodylomorphs underlie these rapid evolutionary modifications. These rearrangements are likely reflected in the embryonic development of extant crocodylians and include the involvement of neomorphic dermal anlagen in different portions of the developing chondrocranium, the extensive ossification of the palatoquadrate cartilage as a single expanded quadrate and the anteromedial inclination of the quadrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13490DOI Listing
June 2021

Symmetry of diffraction patterns of two-dimensional crystal structures.

Ultramicroscopy 2021 Sep 18;228:113336. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

National Graphene Institute, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575, Singapore; Centre for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 117546, Singapore; Chongqing 2D Materials Institute, Liangjiang New Area, Chongqing, 400714, China.

Conventionally, theoretical considerations in electron microscopy employ the weak phase approximation (WPA), which is only valid for weak scattering atomic elements (C, B, N) but not for transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials. This leads to many exciting phenomena being overlooked. The present theoretical study goes beyond the weak phase approximation and thus the obtained results can be applied for two-dimensional (2D) crystals made of weakly as well of strongly scattering atoms, including the TMD materials. We show that the symmetry of an electron diffraction pattern, characterized by the Friedel's pairs, is governed by the symmetry of the exit wave distribution. For an infinite periodic crystal, the exit wave is an infinite and periodic 2D distribution which can be assigned an exit wave unit cell. The latter is determined by both the chemical composition of the crystallographic unit cell and the distance between the atomic layers. For 2D crystals of identical atoms, such as graphene, the exit wave unit cell is symmetrical and, thus, a symmetrical diffraction pattern is expected. For TMD materials, the exit wave unit cell is not symmetrical and a non-symmetrical diffraction pattern is expected for both monolayer and bilayer. Conventionally asymmetry in diffraction patterns has been explained by presence of dynamical (multiple) scattering effects. Our study shows that the asymmetry of a diffraction pattern can be explained solely by the asymmetry of the exit wave unit cell. The exit wave unit cell can be asymmetrical even in kinematic (single) scattering model. Therefore, conclusions about dynamical (multiple) scattering effects in 2D materials cannot be made based solely on asymmetry of a diffraction pattern. We also show that for hexagonally arranged atoms the second-order diffraction peaks show perfectly symmetrical intensities independently on the symmetry of the exit wave unit cell distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2021.113336DOI Listing
September 2021

International survey on residency programs in radiology: similarities and differences among 17 countries.

Clin Imaging 2021 May 18;79:230-234. Epub 2021 May 18.

The Radiology Leadership Institute and Chair of the Commission on Leadership and Practice Development of the American College of Radiology, Reston, VA, United States of America.

Objective: With the initiative of the ACR International Economics Committee, a multinational survey was conducted to evaluate radiology residency programs around the world.

Methods: A 31-question survey was developed. It included: economic issues, program size and length, resident's activities during daytime and call, academic aspects including syllabus and examinations. Data was tabulated using the forementioned thematic framework and was qualitatively analyzed.

Results: Responses were received from all 17 countries that were invited to participate (France, Netherlands, Israel, UK, Russia, USA, Japan, India, Germany, Canada, Turkey, Croatia, Serbia, Italy, Ireland, Hungary, and Greece). Residency length varied between 2 and 5 years. The certificate of residency completion is provided by a local hospital [4/17 (23%)], University [6/17 (36%)], National Board [6/17 (36%)], and Ministry of Health [1/17 (6%)]. There was variability among the number of residency programs and residents per program ranging from 15 to 300 programs per nation with a 1-700 residents in each one respectively. Salaries varied significantly and ranged from 8000 to 75,000 USD equivalent. Exams are an integral part of training in all surveyed countries. Length of call varied between 5 and 26 h and the number of monthly calls ranged from 3 to 6. The future of radiology was judged as growing in [12/17 (70%)] countries and stagnant in [5/17 (30%)] countries.

Discussion: Radiology residency programs worldwide have many similarities. The differences are in the structure of the residency programs. Stagnation and uncertainties need to be addressed to ensure the continued development of the next generation of radiologists.

Summary Statement: There are many similarities in the academic aims and approach to education and training of radiology residency programs worldwide. The differences are in the structure of the residency programs and payments to individual residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.05.011DOI Listing
May 2021

A phantom study to optimise the automatic tube current modulation for chest CT in COVID-19.

Eur Radiol Exp 2021 05 28;5(1):21. Epub 2021 May 28.

Radiation Protection of Patients Unit, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The expert organisations recommend more cautious use of thoracic computed tomography (CT), opting for low-dose protocols. We aimed at determining a threshold value of automatic tube current modulation noise index below which there is a chance to miss an onset of ground-glass opacities (GGO) in COVID-19. A team of radiologists and medical physicists performed 25 phantom CT studies using different automatic tube current modulation settings (Exposure3D technology). We then conducted a retrospective evaluation of the chest CT images from 22 patients with COVID-19 and calculated the density difference between the GGO and unaffected tissue. Finally, the results were matched to the phantom study results to determine the minimum noise index threshold value. The minimum density difference at the onset of COVID-19 was 252 HU (p < 0.001). This was found to correspond to the Exposure 3D noise index of 36. We established the noise index threshold of 36 for the Canon scanner without iterative reconstructions, allowing for a decrease in the dose-length product by 80%. The proposed protocol needs to be validated in a prospective study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41747-021-00218-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159722PMC
May 2021

Activity of Chemically Synthesized Peptide Encoded by the miR156A Precursor and Conserved in the Brassicaceae Family Plants.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 05;86(5):551-562

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992, Russia.

It was recently found that the primary transcripts of some microRNA genes (pri-miRNAs) are able to express peptides with 12 to 40 residues in length. These peptides, called miPEPs, participate in the transcriptional regulation of their own pri-miRNAs. In our previous studies, we used bioinformatic approach for comparative analysis of pri-miRNA sequences in plant genomes to identify a new group of miPEPs (miPEP-156a peptides) encoded by pri-miR156a in several dozen species of the Brassicaceae family. Exogenous miPEP-156a peptides could efficiently penetrate into the plant seedlings through the root system and spread systemically to the leaves. The peptides produced moderate morphological effect accelerating primary root growth. In parallel, the miPEP-156a peptides upregulated expression of their own pri-miR156a. Importantly, the observed effects at both morphological and molecular levels correlated with the peptide ability to quickly translocate into the cell nucleus and to bind chromatin. In this work, we established secondary structure of the miPEP-156a and demonstrated its changes induced by formation of the peptide complex with DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297921050047DOI Listing
May 2021

An international survey on AI in radiology in 1041 radiologists and radiology residents part 2: expectations, hurdles to implementation, and education.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Objectives: Currently, hurdles to implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology are a much-debated topic but have not been investigated in the community at large. Also, controversy exists if and to what extent AI should be incorporated into radiology residency programs.

Methods: Between April and July 2019, an international survey took place on AI regarding its impact on the profession and training. The survey was accessible for radiologists and residents and distributed through several radiological societies. Relationships of independent variables with opinions, hurdles, and education were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: The survey was completed by 1041 respondents from 54 countries. A majority (n = 855, 82%) expects that AI will cause a change to the radiology field within 10 years. Most frequently, expected roles of AI in clinical practice were second reader (n = 829, 78%) and work-flow optimization (n = 802, 77%). Ethical and legal issues (n = 630, 62%) and lack of knowledge (n = 584, 57%) were mentioned most often as hurdles to implementation. Expert respondents added lack of labelled images and generalizability issues. A majority (n = 819, 79%) indicated that AI should be incorporated in residency programs, while less support for imaging informatics and AI as a subspecialty was found (n = 241, 23%).

Conclusions: Broad community demand exists for incorporation of AI into residency programs. Based on the results of the current study, integration of AI education seems advisable for radiology residents, including issues related to data management, ethics, and legislation.

Key Points: • There is broad demand from the radiological community to incorporate AI into residency programs, but there is less support to recognize imaging informatics as a radiological subspecialty. • Ethical and legal issues and lack of knowledge are recognized as major bottlenecks for AI implementation by the radiological community, while the shortage in labeled data and IT-infrastructure issues are less often recognized as hurdles. • Integrating AI education in radiology curricula including technical aspects of data management, risk of bias, and ethical and legal issues may aid successful integration of AI into diagnostic radiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07782-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111651PMC
May 2021

Increased Oxidative Stress in the Prefrontal Cortex as a Shared Feature of Depressive- and PTSD-Like Syndromes: Effects of a Standardized Herbal Antioxidant.

Front Nutr 2021 15;8:661455. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Maastricht Medical Center Annadal, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) share common brain mechanisms and treatment strategies. Nowadays, the dramatically developing COVID-19 situation unavoidably results in stress, psychological trauma, and high incidence of MD and PTSD. Hence, the importance of the development of new treatments for these disorders cannot be overstated. Herbal medicine appears to be an effective and safe treatment with fewer side effects than classic pharmaca and that is affordable in low-income countries. Currently, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation attract increasing attention as important mechanisms of MD and PTSD. We investigated the effects of a standardized herbal cocktail (SHC), an extract of clove, bell pepper, basil, pomegranate, nettle, and other plants, that was designed as an antioxidant treatment in mouse models of MD and PTSD. In the MD model of "emotional" ultrasound stress (US), mice were subjected to ultrasound frequencies of 16-20 kHz, mimicking rodent sounds of anxiety/despair and "neutral" frequencies of 25-45 kHz, for three weeks and concomitantly treated with SHC. US-exposed mice showed elevated concentrations of oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, increased gene and protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 and other molecular changes in the prefrontal cortex as well as weight loss, helplessness, anxiety-like behavior, and neophobia that were ameliorated by the SHC treatment. In the PTSD model of the modified forced swim test (modFST), in which a 2-day swim is followed by an additional swim on day 5, mice were pretreated with SHC for 16 days. Increases in the floating behavior and oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl in the prefrontal cortex of modFST-mice were prevented by the administration of SHC. Chromatography mass spectrometry revealed bioactive constituents of SHC, including D-ribofuranose, beta-D-lactose, malic, glyceric, and citric acids that can modulate oxidative stress, immunity, and gut and microbiome functions and, thus, are likely to be active antistress elements underlying the beneficial effects of SHC. Significant correlations of malondialdehyde concentration in the prefrontal cortex with altered measures of behavioral despair and anxiety-like behavior suggest that the accumulation of oxidative stress markers are a common biological feature of MD and PTSD that can be equally effectively targeted therapeutically with antioxidant therapy, such as the SHC investigated here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.661455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086427PMC
April 2021

CT-Based COVID-19 triage: Deep multitask learning improves joint identification and severity quantification.

Med Image Anal 2021 07 1;71:102054. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

The current COVID-19 pandemic overloads healthcare systems, including radiology departments. Though several deep learning approaches were developed to assist in CT analysis, nobody considered study triage directly as a computer science problem. We describe two basic setups: Identification of COVID-19 to prioritize studies of potentially infected patients to isolate them as early as possible; Severity quantification to highlight patients with severe COVID-19, thus direct them to a hospital or provide emergency medical care. We formalize these tasks as binary classification and estimation of affected lung percentage. Though similar problems were well-studied separately, we show that existing methods could provide reasonable quality only for one of these setups. We employ a multitask approach to consolidate both triage approaches and propose a convolutional neural network to leverage all available labels within a single model. In contrast with the related multitask approaches, we show the benefit from applying the classification layers to the most spatially detailed feature map at the upper part of U-Net instead of the less detailed latent representation at the bottom. We train our model on approximately 1500 publicly available CT studies and test it on the holdout dataset that consists of 123 chest CT studies of patients drawn from the same healthcare system, specifically 32 COVID-19 and 30 bacterial pneumonia cases, 30 cases with cancerous nodules, and 31 healthy controls. The proposed multitask model outperforms the other approaches and achieves ROC AUC scores of 0.87±0.01 vs. bacterial pneumonia, 0.93±0.01 vs. cancerous nodules, and 0.97±0.01 vs. healthy controls in Identification of COVID-19, and achieves 0.97±0.01 Spearman Correlation in Severity quantification. We have released our code and shared the annotated lesions masks for 32 CT images of patients with COVID-19 from the test dataset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2021.102054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015379PMC
July 2021

Protective Effects of PGC-1α Activators on Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Model of Photochemically Induced Thrombosis.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 4;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Baltiyskaya Str. 8, 125315 Moscow, Russia.

The pharmacological induction and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), a key regulator of ischemic brain tolerance, is a promising direction in neuroprotective therapy. Pharmacological agents with known abilities to modulate cerebral PGC-1α are scarce. This study focused on the potential PGC-1α-modulating activity of Mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate) and Semax (ACTH analog) in a rat model of photochemical-induced thrombosis (PT) in the prefrontal cortex. Mexidol (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally, and Semax (25 μg/kg) was administered intranasally, for 7 days each. The expression of PGC-1α and PGC-1α-dependent protein markers of mitochondriogenesis, angiogenesis, and synaptogenesis was measured in the penumbra via immunoblotting at Days 1, 3, 7, and 21 after PT. The nuclear content of PGC-1α was measured immunohistochemically. The suppression of PGC-1α expression was observed in the penumbra from 24 h to 21 days following PT and reflected decreases in both the number of neurons and PGC-1α expression in individual neurons. Administration of Mexidol or Semax was associated with preservation of the neuron number and neuronal expression of PGC-1α, stimulation of the nuclear translocation of PGC-1α, and increased contents of protein markers for PGC-1α activation. This study opens new prospects for the pharmacological modulation of PGC-1α in the ischemic brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002020PMC
March 2021

An international survey on AI in radiology in 1,041 radiologists and radiology residents part 1: fear of replacement, knowledge, and attitude.

Eur Radiol 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Objectives: Radiologists' perception is likely to influence the adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) into clinical practice. We investigated knowledge and attitude towards AI by radiologists and residents in Europe and beyond.

Methods: Between April and July 2019, a survey on fear of replacement, knowledge, and attitude towards AI was accessible to radiologists and residents. The survey was distributed through several radiological societies, author networks, and social media. Independent predictors of fear of replacement and a positive attitude towards AI were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: The survey was completed by 1,041 respondents from 54 mostly European countries. Most respondents were male (n = 670, 65%), median age was 38 (24-74) years, n = 142 (35%) residents, and n = 471 (45%) worked in an academic center. Basic AI-specific knowledge was associated with fear (adjusted OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10-2.21, p = 0.01), while intermediate AI-specific knowledge (adjusted OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-0.80, p = 0.01) or advanced AI-specific knowledge (adjusted OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.90, p = 0.03) was inversely associated with fear. A positive attitude towards AI was observed in 48% (n = 501) and was associated with only having heard of AI, intermediate (adjusted OR 11.65, 95% CI 4.25-31.92, p < 0.001), or advanced AI-specific knowledge (adjusted OR 17.65, 95% CI 6.16-50.54, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Limited AI-specific knowledge levels among radiology residents and radiologists are associated with fear, while intermediate to advanced AI-specific knowledge levels are associated with a positive attitude towards AI. Additional training may therefore improve clinical adoption.

Key Points: • Forty-eight percent of radiologists and residents have an open and proactive attitude towards artificial intelligence (AI), while 38% fear of replacement by AI. • Intermediate and advanced AI-specific knowledge levels may enhance adoption of AI in clinical practice, while rudimentary knowledge levels appear to be inhibitive. • AI should be incorporated in radiology training curricula to help facilitate its clinical adoption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07781-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Differences in Temporal Volume between Males and Females and the Influence of Age and BMI: A Cross-Sectional CT-Imaging Study.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background:  The temple has been identified as one of the most compelling facial regions in which to seek aesthetic improvement-both locally and in the entire face-when injecting soft tissue fillers.

Objective:  The objective of this study is to identify influences of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) on temporal parameters to better understand clinical observations and to identify optimal treatment strategies for treating temporal hollowing.

Methods:  The sample consisted of 28 male and 30 female individuals with a median age of 53 (34) years and a median BMI of 27.00 (6.94) kg/m. The surface area of temporal skin, the surface area of temporal bones, and the temporal soft tissue volume were measured utilizing postprocessed computed tomography (CT) images via the Hausdorff minimal distance algorithm. Differences between the investigated participants related to age, BMI, and gender were calculated.

Results:  Median skin surface area was greater in males compared with females 5,100.5 (708) mm versus 4,208.5 (893) mm ( < 0.001) as was the median bone surface area 5,329 (690) mm versus 4,477 (888) mm ( < 0.001). Males had on average 11.04 mL greater temporal soft tissue volume compared with age and BMI-matched females with  < 0.001. Comparing the volume between premenopausal versus postmenopausal females, the median temporal soft tissue volume was 46.63 mL (11.94) versus 40.32 mL (5.69) ( = 0.014).

Conclusion:  The results of this cross-sectional CT imaging study confirmed previous clinical and anatomical observations and added numerical evidence to those observations for a better clinical integration of the data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1725201DOI Listing
March 2021

Reduction of N to Ammonia by Phosphate Molten Salt and Li Electrode: Proof of Concept Using Quantum Mechanics.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Feb 9;12(6):1696-1701. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States.

Electrochemical routes provide an attractive alternative to the Haber-Bosch process for cheaper and more efficient ammonia (NH) synthesis from N while avoiding the onerous environmental impact of the Haber-Bosch process. We prototype a strategy based on a eutectic mixture of phosphate molten salt. Using quantum-mechanics (QM)-based reactive molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that lithium nitride (LiN) produced from the reduction of nitrogen gas (N) by a lithium electrode can react with the phosphate molten salt to form ammonia. We extract reaction kinetics of the various steps from QM to identify conditions with favorable reaction rates for N reduction by a porous lithium electrode to form LiN followed by protonation from phosphate molten salt (LiHPO-LiHPO mixture) to selectively form NH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c03467DOI Listing
February 2021

Intricacies of GABA Receptor Function: The Critical Role of the β3 Subunit in Norm and Pathology.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 1;22(3). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, 8 Baltiyskaya st., 125315 Moscow, Russia.

Neuronal intracellular chloride ([Cl]) is a key determinant in γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA)ergic signaling. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABARs) mediate both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission, as the passive fluxes of Cl and HCO via pores can be reversed by changes in the transmembrane concentration gradient of Cl. The cation-chloride co-transporters (CCCs) are the primary systems for maintaining [Cl] homeostasis. However, despite extensive electrophysiological data obtained in vitro that are supported by a wide range of molecular biological studies on the expression patterns and properties of CCCs, the presence of ontogenetic changes in [Cl]-along with the consequent shift in GABA reversal potential-remain a subject of debate. Recent studies showed that the β3 subunit possesses properties of the P-type ATPase that participates in the ATP-consuming movement of Cl via the receptor. Moreover, row studies have demonstrated that the β3 subunit is a key player in GABAR performance and in the appearance of serious neurological disorders. In this review, we discuss the properties and driving forces of CCCs and Cl, HCOATPase in the maintenance of [Cl] homeostasis after changes in upcoming GABAR function. Moreover, we discuss the contribution of the β3 subunit in the manifestation of epilepsy, autism, and other syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867123PMC
February 2021

Quantitative parameters of MRI and F-FDG PET/CT in the prediction of breast cancer prognosis and molecular type: an original study.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 15;10(6):279-292. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Research and Practical Clinical Center of Diagnostics and Telemedicine Technologies, Department of Health Care of Moscow Moscow 109029, Russia.

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the quantitative parameters of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) as well as positron-emission tomography, combined with computer tomography (PET/CT), with F-fluorodesoxyglucose, in the prediction of breast cancer molecular type. We studied the correlation between a set of parameters in the invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) as it is the most common invasive breast tumor. The parameters were as follows: apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in DWI, positive enhancement integral (PEI) in DCE, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in F-FDG PET/CT, tumor size, grade, and Ki-67 index, level of lymph node metastatic lesions. We also evaluated the probability of a statistically significant difference in mean ADC, PEI, and SUVmax values for patient groups with different Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) and molecular tumor type. Statistically significant correlations between SUVmax, tumor size, and NPI, mean and minimal ADC values with Ki-67 and molecular tumor type were found. The PEI showed a correlation with the NPI risk level and was characterized by a relationship with the magnitude of the predicted NPI risk and regional lymph node involvement. The prognostic model created in our work allows for NPI risk group prediction. The SUVmax, ADC and PEI are non-invasive prognostic markers in the invasive breast cancer of no specific type. The correlation between ADC values and the expression of some tumor receptors can be used for in vivo molecular tumor type monitoring and treatment adjustment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724282PMC
December 2020

Molecular pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy with antenatal complications.

Sci Rep 2020 11 12;10(1):19641. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Pathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, 8 Baltyiskaya str., 125315, Moscow, Russia.

Gestational diabetes mellitus is a daunting problem accompanied by severe fetal development complications and type 2 diabetes mellitus in postpartum. Diagnosis of diabetic conditions occurs only in the second trimester, while associated antenatal complications are typically revealed even later. We acquired an assay of peripheral and cord blood samples of patients with different types of diabetes mellitus who delivered either healthy newborns or associated with fetopathy complications. Obtained data were handled with qualitative and quantitative analysis. Pathways of molecular events involved in diabetes mellitus and fetopathy were reconstructed based on the discovered markers and their quantitative alteration. Plenty of pathways were integrated to differentiate the type of diabetes and to recognize the impact of the diabetic condition on fetal development. The impaired triglycerides transport, glucose uptake, and consequent insulin resistance are mostly affected by faulted lipid metabolism (APOM, APOD, APOH, APOC1) and encouraged by oxidative stress (CP, TF, ORM2) and inflammation (CFH, CFB, CLU) as a secondary response accompanied by changes in matrix architecture (AFM, FBLN1, AMBP). Alterations in proteomes of peripheral and cord blood were expectedly unequal. Both up- and downregulated markers were accommodated in the cast of molecular events interconnected with the lipid metabolism, RXR/PPAR-signaling pathway, and extracellular architecture modulation. The obtained results congregate numerous biological processes to molecular events that underline diabetes during gestation and uncover some critical aspects affecting fetal growth and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76689-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665025PMC
November 2020

Antifibrotic and Regenerative Effects of Treamid in Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 8;21(21). Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Laboratory of Regenerative Pharmacology, Goldberg ED Research Institute of Pharmacology and Regenerative Medicine, Tomsk National Research Medical Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lenin, 3, 634028 Tomsk, Russia.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by interstitial fibrosis and progressive respiratory failure. Pirfenidone and nintedanib slow down but do not stop the progression of IPF. Thus, new compounds with high antifibrotic activity and simultaneously regenerative activity are an unmet clinical need. Recently, we showed that Treamid can help restoring the pancreas and testicular tissue in mice with metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that Treamid may be effective in antifibrotic therapy and regeneration of damaged lung tissue in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, experiments were performed on male C57BL/6 mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We applied histological and immunohistochemical methods, ELISA, and assessed the expression of markers of endothelial and epithelial cells in primary cultures of CD31 and CD326 lung cells. Finally, we evaluated esterase activity and apoptosis of lung cells in vitro. Our data indicate that Treamid exhibits antifibrotic activity in mice with pulmonary fibrosis and has a positive effect on capillaries of the lungs. Treamid also increases the number of endothelial progenitor cells in the lungs of animals with pulmonary fibrosis. Lastly, Treamid increases esterase activity and decreases apoptosis of CD31 lung cells in vitro. Based on these findings, we suggest that Treamid may represent a promising compound for the development of new antifibrotic agents, which are capable of stimulating regeneration of lung endothelium in IPF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664690PMC
November 2020

Small hydrophobic viral proteins involved in intercellular movement of diverse plant virus genomes.

AIMS Microbiol 2020 21;6(3):305-329. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Most plant viruses code for movement proteins (MPs) targeting plasmodesmata to enable cell-to-cell and systemic spread in infected plants. Small membrane-embedded MPs have been first identified in two viral transport gene modules, triple gene block (TGB) coding for an RNA-binding helicase TGB1 and two small hydrophobic proteins TGB2 and TGB3 and double gene block (DGB) encoding two small polypeptides representing an RNA-binding protein and a membrane protein. These findings indicated that movement gene modules composed of two or more cistrons may encode the nucleic acid-binding protein and at least one membrane-bound movement protein. The same rule was revealed for small DNA-containing plant viruses, namely, viruses belonging to genus (family ) and the family . In multi-component transport modules the nucleic acid-binding MP can be viral capsid protein(s), as in RNA-containing viruses of the families and . However, membrane proteins are always found among MPs of these multicomponent viral transport systems. Moreover, it was found that small membrane MPs encoded by many viruses can be involved in coupling viral replication and cell-to-cell movement. Currently, the studies of evolutionary origin and functioning of small membrane MPs is regarded as an important pre-requisite for understanding of the evolution of the existing plant virus transport systems. This paper represents the first comprehensive review which describes the whole diversity of small membrane MPs and presents the current views on their role in plant virus movement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/microbiol.2020019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595835PMC
September 2020

HgCdTe-based quantum cascade lasers operating in the GaAs phonon Reststrahlen band predicted by the balance equation method.

Opt Express 2020 Aug;28(17):25371-25382

The lack of radiation sources in the frequency range of 7-10 THz is associated with strong absorption of the THz waves on optical phonons within the GaAs Reststrahlen band. To avoid such absorption, we propose to use HgCdTe as an alternative material for THz quantum cascade lasers thanks to a lower phonon energy than in III-V semiconductors. In this work, HgCdTe-based quantum cascade lasers operating in the GaAs phonon Reststrahlen band with a target frequency of 8.3 THz have been theoretically investigated using the balance equation method. The optimized active region designs, which are based on three and two quantum wells, exhibit the peak gain exceeding 100 cm at 150 K. We have analyzed the temperature dependence of the peak gain and predicted the maximum operating temperatures of 170 K and 225 K for three- and two-well designs, respectively. At temperatures exceeding 120 K, the better temperature performance has been obtained for the two-well design, which is associated with a larger spatial overlap of weakly localized lasing wavefunctions, as well as, a higher population inversion. We believe that the findings of this work can open a pathway towards the development of THz quantum cascade lasers featuring a high level of optical gain due to the low electron effective mass in HgCdTe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.398552DOI Listing
August 2020

Phloem transport of structured RNAs: A widening repertoire of trafficking signals and protein factors.

Plant Sci 2020 Oct 17;299:110602. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Virology, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234, Russia; Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992, Russia; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Moscow, 119991, Russia. Electronic address:

The conducting sieve tubes of the phloem consist of sieve elements (SEs), which are enucleate cells incapable of transcription and translation. Nevertheless, SEs contain a large variety of RNAs, and long-distance RNA trafficking via the phloem has been documented. The phloem transport of certain RNAs, as well as the further unloading of these RNAs at target tissues, is essential for plant individual development and responses to environmental cues. The translocation of such RNAs via the phloem is believed to be directed by RNA structural elements serving as phloem transport signals (PTSs), which are recognized by proteins that direct the PTS-containing RNAs into the phloem translocation pathway. The ability of phloem transport has been reported for several classes of structured RNAs including viroids, genuine tRNAs, mRNAs with tRNA sequences embedded into mRNA untranslated regions, tRNA-like structures in the genomic RNAs of plant viruses, and micro-RNA (miRNA) precursors (pri-miRNA). Here, three distinct types of such RNAs are discussed, along with the proteins that may specifically interact with these structures in the phloem. Three-dimensional (3D) motifs, which are characteristic of imperfect RNA duplexes, are discussed as elements of phloem-mobile structured RNAs specifically recognized by proteins involved in phloem transport, thus serving as PTSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2020.110602DOI Listing
October 2020

Reticulon-like properties of a plant virus-encoded movement protein.

New Phytol 2021 01 29;229(2):1052-1066. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Virology, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234, Russia.

Plant viruses encode movement proteins (MPs) that ensure the transport of viral genomes through plasmodesmata (PD) and use cell endomembranes, mostly the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), for delivery of viral genomes to PD and formation of PD-anchored virus replication compartments. Here, we demonstrate that the Hibiscus green spot virus BMB2 MP, an integral ER protein, induces constrictions of ER tubules, decreases the mobility of ER luminal content, and exhibits an affinity to highly curved membranes. These properties are similar to those described for reticulons, cellular proteins that induce membrane curvature to shape the ER tubules. Similar to reticulons, BMB2 adopts a W-like topology within the ER membrane. BMB2 targets PD and increases their size exclusion limit, and these BMB2 activities correlate with the ability to induce constrictions of ER tubules. We propose that the induction of ER constrictions contributes to the BMB2-dependent increase in PD permeability and formation of the PD-associated replication compartments, therefore facilitating the virus intercellular spread. Furthermore, we show that the ER tubule constrictions also occur in cells expressing TGB2, one of the three MPs of Potato virus X (PVX), and in PVX-infected cells, suggesting that reticulon-like MPs are employed by diverse RNA viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16905DOI Listing
January 2021

Electronic phase separation in multilayer rhombohedral graphite.

Nature 2020 08 12;584(7820):210-214. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Of the two stable forms of graphite, hexagonal and rhombohedral, the former is more common and has been studied extensively. The latter is less stable, which has so far precluded its detailed investigation, despite many theoretical predictions about the abundance of exotic interaction-induced physics. Advances in van der Waals heterostructure technology have now allowed us to make high-quality rhombohedral graphite films up to 50 graphene layers thick and study their transport properties. Here we show that the bulk electronic states in such rhombohedral graphite are gapped and, at low temperatures, electron transport is dominated by surface states. Because of their proposed topological nature, the surface states are of sufficiently high quality to observe the quantum Hall effect, whereby rhombohedral graphite exhibits phase transitions between a gapless semimetallic phase and a gapped quantum spin Hall phase with giant Berry curvature. We find that an energy gap can also be opened in the surface states by breaking their inversion symmetry by applying a perpendicular electric field. Moreover, in rhombohedral graphite thinner than four nanometres, a gap is present even without an external electric field. This spontaneous gap opening shows pronounced hysteresis and other signatures characteristic of electronic phase separation, which we attribute to emergence of strongly correlated electronic surface states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2568-2DOI Listing
August 2020

The Course of the Angular Artery in the Midface: Implications for Surgical and Minimally Invasive Procedures.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 06;41(7):805-813

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Previous anatomic studies have provided valuable information on the 2-dimensional course of the angular segment of the facial artery in the midface and its arterial connections. The third dimension (ie, the depth of the artery) is less well characterized.

Objectives: The objective of the present study was to describe the 3-dimensional pathway of the angular segment of the facial artery and its relationship to the muscles of facial expression.

Methods: The bilateral location and the depth of the midfacial segment of the facial artery was measured utilizing multi-planar computed tomographic image analyses obtained from contrast agent-enhanced cranial computed tomographic scans of 156 Caucasians aged a of 45.19 ± 18.7 years and with a mean body mass index of 25.05 ± 4.9 kg/m2.

Results: At the nasal ala, the mean depth of the main arterial trunk was 13.7 ± 3.7 mm (range, 2.7-25.0 mm), whereas at the medial canthus it was 1.02 ± 0.62 mm (range, 1.0-3.0 mm). This was reflected by the arteries' relationship to the midfacial muscles: at the nasal ala superficial to levator anguli oris in 62.0% but deep to the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi in 53.6%; at the medial canthus superficial to the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi in 83.1% and superficial to the orbicularis oculi in 82.7%.

Conclusions: The results presented herein confirm the high variability in the course of the angular segment of the facial artery. Various arterial pathways have been identified providing evidence that, in the midface, there is no guaranteed safe location for minimally invasive procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa176DOI Listing
June 2021

Human Melanocyte-Derived Spheroids: A Precise Test System for Drug Screening and a Multicellular Unit for Tissue Engineering.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 4;8:540. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Laboratory of Cell Biology and Developmental Pathology, FSBSI Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia.

Pigmentation is the result of melanin synthesis, which takes place in melanocytes, and its further distribution. A dysregulation in melanocytes' functionality can result in the loss of pigmentation, the appearance of pigment spots and melanoma development. Tissue engineering and the screening of new skin-lightening drugs require the development of simple and reproducible models with maintained functional activity. The aim of the study was to obtain and characterize spheroids from normal human melanocytes as a three-dimensional multicellular structure and as a test system for skin-lightening drug screening. Melanocytes are known to lose their ability to synthesize melanin in monolayer culture. When transferred under non-adhesive conditions in agarose multi-well plates, melanocytes aggregated and formed spheroids. As a result, the amount of melanin elevated almost two times within seven days. MelanoDerm™ (MatTek) skin equivalents were used as a comparison system. Cells in spheroids expressed transcription factors that regulate melanogenesis: MITF and Sox10, the marker of developed melanosomes-gp100, as well as tyrosinase ()-the melanogenesis enzyme and melanocortin receptor 1 ()-the main receptor regulating melanin synthesis. Expression was maintained during 3D culturing. Thus, it can be stated that spheroids maintain melanocytes' functional activity compared to that in the multi-layered MelanoDerm™ skin equivalents. Culturing both spheroids and MelanoDerm™ for seven days in the presence of the skin-lightening agent fucoxanthin resulted in a more significant lowering of melanin levels in spheroids. Significant down-regulation of gp100, MITF, and Sox10 transcription factors, as well as 10-fold down-regulation of expression, was observed in spheroids by day 7 in the presence of fucoxanthin, thus inhibiting the maturation of melanosomes and the synthesis of melanin. MelanoDerm™ samples were characterized by significant down-regulation of only MITF, Sox10 indicating that spheroids formed a more sensitive system allowed for quantitative assays. Collectively, these data illustrate that normal melanocytes can assemble themselves into spheroids-the viable structures that are able to accumulate melanin and maintain the initial functional activity of melanocytes. These spheroids can be used as a more affordable and easy-to-use test system than commercial skin equivalents for drug screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.00540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287162PMC
June 2020

Changes in the blood fatty-acid profile associated with oxidative-antioxidant disturbances in coronary atherosclerosis.

J Med Biochem 2020 Jan;39(1):46-53

Federal Publicly Funded Institution Meshalkin National Medical Research Center of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Background: The objective of this work was to study the profile of fatty acids and to search for associations of fatty acids with oxidative-antioxidant parameters and an oxidative-inflammatory biomarker (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2) in men with coronary atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

Methods: Analysis of 20 fatty acids was performed in 60 men with angiographically confirmed coronary atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease and in a control group of men without coronary heart disease. Serum fatty-acid content was evaluated by high-performance gas-liquid chromatography. The blood levels of oxidative stress, total antioxidative defence, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2 were analyzed.

Results: In the group of men with coronary atherosclerosis the levels of myristic and palmitic fatty acids were higher by 59% and 22%, respectively. An increase in the weight percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids was noted, such as palmitoleic, oleic, and octadecenic. Significantly lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linolic, eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, glinolenic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic were detected in the group with coronary atherosclerosis. The lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 level was higher by 48%. Oxidative stress was higher by 17%, and the total antioxidant defence in serum was lower by 45%. We found correlations between fatty acids and oxidative-antioxidative alterations. The relative risk of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques correlated with increased levels of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linolic fatty acids.

Conclusions: Significant alterations in the profile of fatty acids are associated with oxidative-antioxidative alterations and are accompanied by an increase in free-radical formation, which can probably serve as a risk factor of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jomb-2019-0010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282233PMC
January 2020

Three-Dimensional Description of the Angular Artery in the Nasolabial Fold.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 05;41(6):697-704

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Due to its arterial vasculature, the nasolabial sulcus is one of the most challenging facial regions to treat when trying to ameliorate the signs of facial aging.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to provide data on the 3-dimensional course of the angular artery within the nasolabial sulcus in relation to age, gender, and body mass index to increase safety during minimally invasive treatments.

Methods: Thee hundred nasolabial sulci from 75 males and 75 females of Russian Caucasian ethnic background (mean [standard deviation] age, 45.7 [18.7] years; mean body mass index, 25.14 [4.9] kg/m2) were analyzed. Bilateral multiplanar measurements were based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography cranial scans.

Results: Up to 3 arteries could be identified within the nasolabial sulcus: ~90% contained 1 arterial trunk, ~9% had 2 trunks, and ~1% had 3 trunks; females had more arteries than men. The artery is located at mean depths of 21.6 mm at the oral commissure and 8.9 mm at the nasal ala. The angular artery was lateral to the nasolabial sulcus in 100% of cases; the smallest distance between the artery and the nasolabial sulcus was at the oral commissure (11.91 [7.9] mm) and the greatest was at the nasal ala (13.73 [3.9] mm).

Conclusions: In contrast to current concepts, the angular artery is not located strictly subdermal to the nasolabial sulcus but at a variable depth, and in 100% of the investigated cases lateral to the nasolabial sulcus. With increasing age, the depth and lateral distance between arteries and sulci reduces significantly, underscoring the need for special caution when injecting this site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa152DOI Listing
May 2021

Children With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Consume More Calories and Fat Compared to Controls of Same Weight and Age.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2020 06;70(6):808-814

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Federal Research Center of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the rates of nutrients consumption in children and adolescents with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) compared to the control group without the disease.

Methods: Based on symptom evaluation and esophageal pH-impedance recordings patients were allocated on to GERD and control groups. All patients underwent esophagogastroscopy. Levels of nutrients consumption were assessed with the use of food frequency questionnaire in the regard to the presence of the disease, esophagitis, and z score body mass index (BMI).

Results: Data of 219 children and adolescents were available for the final analysis. Risks to have GERD were higher in groups with obesity (risk ratio 1.2 [95% confidence interval 0.8-1.7]) and excessive weight (1.1 [0.9-1.4]). Energy values of the rations and amount of fat consumption were higher in the GERD group compared to the control when rations were compared according to z score BMI. In contrast to nonerosive form of GERD, patients with erosive esophagitis consumed more protein (percentage deviation from the recommended daily allowance Me [25%;75%]): 14.3 (11.07; 19.1) % versus 8.5 (6.71; 14.1) %, total fat 36.8 (12.5; 75.5) % versus 16.9 (10.1; 17.9) %, and less polyunsaturated fats -54.3 (-73.4; -47.7) % versus -45.6 (-56.2; -33.1) %, P < 0.05.

Conclusions: The rations of children with GERD are characterized by higher calorie values and larger amounts of fat intake compared to the control group in the regard to z score BMI. Low dietary fiber consumption is additional factor associated with GERD in children with excessive weight and obesity. Compared to nonerosive GERD, higher intake of energy, protein, and total fat and lower of polyunsaturated fats revealed in patients with GERD with erosive esophagitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000002652DOI Listing
June 2020
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