Publications by authors named "Serena Valsami"

45 Publications

Osmotic hemolysis is a donor-specific feature of red blood cells under various storage conditions and genetic backgrounds.

Transfusion 2021 09 19;61(9):2538-2544. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Biology, School of Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA), Athens, Greece.

Background: Transfusion research has recently focused on the discovery of red blood cell (RBC) storage capacity biomarkers and the elucidation of donor variation effects. This shift of focus can further strengthen personalization of transfusion therapy, by revealing probable links between donor biology, RBC storage lesion profile, and posttransfusion performance.

Study Design And Methods: We performed a paired correlation analysis of osmotic fragility in freshly drawn RBCs and during cold storage in different preservative solutions at weekly intervals until unit's expiration date (n = 231), or following 24 h reconstitution in allogeneic plasma (n = 32) from healthy controls or transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients.

Results: We observed exceptional correlation profiles (r > 0.700, p < 10 in most cases) of RBC osmotic fragility in the ensemble of samples, as well as in subgroups characterized by distinct genetic backgrounds (sex, beta-thalassemia traits, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency) and storage strategies (additive solutions, whole blood, RBC concentrates). The mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) of fresh and stored RBCs at each storage time significantly correlated with the MCF of stored RBCs measured at all subsequent time points of the storage period (e.g., MCF values of storage day 21 correlated with those of storage days 28, 35 and 42). A similar correlation profile was also observed between the osmotic hemolysis of fresh/stored RBCs before and following in vitro reconstitution in plasma from healthy controls or beta-thalassemia patients.

Conclusion: Our findings highlighted the potential of osmotic fragility to serve as a donor-signature on RBCs at every step of any individual transfusion chain (donor, blood product, and probably, recipient).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.16558DOI Listing
September 2021

Seeking Strategies to Optimize Blood Utilization: The Preliminary Experience with Implementing a Patient Blood Management Program in a Greek Tertiary Hospital.

J Clin Med 2021 May 15;10(10). Epub 2021 May 15.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, Attikon University Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 12462 Athens, Greece.

Objectives: Our aim was to assess blood utilization after implementation of a patient blood management (PBM) program in a Greek tertiary hospital.

Methods: An electronic transfusion request form and a prospective audit of transfusion practice were implemented. After the one-year implementation period, a retrospective review was performed to assess transfusion practice in medical patients.

Results: Pre-PBM, a total of 9478 RBC units were transfused (mean: 1.75 units per patient) compared with 9289 transfused units (mean: 1.57 units per patient) post-PBM. Regarding the post-PBM period, the mean hemoglobin (Hb) level of the 3099 medical patients without comorbidities transfused was 7.19 ± 0.79 gr/dL. Among them, 2065 (66.6%) had Hb levels >7.0 gr/dL, while 167 (5.3%) had Hb levels >8.0 gr/dL. In addition, 331 (25.3%) of the transfused patients with comorbidities had Hb >8.0 gr/dL. The Hb transfusion thresholds significantly differed across the clinics ( < 0.001), while 21.8% of all medical non-bleeding patients received more than one RBC unit transfusion.

Conclusion: A poor adherence with the restrictive transfusion threshold of 7.0 gr/dL was observed. The adoption of a less strict threshold might be a temporary step to allow physicians to become familiar with the program and be informed on the safety and advantages of the restrictive transfusion strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157216PMC
May 2021

Platelets transfusion in Greece: Where, when, why? A national survey.

Asian J Transfus Sci 2020 Jul-Dec;14(2):158-166. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Blood Transfusion, General Hospital of Messologgi, Messologgi, Greece.

Background: Platelet transfusion is among the most useful therapeutic tools in modern clinical settings which mean that ensuring an adequate supply is of paramount importance.

Aim: The aim of our study was to record the use and wastage of platelet concentrates (PCs) in Greece, so as to come up with evidence-based interventions.

Methods: The study was conducted during May and June 2015. We evaluated the use of random-donor platelets (RDPs) and single-donor apheresis platelets (SDPs). We analyzed such parameters as hospital department and diagnosis, indication for transfusion, PCs' age at the time of transfusion, and wastage rate.

Results: We used data from 21 hospitals across the country. A total of 12,061 RDPs and 1189 SDPs were transfused, with an average of 4.84 (±2.72) and 1.12 (±2.73) units per episode, respectively. Most patients had been admitted to the internal medicine and hematology departments. The transfusions were mostly given prophylactically, usually in cases of acute leukemia, and mostly on the day before expiration. Wastage rate was 16.75% for RPDs and 2.70% for SDPs, primarily because of the expiration of the use-by date.

Conclusions: This is the first national survey regarding platelet transfusion in Greece. Since most patients were admitted in internal medicine and hematology departments, we recommend that the staff of the abovementioned departments should undergo training on contemporary transfusion guidelines. Platelet discard rate could further be lowered through the centralization of inventory management along with the extension of the lifetime of PCs by means of emerging technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ajts.AJTS_72_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983137PMC
December 2020

Uneventful epidural catheter removal in a patient with postoperative acute coronary syndrome receiving emergency triple antithrombotic therapy: a case report.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Jul-Aug;71(4):454-457. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieio Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Athens, Greece.

Background And Objectives: Neuraxial hematoma is a rare complication of the epidural technique which is commonly used for high quality postoperative pain relief. In case of urgent initiation of multiple antithrombotic therapy, the optimal timing of epidural catheter removal and need for treatment modification may be quite challenging. There are no specific guidelines and published reports are scarce.

Case Report: We present the uneventful removal of an indwelling epidural catheter in a patient who was put on emergency triple antithrombotic treatment with Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH), aspirin and clopidogrel in the immediate postoperative period, due to acute coronary syndrome. In order to define the optimal conditions and timing for catheter removal, so as to reduce the risk of complications, various laboratory tests were conducted 3 hours after aspirin/clopidogrel intake. Standard coagulation tests revealed normal platelet count, normal prothrombin time and normal activated partial thromboplastin time, while Platelet Function Analysis (PFA-200) revealed abnormal values (increased COL/EPI and COL/ADP values, both indicating inhibition of platelet function). The anti-Xa level, estimated 4 hours after LMWH administration, was within therapeutic range. At the same time, Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) showed a relatively satisfactory coagulation status overall. The epidural catheter was removed 26 hours after the last dual antiplatelet dose and the next dose was given 2 hours after removal. Enoxaparin was withheld for 24 hours and was resumed after 6 hours. Neurologic checks were performed regularly for alarming signs and symptoms suggesting development of an epidural hematoma. No complications occurred.

Conclusion: Point-of-care coagulation and platelet function monitoring may provide a helpful guidance in order to define the optimal timing for catheter removal, so as to reduce the risk of complications. A case-specific management plan based on a multidisciplinary approach is also important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2021.02.036DOI Listing
October 2021

The Impact of Peripheral Eosinophil Counts and Eosinophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (ELR) in the Clinical Course of COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Study.

In Vivo 2021 Jan-Feb;35(1):641-648

First Department of Propedeutic Internal Medicine, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background/aim: Eosinophils are blood cells responsible for response against parasites and allergens. Eosinophil to lymphocyte ratio (ELR) is a biomarker for inflammatory conditions. Our aim was to evaluate the role of eosinophils and ELR in COVID-19 patients.

Patients And Methods: The study included 96 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. They were classified into moderate to severe cases and critical cases. Eosinophils and ELR were determined in both groups, in patients that died or survived and were correlated to duration of hospitalization.

Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in eosinophils and ELR between patients that died and patients that survived (p<0.05), and in mean values of the two biomarkers (p<0.05 for eosinophils and p<0.05 for ELR) between patients hospitalized for more or less than 15 days among those with moderate to severe disease.

Conclusion: Lower eosinophil counts and ERL could probably predict worse outcome in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880766PMC
January 2021

Animal Models for the Calculation of Circulating Tumor Cells for Experimental Demonstration.

Anticancer Res 2020 Dec;40(12):6599-6607

Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Metastasis is a process which is characterized by the existence of tumor cells in the bloodstream. This is a necessary situation in order for the malignant cells to be transported to other organs. Thus, the importance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the study of carcinogenesis is widely accepted. These tumor cells are nowadays a topic of intensive research all over the world. CTCs are expressed from tumor cells and the clinical analysis of this expression may help the recognition of a tumor in an earlier stage and also there is an effort to monitor the tumor burden according to these cells. Although a plethora of clinical studies has been conducted, it is still unclear whether the use in clinical aspect will prove to be beneficial in the near future. Few animal models with neoplasia have been studied concerning the circulating tumor cells and it is likely that CTCs may have a predictive, diagnostic or therapeutic value. Herein, the authors review all studies in which human CTCs were transplanted into animals. Therefore, more clinical studies using standardized methods for measuring CTCs are required to elucidate these issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14684DOI Listing
December 2020

Reference Values of Thrombolastometry Parameters in Healthy Term Neonates.

Children (Basel) 2020 Nov 26;7(12). Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Neonatal Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieio Hospital, 157 72 Athens, Greece.

Background: Thromboelastometry (ROTEM), as a point of care test, is an attractive tool for rapid evaluation of hemostasis. Currently, no reference ranges exist for all ROTEM assays in neonates, limiting its use in this vulnerable population. The aim of the present study was: (1) to establish reference ranges for standard extrinsically activated (EXTEM), intrinsically activated (INTEM), and fibrinogen polymerization (FIBTEM) ROTEM assays in whole blood samples of healthy term neonates; (2) to determine the impact of gender, delivery mode, and hematocrit on ROTEM parameters.

Methods: EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM ROTEM assays were performed simultaneously with complete blood count in 215 healthy term neonates.

Results: Reference ranges (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) were obtained for clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, clot firmness at 10 min (A10), maximum clot firmness (MCF), and lysis index at 60 min (LI60, %). Reference ranges for EXTEM were CT 38-78 s, CFT 49-148 s, A10 40-65 mm, and MCF 47-69 mm, LI60 83-98%. For INTEM, CT 134-270 s, CFT 50-142 s, A10 41-63 mm, and MCF 48-67 mm, LI60 85-97%, and finally, for FIBTEM: CT 36-85 s, A10 9-25 mm and MCF 10-26 mm, LI60 92-100%. Hematocrit values were positively correlated with CT, CFT and negatively with A10, MCF values.

Conclusion: This study provides, for the first time, reference ranges for ROTEM EXTEM/INTEM/FIBTEM values simultaneously in healthy term neonates. The combined evaluation of ROTEM tests increases its diagnostic accuracy, contributing to the expansion of ROTEM use in the neonatal population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children7120259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759895PMC
November 2020

Current Practice in FFP Preparation and Use in Greece: A National Survey

Turk J Haematol 2021 02 22;38(1):22-32. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

General Hospital, Department of Blood Transfusion, Korinthos, Greece

Objective: Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion is widely used in modern clinical settings. Practices regarding its use vary due to lack of guidelines from randomized trials. The aim of this study was to assess both the current practices regarding FFP production, use, and wastage and the implementation of quality control (QC), female donor plasma production policies, and use of pharmaceutical hemostatic agents in Greece.

Materials And Methods: The study was conducted during February-April 2018. For the first part of the study, data including FFP transfusion indication, hospital department, diagnosis, FFP units/transfusion episode, ABO compatibility, blood donor’s sex, and reasons for discarding were collected. For the second part, questionnaire data were analyzed.

Results: According to data from 20 Greek hospitals, 12655 FFP units were transfused to 2700 patients during 5069 transfusion episodes in the studied period of time. Most patients were hospitalized in internal medicine, general surgery, and intensive care unit departments. Each patient received on average 4.69 units (2.5 units/episode). Transfusion requests were in accordance with international guidelines in 63.44% of cases and 99.04% of the units were given to ABO-identical patients. Main reasons for discarding included failure to meet quality requirements (30.06%), female donors (22.17%), and other causes (27.26%). Among 96.9% of all transfusion services across the country, 28.26% perform QC according to the directions of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care and 68.83% discard plasma from female donors. Pharmaceutic hemostatic agents are used in 37.23% of the hospitals.

Conclusion: This is the first national survey regarding FFP production and transfusion in Greece. Staff of internal medicine, general surgery, and ICU departments, where most FFP-transfused patients are hospitalized, should be regularly involved in training on contemporary transfusion guidelines. Upcoming centralization of FFP production and inventory management could help in homogenizing practices regarding FFP use and improve product quality. Strengthening the use of pharmaceutic hemostatic agents could improve patients’ management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjh.galenos.2020.2020.0241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927442PMC
February 2021

Sex-related aspects of the red blood cell storage lesion.

Blood Transfus 2021 05 9;19(3):224-236. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Laboratory of Reliability and Quality Control in Laboratory Haematology (HemQcR), Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Health & Welfare Sciences, University of West Attica (UniWA), Egaleo City, Greece.

Background: Several factors contribute to the manifestation of red blood cell (RBC) storage lesions, with one of the most interesting being the "donor variation effect". Since many haematological characteristics of blood donors are sex-dependent, sex hormones and their age-dependent variation may affect the storage profile of RBCs.

Materials And Methods: Fresh blood from 200 healthy male and female donors underwent haematological, biochemical and physiological analysis. Three selected groups of donors (men, n=8; pre-menopausal women, n=8; and post-menopausal women, n=4) exhibiting as similar as possible baseline values were recruited for blood donation in leukoreduced CPD/SAGM units. RBC indices, haemolysis and propensity for haemolysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plasma antioxidant capacity were measured bi-weekly.

Results: Female blood was characterised by lower plasma antioxidant capacity and free haemoglobin (Hb) levels in vivo, in spite of the higher RBC osmotic fragility, compared to male blood. Comparatively low Hb concentration was also measured in stored RBCs from female donors, as in vivo. Mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC), and plasma antioxidant capacity were also lower in female donors throughout storage, even though baseline levels were equal to those of the male group. There was no difference in propensity of stored RBCs for haemolysis between male and female units but intracellular ROS levels were significantly lower in female RBCs. Increased end-of-storage extracellular potassium and recruitment of protein stress markers (clusterin, Hb) to the RBC membrane were observed in the units of post- vs pre-menopausal female donors at mid-storage onwards.

Discussion: Donor's sex has an impact on Hb concentration and redox parameters of stored RBCs. In addition, menopause seems to promote RBC membrane remodelling, at least during prolonged storage. Our pilot study provides new insights on the different effects on RBC storage lesion according to sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2450/2020.0141-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092039PMC
May 2021

Red Blood Cell Alloantibody Titration - Does the Titration Method Matter?

Clin Lab 2020 Jun;66(6)

Background: Red blood cell (RBC) alloantibody titration is a quasi-quantitative method to assess antibody concentration and is considered a useful means of estimating maternal alloimmunization during pregnancy. Traditionally, titration is performed using conventional tube test (CTT). The gel microcolumn agglutination-based method (GMA) has been proven reliable for many immunohematology tests. Our study compared CTT with GMA of two different, commercially available GMA systems for RBC alloantibody titration.

Methods: Serum samples with significant RBC-alloantibodies were evaluated in our study. Each sample was titrated concurrently with CTT, with ID-DiaMed-GmbH, Cressier, Switzerland (GMA1), and with DG Gel Coombs Diagnostic Grifols, Passeig Fluvial, Spain (GMA2).

Results: One hundred thirty-seven titration tests including 50 anti-D, 25 anti-Kell, 10 anti-E, 9 anti-Jka, 8 anti-c, 5 anti-Cw, 5 anti-Fya, 7 anti-M, 6 anti-Kpa, 3 anti-Lua, 1 anti-e, 3 anti-G, and 2 anti-Cha were performed and evaluated. Samples tested by CTT versus GMA1 and GMA2 generated mostly equal or higher titers by GMAs. The results of both comparisons were in good agreement (W = 0.91, p < 0.0001, and W = 0.92, p < 0.0001, respectively). For all antibody specificities, the mean absolute difference in titers ranged from 1 - 3 for both GMA1 and GMA2 versus CTT. Samples tested by GMA1 vs. GMA2 were in almost perfect agreement (W = 0.95, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Although both GMAs were found slightly more sensitive than CTT for alloantibody titration, the differences were not significant and the agreement between all methods was very good, possibly indicating GMA as a suitable alternative to CTT in RBC antibody titration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2019.191021DOI Listing
June 2020

ROTEM diagnostic capacity for measuring fibrinolysis in neonatal sepsis.

Thromb Res 2020 08 20;192:103-108. Epub 2020 May 20.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, "Attiko" University Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Background: Hypofibrinolysis has been demonstrated in several studies in adult sepsis. Although fibrinolysis is an important and integral part of the hemostatic system, few data are available regarding its role in neonatal sepsis. Our purpose was to define fibrinolytic profiles across neonatal sepsis spectrum using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM).

Material And Methods: This study was performed in a Greek tertiary General Hospital during an 18 month-period and included 44 neonates with confirmed sepsis and 22 with suspected sepsis; 110 healthy neonates served as controls. Whenever sepsis was suspected, EXTEM and APTEM assays were performed, clinical findings and laboratory data were recorded.

Results: Although most EXTEM parameters were significantly different among the 3 groups, Maximal Lysis (ML) and Lysis Index at 60 min (LI60) levels were similar (p = 0.11 and p = 0.20, respectively). Hyperfibrinolysis, as defined by ROTEM parameters, did not significantly differ among the study populations (p = 0.41). On the contrary, fibrinolysis shutdown, defined as an EXTEM LI60 ≥98%, was more common in septic neonates than in healthy (p < 0.001) and neonates with suspected sepsis (p = 0.042). A weak to moderate correlation of LI60 and ML with mortality (Spearman rho = 0.43 and - 0.40, p = 0.005 and 0.007, respectively) and SNAPE score (Spearman rho = 0.35 and - 0.33, p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) was noticed in sepsis group.

Conclusions: ROTEM, based on fibrinolytic parameters, showed a more frequent fibrinolysis shutdown in neonatal sepsis, but it could neither effectively discriminate septic neonates, nor predict their clinical outcome. The considerable overlap among numerical ROTEM values probably compromises their diagnostic clinical utility in neonatal sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.05.028DOI Listing
August 2020

Retrospective Study on Prevalence, Specificity, Sex, and Age Distribution of Alloimmunization in Two General Hospitals in Athens

Turk J Haematol 2020 08 22;37(3):154-166. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Hellenic National Blood Transfusion Center, Athens, Greece

Objective: Blood transfusion is a common lifesaving treatment but it is often complicated with alloimmunization. Previously studies in Greece have concentrated on alloimmunization in multiply transfused thalassemic patients or antenatal women. However, the relative frequency of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the general patient population has not been studied so far. The aim of the present retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence and specificity of RBC alloantibodies in a large cohort of patients in two general hospitals and their association with age, sex, and the patients’ clinic of hospitalization.

Materials And Methods: Data from 2012 to 2016 from the “Sismanogleio” and “Thriasio” general hospitals in Athens, Greece, were studied retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows 9.4.

Results: Six hundred twenty-six patients (626/53800, 1.16%) were alloimmunized for one or more alloantibodies. The mean age was 67.99±17.56 years. Most antibodies were found in women [62.66% (438/699) in women vs. 37.34% (261/699) in men (p=0.0007)], while the vast majority of antibodies (66.81%) were found in patients aged 61-90. The most frequent antibody was anti-Kell (26.61%), followed by anti-E (16.02%), anti-D (15.02%), anti-Jka (5.87%), and anti-M (5.72%). Anti-C (81.48%, n=27) and anti-Cw (54.17%, n=24) tended to be found more often in patients with multiple antibodies. Most alloimmunized cases were found in general surgery (42.65%) and internal medicine departments (38.66%).

Conclusion: According to our results, the alloimmunization data in a general patient population in Greece were consistent with the majority of studies in the international literature. Whether a strategy at national level needs to be directed towards extending matching for the whole population or towards applying sensitive and compulsory indirect antiglobulin tests before any transfusions in order to efficiently prevent alloimmunization remains an issue of debate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjh.galenos.2020.2019.0459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463207PMC
August 2020

The effect of transfusion on immune responses in thalassemia.

Blood Cells Mol Dis 2020 07 31;83:102425. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease Center, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Background: Regular transfusions are the gold standard therapy for β-thalassemia and are often complicated by secondary-iron overload and alloimmunization. We assessed the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the levels of cytokines implicated in Th-responses in 49 patients 33 TDT and 16 NTDT in order to investigate the contribution of transfusion and its complications on immune responses.

Materials And Methods: Tregs were characterized with flow cytometry. Soluble IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and TGF-β1 were assessed by ELISA. Clinical data including alloimmunization, age of onset of transfusion splenectomy hepatitis B and C infection, iron overload assessment with MRI T2* (liver and heart) were recorded from the patients' files.

Results: Tregs levels, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ and serum ferritin were higher in the TDT compared to the NTDT group (all p < 0.05). There was no difference of Tregs and circulating cytokines in patients in correlation with the extend of iron overload (assessed by T2*liver), the type of chelator or the development of alloantibodies.

Discussion: Tregs levels are higher in TDT patients compared to NTDT, a difference which could be ascribed to transfusion. Tregs levels and the cytokines analyzed may play little role in alloimmunization and are not impacted by the extend of iron overload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcmd.2020.102425DOI Listing
July 2020

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, demyelinating relapse, and AQP1 antibodies after alemtuzumab infusion.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2020 05 2;7(3). Epub 2020 Apr 2.

From the 1st Department of Neurology (J.S.T., D.T., L.S. K.K.), Eginition Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA); Tzartos NeuroDiagnostics (J.S.T., C.S., M.D.); Blood Transfusion Department (S.V.), Aretaieion Hospital, Medical School, NKUA; Hematology Division (D.B.), Alexandra General Hospital; Department of Clinical Therapeutics (E.P.), Medical School, NKUA, and 2nd Department of Radiology (G.V.), Medical School, NKUA, Athens, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136045PMC
May 2020

High-Risk Pregnancies and Their Impact on Neonatal Primary Hemostasis.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2020 Jun 13;46(4):435-445. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Neonatal Department, Aretaieio Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Primary hemostasis, similar to other systems in the adjusting and transitioning neonate, undergoes developmental adaptations in the first days of life. Although platelets of neonates do not differ quantitatively compared with those of adults, they functionally present with major differences, thus supporting the theory of a "hypofunctional" phenotype that is counterbalanced by high hematocrit and more potent von Willebrand factor multimers. No clinical effect of bleeding tendency has hence been established so far for healthy term neonates. However, discrepancies in functionality have been noted, associated with gestational age, with more pronounced platelet hyporesponsiveness in preterm neonates. Multiple methods of in vitro platelet function evaluation such as PFA-100/200, platelet aggregometry, flow cytometry, and cone and platelet analyzer have been used for assessment of neonatal primary hemostasis. Several pregnancies are characterized as "high-risk" when risk factors preexist in maternal history or evolve during pregnancy. These pregnancies require specialized observation as they may have unpredictable outcome. High-risk pregnancies include clinical entities such as preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), autoimmune diseases, and other maternal hematological conditions. In some cases, like systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and maternal immunologically based thrombocytopenia, neonatal thrombocytopenia is regarded as a prominent hemostasis defect, while in others, like pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia, both quantitative and qualitative disorders of neonatal platelets have been reported. In other pathologies, like GDM, neonatal primary hemostasis remains vastly unexplored, which raises the need for further investigation. The extent to which primary hemostasis is affected in neonates of high-risk pregnancies is the main objective of this narrative review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3400258DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluation of PFA-100 closure times in cord blood samples of healthy term and preterm neonates.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2020 03;58(4):e113-e116

Hematology- Immunohematology, Head of Haematology Laboratory-Blood Bank, Aretaieio Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 76 Vas. Sofias Street, 11526 Athens, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2019-0948DOI Listing
March 2020

Histone deacetylase inhibitors as a new anticancer option: How far can we go with expectations? delivery systems.

J BUON 2018 Jul-Aug;23(4):846-861

Internal Medicine Department, "Laiko" General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Histone modification that occurs through the process of acetylation plays a key role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The balance between histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases controls this process. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Therefore, HDAIs represent a group of enzymes that can be used for the development of pharmaceutical agents against a variety of malignant diseases. The mechanisms of their anticancer effect depend on many factors. HDACIs vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphomas and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDACIs are tested in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed.
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November 2019

Pregnancy Complications in a-Thalassemia (Hemoglobinopathy H): A Case Study.

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2018 27;2018:8532081. Epub 2018 May 27.

First Department of Pediatrics, University General Hospital "Attikon", School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.

Thalassemia intermedia (TI) is a clinical definition which represents a wide spectrum of thalassemia genotypes but mainly includes patients who do not require or only occasionally require transfusion. An uncommon case of a 32-year-old Greek woman, para 1, at the 22nd week + day 3 of gestation with thalassemia intermedia (she was splenectomized), where her pregnancy was complicated with portal vein thrombosis, splenic thrombosis, and partial HELLP, is described. This is a generally uncommon event in thalassemia intermedia. She had no transfusion as her hematologist consulted and she took anticoagulation therapy. Thus, we present for the first time in the literature a case of HbH a-thalassemia pregnant woman whose pregnancy was complicated with portal vein thrombosis, splenic vein thrombosis, and partial HELLP; she was treated with anticoagulation therapy and she had a successful outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8532081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5994311PMC
May 2018

Red cell transfusion in paediatric patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell disease: Current status, challenges and perspectives.

Transfus Apher Sci 2018 Jun 5;57(3):347-357. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Biology, School of Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA), Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Notwithstanding the high safety level of the currently available blood for transfusion and the decreasing frequency of transfusion-related complications, administration of labile blood products to paediatric patients still poses unique challenges and considerations. The incidence of thalassaemia and sickle cell disease in the paediatric population may be high enough under specific racial and geographical contexts. Red cell transfusion is the cornerstone of β-thalassaemia treatment and one of the most effective ways to prevent or correct specific acute and chronic complications of sickle cell disease. However, this life-saving strategy comes with its own complications, such as additional iron overload, alloimmunization and haemolytic reactions, among others. In paediatrics, the dependency of the transfusion outcome upon disease and other recipient characteristics is more prominent compared with the adults, owing to differences in developmental maturity and physiology that render them more susceptible to common risks, exacerbate the host response to transfused cells, and modify the type or the clinical severity of the transfusion-related morbidity. The adverse branch of red cell transfusion is likely the overall effect of several factors acting synergistically to shape the clinical phenotype of this therapy, including inherent donor/blood unit variables, like antigenicity, red cell deformability and extracellular vesicles, as well as recipient variables, such as history of alloimmunization and inflammation level at time of transfusion. This review focuses on paediatric patients with β-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease as a recipient group with distinct transfusion-related characteristics, and introduces new concepts for consideration, not adequately studied and elucidated so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2018.05.018DOI Listing
June 2018

Thromboelastometry for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis-associated coagulopathy: an observational study.

Eur J Pediatr 2018 Mar 18;177(3):355-362. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Laboratory of Haematology and Blood Bank Unit, School of Medicine, "Attiko" University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 1 Rimini Str, 12462, Athens, Greece.

Our aim was to evaluate the potential role of standard extrinsically activated thromboelastometry (EXTEM) assay in the early detection of neonatal sepsis. We studied 91 hospitalized neonates categorized in two groups: group A included 35 neonates with confirmed sepsis, while group B included 56 neonates with suspected sepsis; 274 healthy neonates served as controls. Whenever sepsis was suspected, EXTEM assay was performed, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension (SNAPPE) and Tοllner score were calculated, and clinical findings and laboratory results were recorded. Septic neonates had significantly prolonged clotting time (CT) and clot formation time (CFT), and reduced maximum clot firmness (MCF), compared to neonates with suspected sepsis (p values 0.001, 0.001, and 0.009, respectively) or healthy neonates (p values 0.001, 0.001, and 0.021, respectively). EXTEM parameters (CT, CFT, MCF) demonstrated a more intense hypocoagulable profile in septic neonates with hemorrhagic diathesis than those without (p values 0.021, 0.007, and 0.033, respectively). In septic neonates, CFT was correlated with platelet count, SNAPPE, Tollner score, and day of full enteral feeding (p values 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.03, respectively).

Conclusions: A ROTEM hypocoagulable profile at admission seems promising for the early detection of sepsis in neonates while the degree of hypocoagulation may be associated with sepsis severity. What is Known: • The early phase of septicemia might be difficult to be recognized in neonates. In adult septic patients, the diagnostic and prognostic role of thromboelastometry (ROTEM) have been extensively investigated. • Limited data are available on the role of ROTEM as an indicator of early neonatal sepsis. What is New: • ROTEM measurements indicate an early appearance of hypocoagulability in neonatal sepsis, while the degree of hypocoagulation might be associated with severity of sepsis. • ROTEM could be a useful tool in the early detection of sepsis in neonates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-017-3072-zDOI Listing
March 2018

Histone Deacetylases as New Therapeutic Targets in Triple-negative Breast Cancer: Progress and Promises.

Cancer Genomics Proteomics 2017 Sep-Oct;14(5):299-313

Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, Laiko General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 gene. It comprises approximately 15-20% of breast cancers (BCs). Unfortunately, TNBC's treatment continues to be a clinical problem because of its relatively poor prognosis, its aggressiveness and the lack of targeted therapies, leaving chemotherapy as the mainstay of treatment. It is essential to find new therapies against TNBC, in order to surpass the resistance and the invasiveness of already existing therapies. Given the fact that epigenetic processes control both the initiation and progression of TNBC, there is an increasing interest in the mechanisms, molecules and signaling pathways that participate at the epigenetic modulation of genes expressed in carcinogenesis. The acetylation of histone proteins provokes the transcription of genes involved in cell growth, and the expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is frequently up-regulated in many malignancies. Unfortunately, in the field of BC, HDAC inhibitors have shown limited effect as single agents. Nevertheless, their use in combination with kinase inhibitors, autophagy inhibitors, ionizing radiation, or two HDAC inhibitors together is currently being evaluated. HDAC inhibitors such as suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA), sodium butyrate, mocetinostat, panobinostat, entinostat, YCW1 and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propylpentanamide have shown promising therapeutic outcomes against TNBC, especially when they are used in combination with other anticancer agents. More studies concerning HDAC inhibitors in breast carcinomas along with a more accurate understanding of the TNBC's pathobiology are required for the possible identification of new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/cgp.20041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5611517PMC
May 2018

From diagnosis to treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: An epidemic problem for both developed and developing world.

World J Gastroenterol 2017 Aug;23(29):5282-5294

Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Christos Damaskos, Nikolaos Garmpis, Stylianos Kykalos, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Gregory Kouraklis, Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15772 Athens, Greece.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver malignancy and the third cause of cancer-related death in the Western Countries. The well-established causes of HCC are chronic liver infections such as hepatitis B virus or chronic hepatitis C virus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, consumption of aflatoxins and tobacco smocking. Clinical presentation varies widely; patients can be asymptomatic while symptomatology extends from right upper abdominal quadrant paint and weight loss to obstructive jaundice and lethargy. Imaging is the first key and one of the most important aspects at all stages of diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with HCC. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging System remains the most widely classification system used for HCC management guidelines. Up until now, HCC remains a challenge to early diagnose, and treat effectively; treating management is focused on hepatic resection, orthotopic liver transplantation, ablative therapies, chemoembolization and systemic therapies with cytotocix drugs, and targeted agents. This review article describes the current evidence on epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v23.i29.5282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5550777PMC
August 2017

Reference ranges of thromboelastometry in healthy full-term and pre-term neonates.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2017 Aug;55(10):1592-1597

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Background: Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) is an attractive method for rapid evaluation of hemostasis in neonates. Currently, no reference values exist for ROTEM assays in full-term and pre-term neonates. Our aim was to establish reference ranges for standard extrinsically activated ROTEM assay (EXTEM) in arterial blood samples of healthy full-term and pre-term neonates.

Methods: In the present study, EXTEM assay was performed in 198 full-term (≥37 weeks' gestation) and 84 pre-term infants (<37 weeks' gestation) using peripheral arterial whole blood samples.

Results: Median values and reference ranges (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) for the following main parameters of EXTEM assay were determined in full-term infants: clotting time (seconds), 41 (range, 25.9-78); clot formation time (seconds), 70 (range, 40-165.2); maximum clot firmness (mm), 66 (range, 41-84.1); lysis index at 60 min (LI60, %), 97 (range, 85-100). The only parameter with a statistically significant difference between full-term and pre-term neonates was LI60 (p=0.006). Furthermore, it was inversely correlated with gestational age (p=0.002) and birth weight (p=0.016) in pre-term neonates.

Conclusions: In conclusion, an enhanced fibrinolytic activity in pre-term neonates was noted. For most EXTEM assay parameters, reference ranges obtained from arterial newborn blood samples were comparable with the respective values from studies using cord blood. Modified reagents, small size samples, timing of sampling, and different kind of samples might account for any discrepancies among similar studies. Reference values hereby provided can be used in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2016-0931DOI Listing
August 2017

Oral Contraceptives and HRT Risk of Thrombosis.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2018 Mar 4;24(2):217-225. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

2 Hematology Laboratory - Blood Bank, ARETAIEION Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Estrogen-containing medication, prescribed either for contraception in women of reproductive age or for prevention of cardiovascular events and osteoporosis as well as for alleviation of symptoms related to menopause, is associated with changes in the hemostatic balance and contributes to increased risk of development of venous thromboembolic complications. This risk is dose and medication dependent, increases with age, congenital and/or acquired predisposition to thrombosis, and mode of administration. This review attempts to summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of oral contraceptive (OC) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) -induced prothrombotic state in women, the risk of thrombosis associated with administration of various commercially available OCs and HRT, the additional risk in women with hereditary or acquired thrombophilia, and the currently available recommendations regarding massive screening of women for thrombophilia prior to initial prescription or continuation of treatment with OCs and HRT preparations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029616683802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714678PMC
March 2018

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: An Attractive Therapeutic Strategy Against Breast Cancer.

Anticancer Res 2017 01;37(1):35-46

Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

With a lifetime risk estimated to be one in eight in industrialized countries, breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer among women worldwide. Patients are often treated with anti-estrogens, but it is common that some tumors develop resistance to therapy. The causation and progression of cancer is controlled by epigenetic processes, so there is an ongoing interest in research into mechanisms, genes and signaling pathways associating carcinogenesis with epigenetic modulation of gene expression. Given the fact that histone deacetylases (HDACs) have a great impact on chromatin remodeling and epigenetics, their inhibitors have become a very interesting field of research.

Aim: This review focused on the use of HDAC inhibitors as anticancer treatment and explains the mechanisms of therapeutic effects on breast cancer. We anticipate further clinical benefits of this new class of drugs, both as single agents and in combination therapy. Molecules such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, trichostatin A, suberoylbis-hydroxamic acid, panobinostat, entinostat, valproic acid, sodium butyrate, SK7041, FTY720, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propylpentanamide, Scriptaid, YCW1, santacruzamate A and ferrocenyl have shown promising antitumor effects against breast cancer. HDAC inhibitors consists an attractive field for targeted therapy against breast cancer. Future therapeutic strategies will include combination of HDAC inhibitors and chemotherapy or other inhibitors, in order to target multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. More trials are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.11286DOI Listing
January 2017

Red Blood Cell Transfusions in Greece: Results of a Survey of Red Blood Cell Use in 2013.

Turk J Haematol 2017 Mar 22;34(1):52-58. Epub 2016 Nov 22.

Aretaieio Hospital, Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Department of Blood Transfusion, Athens, Greece Phone: +306944602629 E-mail:

Objective: Greece is ranked as the second highest consumer of blood components in Europe. For an effective transfusion system and in order to reduce variability of transfusion practice by implementing evidence-based transfusion guidelines it is necessary to study and monitor blood management strategies. Our study was conducted in order to evaluate the use of red blood cell units (RBC-U) in nationwide scale mapping parameters that contribute to their proper management in Greece.

Materials And Methods: The survey was conducted by the Working Committee of Transfusion Medicine&Apheresis of the Hellenic Society of Hematology from January to December 2013. The collected data included the number, ABO/D blood group, patients' department, and storage age of RBC-U transfused.

Results: The number of RBC-U evaluated was 103,702 (17.77%) out of 583,457 RBC-U transfused in Greece in 2013. RBC-U transfused by hospital department (mean percentage) was as follows: Surgery 29.34%, Internal Medicine 29.48%, Oncology/Hematology 14.65%, Thalassemia 8.87%, Intensive Care Unit 6.55%, Nephrology 1.78%, Obstetrics/Gynecology 1.46%, Neonatal&Pediatric 0.31%, Private Hospitals 8.57%. RBC-U distribution according to ABO/D blood group was: A: 39.02%, B: 12.41%, AB: 5.16%, O: 43.41%, D+: 87.99%, D-: 12.01%. The majority of RBC-U (62.46%) was transfused in the first 15 days of storage, 25.24% at 16 to 28 days, and 12.28% at 29-42 days.

Conclusion: Despite a high intercenter variability in RBC transfusions, surgical and internal medicine patients were the most common groups of patients transfused with an increasing rate for internal medicine patients. The majority of RBC-U were transfused within the first 15 days of storage, which is possibly the consequence of blood supply insufficiency leading to the direct use of fresh blood. Benchmarking transfusion activity may help to decrease the inappropriate use of blood products, reduce the cost of care, and optimize the use of the voluntary donor's gift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjh.2016.0188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451689PMC
March 2017

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: A Novel Therapeutic Weapon Against Medullary Thyroid Cancer?

Anticancer Res 2016 10;36(10):5019-5024

Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, "Laiko" General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background/aim: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is highly malignant, metastatic and recurrent, remaining generally incurable, and responsible for approximately 14% of all thyroid carcinoma-related deaths. MTC can metastasize to lymph nodes, trachea and distant organs, such as brain, lungs, liver and bones. MTC cells are resistant to chemotherapy and traditional external therapies are not showing definite clinical benefits. Scientists are trying to understand the molecular background of carcinogenesis and histone deacetylase (HDAC) seems to play a potential role to gene transcription. On the other hand, HDAC inhibitors (HDACI) hamper the HDAC action giving promising results as new anticancer drugs. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the current status of research considering the role of HDACIs in MTC treatment and to present the latest trends in MTC treatment protocols.

Materials And Methods: This literature review was accomplished using the MEDLINE database. The key words/phrases were; HDACI, medullary thyroid cancer, HDACI in the therapy of neuroendocrine tumors, HDACI in MTC. Forty-one articles were selected from the total number of the search's results. Only sixteen papers focus on the use of HDACIs in the treatment of MTC. In order to extract our conclusions, we took into account some studies whose main topic does not strictly refer to the MTC but they contain noteworthy and useful information. Only English articles published up to August 2016 were assessed and used for writing this review.

Results: Molecules, such as valproid acid (VPA), vorinostat, suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA), depsipeptide, belinostat, m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamine (CBHA) and AB3 have shown promising antitumor effects against MTC.

Conclusion: HDACIs represent a promising field for targeted therapy both for its anticancer properties, as well as for augmenting radiotherapeutic modalities. More trials are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.11070DOI Listing
October 2016

A Successful Mother and Neonate Outcome for a Woman with Essential Thrombocytosis and FV Leiden Heterozygosity.

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2016 31;2016:7041686. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital, National and Kapodistrian Athens University Medical School, 11528 Athens, Greece.

Essential thrombocytosis (ET) and FV Leiden heterozygosity represent an acquired and hereditable hypercoagulable state, respectively. An uncommon case of coexistence of ET and FV Leiden heterozygosity in a 36-year-old pregnant woman and her successful pregnancy outcome is described. She was considered to be at high risk of thrombosis during her pregnancy and she was treated with both prophylactic dose of LMWH and aspirin daily throughout her pregnancy and for a 6-week period postpartum. The efficacy of the anticoagulation treatment was monitored in various time points not only by measuring anti-Xa levels and D-Dimers but also with new coagulation methods such as rotation thromboelastometry and multiplate. Global assessment of coagulation using additional newer laboratory tests might prove useful in monitoring coagulation pregnancies at high risk for thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7041686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830723PMC
April 2016

Variable Pringle Maneuvers and Effect on Intestinal Epithelium in Rats. A Pilot Experimental Study in Rats.

PLoS One 2015 23;10(10):e0140707. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, "Laikon" General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: It is observed that combined liver and colon surgery especially when this includes major liver resection with Pringle maneuver (PM) performance does not have a favorable outcome. Aim of our experimental study is to investigate the impact of portal triad occlusion on the large bowel and intra-abdominal inflammation and potent protective effects of the variants of (PM) in the combined surgical cases.

Materials And Methods: Forty-four rats were divided into four groups. In group A (control group), 1cm of the left partial colon was resected and then an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. In group B, a continuous PM for 30 minutes was performed followed by resection of 1cm of the left colon and an end-to-end anastomosis. In group C, the left colonic resection and anastomosis was performed after intermittent PM (IPM), which was 10 minutes PM followed by 5 minutes reperfusion repeated for three circles. In group D, an ischemic preconditioning for 10 minutes was initially performed followed by 5 minutes reperfusion and then continuous PM for 30 minutes. Finally the rats in group D underwent a 1cm left colonic resection and an end-to-end anastomosis.

Results: The percentage of colitis was higher in the B group (P = 0,19). The percentage of inflammation was not significantly higher even when we compared all "occlusion" groups (B+C+D) with the sham group. No evidence of pancreatitis was found in the sham group whereas amylase and lipase levels were higher in Groups B, C and D together (P = 0,0267). The comparison of group A to group B showed a significant difference (P = 0,0014) caused by continuous PM for 30 minutes, but there was no such result after IPM.

Conclusions: Major liver resections are performed with PM in order to minimize intra-operative blood loss. In the combined cases of colon surgery and major liver resections where PM is needed our results showed that IPM presents with better outcome and could be preferred compared with the other PM variants.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0140707PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4619866PMC
June 2016
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