Publications by authors named "Serena P Kelly"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sustained Improvement in Tracheal Intubation Safety Across a 15-Center Quality-Improvement Collaborative: An Interventional Study From the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children Investigators.

Crit Care Med 2021 Feb;49(2):250-260

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a tracheal intubation safety bundle on adverse tracheal intubation-associated events across 15 PICUs.

Design: Multicenter time-series study.

Setting: PICUs in the United States.

Patients: All patients received tracheal intubations in ICUs.

Interventions: We implemented a tracheal intubation safety bundle as a quality-improvement intervention that includes: 1) quarterly site benchmark performance report and 2) airway safety checklists (preprocedure risk factor, approach, and role planning, preprocedure bedside "time-out," and immediate postprocedure debriefing). We define each quality-improvement phase as baseline (-24 to -12 mo before checklist implementation), benchmark performance reporting only (-12 to 0 mo before checklist implementation), implementation (checklist implementation start to time achieving > 80% bundle adherence), early bundle adherence (0-12 mo), and sustained (late) bundle adherence (12-24 mo). Bundle adherence was defined a priori as greater than 80% of checklist use for tracheal intubations for 3 consecutive months.

Measurements And Main Results: The primary outcome was the adverse tracheal intubation-associated event, and secondary outcomes included severe tracheal intubation-associated events, multiple tracheal intubation attempts, and hypoxemia less than 80%.From January 2013 to December 2015, out of 19 participating PICUs, 15 ICUs (79%) achieved bundle adherence. Among the 15 ICUs, the adverse tracheal intubation-associated event rates were baseline phase: 217/1,241 (17.5%), benchmark reporting only phase: 257/1,750 (14.7%), early 0-12 month complete bundle compliance phase: 247/1,591 (15.5%), and late 12-24 month complete bundle compliance phase: 137/1,002 (13.7%). After adjusting for patient characteristics and clustering by site, the adverse tracheal intubation-associated event rate significantly decreased compared with baseline: benchmark: odds ratio, 0.83 (0.72-0.97; p = 0.016); early bundle: odds ratio, 0.80 (0.63-1.02; p = 0.074); and late bundle odds ratio, 0.63 (0.47-0.83; p = 0.001).

Conclusions: Effective implementation of a quality-improvement bundle was associated with a decrease in the adverse tracheal intubation-associated event that was sustained for 24 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004725DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence of ICU Delirium in Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 Jan;22(1):68-78

University of California San Francisco, School of Nursing, San Francisco, CA.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ICU delirium in children less than 18 years old that underwent cardiac surgery within the last 30 days. The secondary aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with ICU delirium in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgical patients.

Design: A 1-day, multicenter point-prevalence study of delirium in pediatric postoperative cardiac surgery patients.

Setting: Twenty-seven pediatric cardiac and general critical care units caring for postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients in North America.

Patients: All children less than 18 years old hospitalized in the cardiac critical care units at 06:00 on a randomly selected, study day.

Interventions: Eligible children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the study team in collaboration with the bedside nurse.

Measurement And Main Results: Overall, 181 patients were enrolled and 40% (n = 73) screened positive for delirium. There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographic information, severity of defect or surgical procedure, past medical history, or postoperative day between patients screening positive or negative for delirium. Our bivariate analysis found those patients screening positive had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (12.8 vs 5.1 d; p = 0.02); required more vasoactive support (55% vs 26%; p = 0.0009); and had a higher number of invasive catheters (4 vs 3 catheters; p = 0.001). Delirium-positive patients received more total opioid exposure (1.80 vs 0.36 mg/kg/d of morphine equivalents; p < 0.001), did not have an ambulation or physical therapy schedule (p = 0.02), had not been out of bed in the previous 24 hours (p < 0.0002), and parents were not at the bedside at time of data collection (p = 0.008). In the mixed-effects logistic regression analysis of modifiable risk factors, the following variables were associated with a positive delirium screen: 1) pain score, per point increase (odds ratio, 1.3; 1.06-1.60); 2) total opioid exposure, per mg/kg/d increase (odds ratio, 1.35; 1.06-1.73); 3) SBS less than 0 (odds ratio, 4.01; 1.21-13.27); 4) pain medication or sedative administered in the previous 4 hours (odds ratio, 3.49; 1.32-9.28); 5) no progressive physical therapy or ambulation schedule in their medical record (odds ratio, 4.40; 1.41-13.68); and 6) parents not at bedside at time of data collection (odds ratio, 2.31; 1.01-5.31).

Conclusions: We found delirium to be a common problem after cardiac surgery with several important modifiable risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002591DOI Listing
January 2021

The New Trainee Effect in Tracheal Intubation Procedural Safety Across PICUs in North America: A Report From National Emergency Airway Registry for Children.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 12;21(12):1042-1050

Center for Simulation, Advanced Education and Innovation, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Objectives: Tracheal intubation carries a high risk of adverse events. The current literature is unclear regarding the "New Trainee Effect" on tracheal intubation safety in the PICU. We evaluated the effect of the timing of the PICU fellow academic cycle on tracheal intubation associated events. We hypothesize 1) PICUs with pediatric critical care medicine fellowship programs have more adverse tracheal intubation associated events during the first quarter (July-September) of the academic year compared with the rest of the year and 2) tracheal intubation associated event rates and first attempt success performed by pediatric critical care medicine fellows improve through the 3-year clinical fellowship.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Thirty-seven North American PICUs participating in National Emergency Airway Registry for Children.

Patients: All patients who underwent tracheal intubations in the PICU from July 2013 to June 2017.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: The occurrence of any tracheal intubation associated events during the first quarter of the academic year (July-September) was compared with the rest in four different types of PICUs: PICUs with fellows and residents, PICUs with fellows only, PICUs with residents only, and PICUs without trainees. For the second hypothesis, tracheal intubations by critical care medicine fellows were categorized by training level and quarter for 3 years of fellowship (i.e., July-September of 1st yr pediatric critical care medicine fellowship = first quarter, October-December of 1st yr pediatric critical care medicine fellowship = second quarter, and April-June during 3rd year = 12th quarter). A total of 9,774 tracheal intubations were reported. Seven-thousand forty-seven tracheal intubations (72%) were from PICUs with fellows and residents, 525 (5%) with fellows only, 1,201 (12%) with residents only, and 1,001 (10%) with no trainees. There was no difference in the occurrence of tracheal intubation associated events in the first quarter versus the rest of the year (all PICUs: July-September 14.9% vs October-June 15.2%; p = 0.76). There was no difference between these two periods in each type of PICUs (all p ≥ 0.19). For tracheal intubations by critical care medicine fellows (n = 3,836), tracheal intubation associated events significantly decreased over the fellowship: second quarter odds ratio 0.64 (95% CI, 0.45-0.91), third quarter odds ratio 0.58 (95% CI, 0.42-0.82), and 12th quarter odds ratio 0.40 (95% CI, 0.24-0.67) using the first quarter as reference after adjusting for patient and device characteristics. First attempt success significantly improved during fellowship: second quarter odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI, 1.04-1.85), third quarter odds ratio 1.59 (95% CI, 1.20-2.09), and 12th quarter odds ratio 2.11 (95% CI, 1.42-3.14).

Conclusions: The New Trainee Effect in tracheal intubation safety outcomes was not observed in various types of PICUs. There was a significant improvement in pediatric critical care medicine fellows' first attempt success and a significant decline in tracheal intubation associated event rates, indicating substantial skills acquisition throughout pediatric critical care medicine fellowship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002480DOI Listing
December 2020

PICU Early Mobilization and Impact on Parent Stress.

Hosp Pediatr 2019 04;9(4):265-272

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Background And Objectives: Early mobilization of critically ill children may improve outcomes, but parent refusal of mobilization therapies is an identified barrier. We aimed to evaluate parent stress related to mobilization therapy in the PICU.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to measure parent stress and a retrospective chart review of child characteristics. Parents or legal guardians of children admitted for ≥1 night to an academic, tertiary-care PICU who were proficient in English or Spanish were surveyed. Parents were excluded if their child's death was imminent, child abuse or neglect was suspected, or there was a contraindication to child mobilization.

Results: We studied 120 parent-child dyads. Parent mobilization stress was correlated with parent PICU-related stress ( [119] = 0.489; ≤ .001) and overall parent stress ( [110] = 0.272; = .004). Increased parent mobilization stress was associated with higher levels of parent education, a lower baseline child functional status, more strenuous mobilization activities, and mobilization therapies being conducted by individuals other than the children's nurses (all < .05). Parents reported mobilization stress from medical equipment (79%), subjective pain and fragility concerns (75%), and perceived dyspnea (24%). Parent-reported positive aspects of mobilization were clinical improvement of the child (70%), parent participation in care (46%), and increased alertness (38%).

Conclusions: Parent mobilization stress was correlated with other measures of parent stress and was associated with child-, parent-, and therapy-related factors. Parents identified positive and stressful aspects of mobilization therapy that can guide clinical care and educational interventions aimed at reducing parent stress and improving the implementation of mobilization therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2018-0155DOI Listing
April 2019

Mobilization Therapy in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Multidisciplinary Quality Improvement Initiative.

Am J Crit Care 2018 05;27(3):194-203

Blair R. L. Colwell is a pediatric critical care physician at University of California Davis, Sacramento, California. Cydni N. Williams is an assistant professor of pediatrics at Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon. Serena P. Kelly is an assistant professor of pediatrics at Oregon Health and Science University. Laura M. Ibsen is a professor of pediatrics and anesthesiology at Oregon Health and Science University.

Background: Mobilization is safe and associated with improved outcomes in critically ill adults, but little is known about mobilization of critically ill children.

Objective: To implement a standardized mobilization therapy protocol in a pediatric intensive care unit and improve mobilization of patients.

Methods: A goal-directed mobilization protocol was instituted as a quality improvement project in a 20-bed cardiac and medical-surgical pediatric intensive care unit within an academic tertiary care center. The mobilization goal was based on age and severity of illness. Data on severity of illness, ordered activity limitations, baseline functioning, mobilization level, complications of mobilization, and mobilization barriers were collected. Goal mobilization was defined as a ratio of mobilization level to severity of illness of 1 or greater.

Results: In 9 months, 567 patient encounters were analyzed, 294 (52%) of which achieved goal mobilization. The mean ratio of mobilization level to severity of illness improved slightly but nonsignificantly. Encounters that met mobilization goals were in younger ( = .04) and more ill ( < .001) patients and were less likely to have barriers ( < .001) than encounters not meeting the goals. Complication rate was 2.5%, with no difference between groups ( = .18). No serious adverse events occurred.

Conclusions: A multidisciplinary, multiprofessional, goal-directed mobilization protocol achieved goal mobilization in more than 50% of patients in this pediatric intensive care unit. Undermobilized patients were older, less ill, and more likely to have mobilization barriers at the patient and provider level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2018193DOI Listing
May 2018