Publications by authors named "Seongyop Lim"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Designing an ultrathin silica layer for highly durable carbon nanofibers as the carbon support in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

Nanoscale 2014 Oct 8;6(20):12111-9. Epub 2014 Sep 8.

Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon, 305-343, Republic of Korea.

A critical issue for maintaining long-term applications of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is the development of an innovative technique for the functionalization of a carbon support that preserves their exceptional electrical conductivity and robustly enriches their durability. Here, we report for the first time how the formation of a partially coated, ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the carbon nanofiber (CNF) helps improve the durability of the CNF without decreasing the significant electrical conductivity of the virgin CNF. The synthesis involved the adsorption of polycarbomethylsilane (PS) on the CNF's sidewalls, followed by high temperature pyrolysis of PS, resulting in a highly durable, conductive carbon support in PEFCs. The Pt nanoparticles are in direct contact with the surface of the carbon in the empty spaces between unevenly coated silica layers, which are not deposited directly onto the silica layer. The presence of a Pt nanoparticle layer that was thicker than the silica layer would be a quite advantageous circumstance that provides contact with other neighboring CNFs without having a significant adverse effect that deeply damages the electrical conductivity of the neighboring CNF composites with the silica layer. Furthermore, the ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the CNF provides great potential to reduce the presence of water molecules in the vicinity of the carbon supports and the ˙OH radicals formed on the surface of the Pt catalyst. As a result, the CNF with a 5 wt% silica layer that we prepared has had extremely high initial performance and durability under severe carbon corrosion conditions, starting up with 974 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V and ending up with more than 58% of the initial performance (i.e., 569 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V) after a 1.6 V holding test for 6 h. The beginning-of-life and end-of-life performances based on the virgin CNF without the silica layer were 981 and 340 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V, respectively. The CNF having a silica layer had long-term durability which was superior to that of the virgin CNF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4nr04293jDOI Listing
October 2014

Preparation and Characteristics of SiO Coated Carbon Nanotubes with High Surface Area.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2012 Jun 18;2(2):206-216. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343, Korea.

An easy method to synthesize SiO coated carbon nanotubes (SiO-CNT) through thermal decomposition of polycarbomethylsilane adsorbed on the surface of CNTs is reported. Physical properties of SiO-CNT samples depending on various Si contents and synthesis conditions are examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen isotherm, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Morphology of the SiO-CNT appears to be perfectly identical to that of the pristine CNT. It is confirmed that SiO is formed in a thin layer of approximately 1 nm thickness over the surface of CNTs. The specific surface area is significantly increased by the coating, because thin layer of SiO is highly porous. The surface properties such as porosity and thickness of SiO layers are found to be controlled by SiO contents and heat treatment conditions. The preparation method in this study is to provide useful nano-hybrid composite materials with multi-functional surface properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano2020206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5327897PMC
June 2012

Electrocatalytic effects of carbon dissolution in Pd nanoparticles.

Langmuir 2012 Feb 9;28(7):3664-70. Epub 2012 Feb 9.

Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343, Korea.

Highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles were prepared by borohydride reduction of Pd(acac)(2) in 1,2-propanediol at an elevated temperature. They were uniformly dispersed on carbon black without significant aggregation. X-ray diffraction showed that carbons from the Pd precursor dissolved in Pd, increasing its lattice parameter. A modified reduction process was tested to remove the carbon impurities. Carbon removal greatly enhanced catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction. It also generated an inconsistency between the electronic modifications obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the electrochemical method. CO displacement measurements showed that the formation of Pd-C bonds decreased the work function of the surface Pd atoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la2042668DOI Listing
February 2012

Electrochemical catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011 Jul;11(7):6350-8

Advanced Energy Technology, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333, Republic of Korea.

The electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs), which are synthesized directly from vaporized acetonitrile over nickel-iron based catalysts, for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), was investigated. The nitrogen content and specific surface area of N-CNFs can be controlled through the synthesis temperature (300-680 degrees C). The graphitization degree of N-CNFs also are significantly affected by the temperature, whereas the chemical compositions of nitrogen species are similar irrespective of the synthesis conditions. From measurement of the electrochemical double layer capacitance, the surface of N-CNFs is found to have stronger interaction with ions than undoped-carbon surfaces. Although N-CNFs show higher over-potential than Pt catalysts do, N-CNFs were observed to have a noticeable ORR activity, as opposed to the carbon samples without nitrogen doping. The activity dependency of N-CNFs on the content of the nitrogen with which they were doped is discussed, based on the experiment results. The single cell of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) was tested to investigate the performance of a membrane-electrode assembly that includes N-CNFs as the cathode catalyst layer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2011.4443DOI Listing
July 2011

Study on the water flooding in the cathode of direct methanol fuel cells.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011 Jul;11(7):5788-94

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, 305-701, Republic of Korea.

Water flooding phenomena in the cathode of direct methanol fuel cells were analyzed by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two kinds of commercial gas diffusion layers with different PTFE contents of 5 wt% (GDL A5) and 20 wt% (GDL B20) were used to investigate the water flooding under various operating conditions. Water flooding was divided into two types: catalyst flooding and backing flooding. The cathode impedance spectra of each gas diffusion layer was obtained and compared under the same conditions. The diameter of the capacitive semicircle became larger with increasing current density for both, and this increase was greater for GDL B20 than GDL A5. Catalyst flooding is dominant and backing flooding is negligible when the air flow rate is high and current density is low. An equivalent model was suggested and fitted to the experimental data. Parameters for catalyst flooding and backing flooding were individually obtained. The capacitance of the catalyst layer decreases as the air flow rate decreases when the catalyst flooding is dominant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2011.4504DOI Listing
July 2011

Characteristics of porous carbon nano-fibers synthesized by selective catalytic gasification.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011 Jul;11(7):5775-80

Advanced Energy Technology, University of Science and Technology (UST), 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333, Republic of Korea.

Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with uniquely oriented channels were prepared via selective catalytic gasification in air at 450 and 500 degrees C, using Pt or Ru nano particles as catalysts. Catalytic gasification was chosen because it can selectively generate channels in the vicinity of the catalyst particles at relatively low temperatures, where thermal oxidation does not intensively occur. The structures and surface properties of the CNFs were examined via X-ray diffraction, analysis of the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The effects of the catalyst species and loading amount on the formation of pores (channels) were investigated. The gasification mechanism, especially the channeling direction, throught the selection of the gasification catalysts, is discussed based on the results. This process can be effectively utilized for preparation of porous carbons, which have a well-aligned graphitic structure, and also channel-type pores can be designed by selection of gasification catalysts and conditions. The present porous CNF can be applied for catalyst support in fuel cells, without further treatment (e.g., acid treatment for the removal of metallic components).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2011.4452DOI Listing
July 2011

Preparation of mesoporous carbon-carbon nanotube composites using the template method.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011 Jul;11(7):5761-8

Advanced Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 102 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343, Republic of Korea.

Reported herein is a simple template method for preparing mesoporous carbons (MPCs) from a mesophase pitch, using homemade nano-sized MgOs and MgO-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites as templates. Nano-sized MgO particles containing iron-molybdenum were synthesized through the heat treatment of the precursor ash, and the MgO-CNT composites were prepared via catalytic chemical vapor deposition of CH4 over the MgO-based particles. MPCs with a high surface area of 443-578 m2/g were obtained through the heat treatment of well-mixed mesophase pitch-MgO (or MgO-CNT), followed by mild-acid treatment to remove the MgO and other catalyst components. All the materials (the precursors, nano-particles, and MPCs) were analyzed via powder X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the pore structure in the MPCs is discussed, and the potential application of the MPC-CNT composite is demonstrated through cyclic voltammetry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2011.4448DOI Listing
July 2011

Direct synthesis and structural analysis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers.

Langmuir 2009 Jul;25(14):8268-73

Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan.

Carbon nanofibers containing a range of nitrogen contents of 1-10 atom % were directly synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition over nickel-based catalysts at 350-600 degrees C using acetonitrile and acrylonitrile. The nitrogen content was controlled by careful choice of the reaction conditions. The N-doped carbon nanofibers showed herringbone structure with 20-60 nm diameter. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was applied to examine the chemical state of nitrogen in carbon nanofibers. Structural features of N-doped carbon nanofibers were examined in X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The mechanism for nitrogen including the structure of carbon nanofibers through the catalysis was discussed on the basis of the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la900472dDOI Listing
July 2009

Synthesis and growth mechanism of pentagonal bipyramid-shaped gold-rich Au/Ag alloy nanoparticles.

Langmuir 2007 May 1;23(11):6372-6. Epub 2007 May 1.

Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, and Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580, Japan.

Pentagonal bipyramid-shaped gold-rich Au/Ag alloy nanoparticles are synthesized in ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of small amounts of AgNO3 and PVP without using Au seeds. The contents of Au and Ag in pentagonal nanobipyramids are determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS data demonstrates that this kind of nanoparticles is composed of Au/Ag alloys, not silver monolayers simply covering the surface of Au nanoparticles. Insights into the growth mechanism of pentagonal bipyramid-shaped gold-rich Au/Ag alloy nanoparticles are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la063662wDOI Listing
May 2007

Fast preparation of PtRu catalysts supported on carbon nanofibers by the microwave-polyol method and their application to fuel cells.

Langmuir 2007 Jan;23(2):387-90

Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580, Japan.

PtRu alloy nanoparticles (24 +/- 1 wt %, Ru/Pt atomic ratios = 0.91-0.97) supported on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared within a few minutes by using a microwave-polyol method. Three types of CNFs with very different surface structures, such as platelet, herringbone, and tubular ones, were used as new carbon supports. The dependence of particles sizes and electrochemical properties on the structures of CNFs was examined. It was found that the methanol fuel cell activities of PtRu/CNF catalysts were in the order of platelet > tubular > herringbone. The methanol fuel cell activities of PtRu/CNFs measured at 60 degrees C were 1.7-3.0 times higher than that of a standard PtRu (29 wt %, Ru/Pt atomic ratio = 0.92) catalyst loaded on carbon black (Vulcan XC72R) support. The best electrocatalytic activity was obtained for the platelet CNF, which is characterized by its edge surface and high graphitization degree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la062223uDOI Listing
January 2007

Electrochemical capacitances of well-defined carbon surfaces.

Langmuir 2006 Oct;22(22):9086-8

Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764, South Korea.

Reported is the capacitive behavior of homogeneous and well-defined surfaces of pristine carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and surface-modified CNFs. The capacitances of the well-defined CNFs were measured with cyclic voltammetry to correlate the surface structure with capacitance. Among the studied pristine CNFs, the edge surfaces of platelet CNFs (PCNF) and herringbone CNFs were more effective in capacitive charging than the basal plane surface of tubular CNF by a factor of 3-5. Graphitization of PCNF (GPCNF) changed the edge surface of PCNF into a domelike basal plane surface, and the corresponding capacitances decreased from 12.5 to 3.2 F/g. A chemical oxidation of the GPCNF, however, recovered a clear edge surface by removal of the curved basal planes to increase the capacitance to 5.6 F/g. The difference in the contribution of the edge surface and basal-plane surface to the capacitance of CNF was discussed in terms of the anisotropic conductivity of graphitic materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la061380qDOI Listing
October 2006

Surface control of activated carbon fiber by growth of carbon nanofiber.

Langmuir 2004 Jun;20(13):5559-63

Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan.

Carbon nanofiber/activated carbon fiber (CNF/ACF) composites with multifunctional surfaces were prepared through catalytic growth of CNFs on an ACF. Because of selective deposition of catalyst particles in ACF micropores, partial oxidation of ACF after catalyst impregnation was a critical step to control the surface area of the CNF/ACF composites, of which the surface functions can be synergistically performed by both the microporous surface of ACF and free edges of CNFs. CNF/ACF composites of this study are expected to provide an improved performance in SOx or NOx removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la036077tDOI Listing
June 2004

omega-Amino acid:pyruvate transaminase from Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2: a new catalyst for kinetic resolution of beta-amino acids and amines.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2004 Apr;70(4):2529-34

Institute for Molecular Biology and Genetics and School of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2 was obtained by selective enrichment followed by screening from soil samples, which showed omega-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase activity, to kinetically resolve aliphatic beta-amino acid, and the corresponding structural gene (aptA) was cloned. The gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 by using an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible pET expression system (9.6 U/mg), and the recombinant AptA was purified to show a specific activity of 77.2 U/mg for L-beta-amino-n-butyric acid (L-beta-ABA). The enzyme converts various beta-amino acids and amines to the corresponding beta-keto acids and ketones by using pyruvate as an amine acceptor. The apparent K(m) and V(max) for L-beta-ABA were 56 mM and 500 U/mg, respectively, in the presence of 10 mM pyruvate. In the presence of 10 mM L-beta-ABA, the apparent K(m) and V(max) for pyruvate were 11 mM and 370 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme exhibits high stereoselectivity (E > 80) in the kinetic resolution of 50 mM D,L-beta-ABA, producing optically pure D-beta-ABA (99% enantiomeric excess) with 53% conversion.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC383019PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.70.4.2529-2534.2004DOI Listing
April 2004
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