Publications by authors named "Seongwon Seo"

33 Publications

Development of a model to predict dietary metabolizable energy from digestible energy in beef cattle.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jul;99(7)

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2471, USA.

Understanding the utilization of feed energy is essential for precision feeding in beef cattle production. We aimed to assess whether predicting the metabolizable energy (ME) to digestible energy (DE) ratio (MDR), rather than a prediction of ME with DE, is feasible and to develop a model equation to predict MDR in beef cattle. We constructed a literature database based on published data. A meta-analysis was conducted with 306 means from 69 studies containing both dietary DE and ME concentrations measured by calorimetry to test whether exclusion of the y-intercept is adequate in the linear relationship between DE and ME. A random coefficient model with study as the random variable was used to develop equations to predict MDR in growing and finishing beef cattle. Routinely measured or calculated variables in the field (body weight, age, daily gain, intake, and dietary nutrient components) were chosen as explanatory variables. The developed equations were evaluated with other published equations. The no-intercept linear equation was found to represent the relationship between DE and ME more appropriately than the equation with a y-intercept. The y-intercept (-0.025 ± 0.0525) was not different from 0 (P = 0.638), and Akaike and Bayesian information criteria of the no-intercept model were smaller than those with the y-intercept. Within our growing and finishing cattle data, the animal's physiological stage was not a significant variable affecting MDR after accounting for the study effect (P = 0.213). The mean (±SE) of MDR was 0.849 (±0.0063). The best equation for predicting MDR (n = 106 from 28 studies) was 0.9410 ( ± 0.02160) +0.0042 ( ± 0.00186) × DMI (kg) - 0.0017 ( ± 0.00024) × NDF(% DM) - 0.0022 ( ± 0.00084) × CP(% DM). We also presented a model with a positive coefficient for the ether extract (n = 80 from 22 studies). When using these equations, the observed ME was predicted with high precision (R2 = 0.92). The model accuracy was also high, as shown by the high concordance correlation coefficient (>0.95) and small root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), <5% of the observed mean. Moreover, a significant portion of the RMSEP was due to random bias (> 93%), without mean or slope bias (P > 0.05). We concluded that dietary ME in beef cattle could be accurately estimated from dietary DE and its conversion factor, MDR, predicted by the dry matter intake and concentration of several dietary nutrients, using the 2 equations developed in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292960PMC
July 2021

Effects of β-Mannanase and Bacteriophage Supplementation on Health and Growth Performance of Holstein Calves.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34143, Korea.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with bacteriophage and β-mannanase on health and growth performance in calves. Thirty-six pre-weaning male Holstein calves were randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: no supplementation, 0.1% β-mannanase, 0.1% bacteriophage, and both 0.1% bacteriophage and 0.1% β-mannanase supplementation in a starter on a dry matter basis. The experiment lasted from 2 weeks before weaning to 8 weeks after weaning. Twenty-two calves survived to the end of the experiment. No interaction was observed between the two different feed additives. The bacteriophage supplementation tended to increase the odds ratio of survival ( = 0.09). The number of in feces significantly decreased by bacteriophage supplementation one week after weaning. β-mannanase supplementation increased the concentrate intake ( < 0.01) and tended to increase the final BW ( = 0.08). Analysis of repeated measures indicated β-mannanase supplementation increased weekly body weight gain ( = 0.018). We conclude that bacteriophage supplementation may have a positive effect on calf survival rate, while β-mannanase supplementation may increase the growth rate and starter intake by calves just before and after weaning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912937PMC
February 2021

Multi-tissue transcriptomic analysis reveals that L-methionine supplementation maintains the physiological homeostasis of broiler chickens than D-methionine under acute heat stress.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(1):e0246063. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with two methionine isoforms, L-methionine (L-Met) or D-methionine (D-Met), on transcriptome expression in broiler chickens under acute heat stress. A total of 240 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: thermo-neutral vs. acute heat-stress and L-Met vs. D-Met supplementation. On day 14, the heat-stressed group was exposed to 32°C for 5 h, while the others remained at 25°C. Six chicks were randomly selected per treatment and total RNA was isolated from whole blood, ileum, and liver tissues. Two RNA samples from each tissue of each treatment group were randomly selected and pooled in equal amounts. A total of 1.87 billion raw reads obtained from 36 samples (four treatments × three tissues × three composited replicates) were mapped to the reference genome build (Gallus_gallus-5.0) and used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using DESeq2. Functional enrichment of DEGs was tested using DAVID. Comparing the two isoforms of supplemented methionine, two, three, and ten genes were differentially expressed (> 1 or < -1 log2 fold change) in whole blood, ileum, and liver, respectively. A total of 38, 71, and 16 genes were differentially expressed in response to the interaction between heat stress and Met isoforms in the blood, ileum, and liver, respectively. Three-tissue-specific DEGs were functionally enriched for regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and metabolism, glucose metabolism, and vascular patterning. Chicks fed with L-Met had lower immune (e.g., IL4I1 and SERPINI1) and intestinal angiogenic responses (e.g., FLT1 and FGD5), and stable glucose and lipid metabolism (e.g., PCK1 and LDLR) under heat stress conditions. In conclusion, unlike D-Met, L-Met supplementation seems to help maintain physiological homeostasis and enhances cellular defense systems against external stresses like high environmental temperature.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246063PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840013PMC
June 2021

Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance in the / Complex (SBSEC) Isolated from Korean Domestic Ruminants.

Microorganisms 2021 Jan 4;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

/ complex (SBSEC) includes lactic acid-producing bacteria considered as the causative agent associated with acute rumen lactic acidosis in intensive ruminants. Considering the limited information on the detailed characteristics and diversity of SBSEC in Korea and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), we investigated the diversity of SBSEC from domestic ruminants and verified the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) against several antimicrobials with their phenotypic resistance. Among 51 SBSEC isolates collected, two SBSEC members ( and ) were identified; -based phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of overall genome relatedness revealed potential plasticity and diversity. The AMR rates of these SBSEC against erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline were relatively lower than those of other SBSEC isolates of a clinical origin. An investigation of the ARGs against those antimicrobials indicated that tetracycline resistance of SBSECs generally correlated with the presence of -possessing transposon. However, no correlation between the presence of ARGs and phenotypic resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed. Although a limited number of animals and their SBSEC isolates were examined, this study provides insights into the potential intraspecies biodiversity of ruminant-origin SBSEC and the current status on antimicrobial resistance of the bacteria in the Korean livestock industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824528PMC
January 2021

Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms related to heifer fertility in Hanwoo (Korean cattle).

Anim Biotechnol 2020 Dec 7:1-6. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accelerated the identification of functional trait loci in cattle and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in high milk yield dairy cattle. The fertility of Hanwoo (Korean native beef cattle) has declined after the adaptation of a selection program for high quantity and quality meat. However, there are few GWAS studies of fertility in beef cattle. We performed a genome-wide association study of 40 Korean native beef cattle heifers with imputed 770 K genotype and identified 12 significant SNPs within seven regions on three chromosomes (BTA 8, BTA 16 and BTA 24) associated with services per conception (SPC). Five SNPs were located in the , and genes, which are involved in early embryo development. In addition, 27 proximal genes were identified within 1 Mb of the candidate SNPs, which are involved in muscle cell differentiation and muscle structure development. However, we did not find any previously reported SNPs related to fertility in Holstein cows. Taken together, we identified SNPs associated with SPC and their proximal genes using gene-based analysis and the candidates were different from SNPs associated with subfertility of dairy cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2020.1856124DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of the equation for predicting dry matter intake of lactating dairy cows in the Korean feeding standards for dairy cattle.

Anim Biosci 2021 Oct 9;34(10):1623-1631. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: This study aimed to validate and evaluate the dry matter (DM) intake prediction model of the Korean feeding standards for dairy cattle (KFSD).

Methods: The KFSD DM intake (DMI) model was developed using a database containing the data from the Journal of Dairy Science from 2006 to 2011 (1,065 observations 287 studies). The development (458 observations from 103 studies) and evaluation databases (168 observations from 74 studies) were constructed from the database. The body weight (kg; BW), metabolic BW (BW0.75, MBW), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM), forage as a percentage of dietary DM, and the dietary content of nutrients (% DM) were chosen as possible explanatory variables. A random coefficient model with the study as a random variable and a linear model without the random effect was used to select model variables and estimate parameters, respectively, during the model development. The best-fit equation was compared to published equations, and sensitivity analysis of the prediction equation was conducted. The KFSD model was also evaluated using in vivo feeding trial data.

Results: The KFSD DMI equation is 4.103 (±2.994)+0.112 (±0.022)×MBW+0.284 (±0.020) ×FCM-0.119 (±0.028)×neutral detergent fiber (NDF), explaining 47% of the variation in the evaluation dataset with no mean nor slope bias (p>0.05). The root mean square prediction error was 2.70 kg/d, best among the tested equations. The sensitivity analysis showed that the model is the most sensitive to FCM, followed by MBW and NDF. With the in vivo data, the KFSD equation showed slightly higher precision (R2 = 0.39) than the NRC equation (R2 = 0.37), with a mean bias of 1.19 kg and no slope bias (p>0.05).

Conclusion: The KFSD DMI model is suitable for predicting the DMI of lactating dairy cows in practical situations in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.20.0684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495351PMC
October 2021

Clustering and Characterization of the Lactation Curves of Dairy Cows Using -Medoids Clustering Algorithm.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Aug 4;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The aim of the study was to group the lactation curve (LC) of Holstein cows in several clusters based on their milking characteristics and to investigate physiological differences among the clusters. Milking data of 330 lactations which have a milk yield per day during entire lactation period were used. The data were obtained by refinement from 1332 lactations from 724 cows collected from commercial farms. Based on the similarity measures, clustering was performed using the -medoids algorithm; the number of clusters was determined to be six, following the elbow method. Significant differences on parity, peak milk yield, DIM at peak milk yield, and average and total milk yield ( < 0.01) were observed among the clusters. Four clusters, which include 82% of data, show typical LC patterns. The other two clusters represent atypical patterns. Comparing to the LCs generated from the previous models, Wood, Wilmink and Dijsktra, it is observed that the prediction errors in the atypical patterns of the two clusters are much larger than those of the other four cases of typical patterns. The presented model can be used as a tool to refine characterization on the typical LC patterns, excluding atypical patterns as exceptional cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10081348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460393PMC
August 2020

Analysis of the Factors Influencing Body Weight Variation in Hanwoo Steers Using an Automated Weighing System.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 25;10(8). Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

This study aimed to determine the factors affecting the body weight (BW) of Hanwoo steers by collecting a large number of BW measurements using an automated weighing system (AWS). The BW of 12 Hanwoo steers was measured automatically using an AWS for seven days each month over three months. On the fourth day of the BW measurement each month, an additional BW measurement was conducted manually. After removing the outliers of BW records, the deviations between the AWS records (a) and manual weighing records (b) were analyzed. BW measurement deviations (a - b) were significantly ( < 0.05) affected by month, day and the time within a day as well as the individual animal factor; however, unexplained random variations had the greatest impact (70.4%). Excluding unexplained random variations, the difference between individual steers was the most influential (80.1%). During the day, the BW of Hanwoo steers increased before feed offerings and significantly decreased immediately after ( < 0.05), despite the constant availability of feeds in the feed bunk. These results suggest that there is a need to develop pattern recognition algorithms that consider variations in individual animals and their feeding patterns for the analysis of BW changes in animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10081270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459716PMC
July 2020

Evaluation of the Associative Effects of Rice Straw with Timothy Hay and Corn Grain Using an In Vitro Ruminal Gas Production Technique.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Feb 18;10(2). Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the associative effects of rice straw with timothy hay and corn grain. Using an automated gas production system, in vitro ruminal fermentation was studied for six substrates: 100% rice straw, 100% timothy hay, 100% corn grain, 50% rice straw and 50% timothy hay, 50% rice straw and 50% corn grain, and 50% rice straw, 25% timothy hay, and 25% corn grain. Incubation was performed in three batches with different rumen fluids to assess the in vitro ruminal gas production kinetics and rumen parameters (pH, NH-N, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and true dry matter digestibility (TDMD)). The associated effects were tested by comparing the observed values of the composited feeds and the weighted means of individual feeds. There was a significant increase in NH-N when rice straw was fermented with timothy hay, corn grain, or both (p < 0.05). TDMD increased when corn grain was co-fermented, and the total gas and VFA production increased when all three feeds were co-fermented. We conclude that the feed value of rice straw increases when fed to animals along with timothy hay and corn grain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10020325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070901PMC
February 2020

Differential Effects of Dietary Methionine Isomers on Broilers Challenged with Acute Heat Stress.

J Poult Sci 2019 Jul;56(3):195-203

CJ Cheil Jedang Corporation, 330, Dongho-ro, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100-400, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we investigated the effect of methionine isomers (D- and L-methionine) on growth performance, blood metabolite levels, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and foot pad dermatitis in broilers challenged with acute heat stress. In total, 240 broilers were randomly allocated in a 2×2 factorial arrangement consisting of two dietary treatments (D- vs. L-methionine) and two thermal environmental conditions (thermo-neutral vs. acute heat stress). Methionine isomers were added to the diet as an ingredient according to the diet formulation. The broilers were exposed to acute heat stress at 33°C for 5 h on day 14. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of birds fed L-methionine were higher than those fed D-methionine (<0.05) from the time of hatching till 21 days. Induced acute heat stress impaired (<0.05) the daily gain and feed intake of the broilers on day 21. Furthermore, the blood urea nitrogen levels of birds subjected to acute heat stress on days 14 and 21 were higher (<0.05) than those of their counterparts. Longer villi (<0.05) were observed in broilers fed L-methionine-supplemented diet than in those fed D-methionine-supplemented diet on day 14, irrespective of thermal environmental conditions. Heat stress reduced (<0.01) nutrient digestibility of the broilers on days 14 and 21. Higher incidence and severity of foot pad dermatitis were observed (<0.05) in broilers fed diet containing D-methionine than in those fed L-methionine-supplemented diet. In conclusion, L-methionine-supplemented diet improved growth performance, overcame growth depression, and reduced the incidence of foot pad dermatitis when broilers were exposed to acute heat stress in the starter period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0180072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005384PMC
July 2019

Effects of reducing inclusion rate of roughages by changing roughage sources and concentrate types on intake, growth, rumen fermentation characteristics, and blood parameters of Hanwoo growing cattle (Bos Taurus coreanae).

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019 Nov 26;32(11):1705-1714. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: Reducing roughage feeding without negatively affecting rumen health is of interest in ruminant nutrition. We investigated the effects of roughage sources and concentrate types on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolite levels in growing cattle.

Methods: In this 24-week trial, 24 Hanwoo cattle (224±24.7 kg) were fed similar nitrous and energy levels of total mixed ration formulated using two kinds of roughage (timothy hay and ryegrass straw) and two types of concentrate mixes (high starch [HS] and high fiber [HF]). The treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial, consisting of 32% timothy-68% HS, 24% timothy-76% HF, 24% ryegrass-76% HS, and 17% ryegrass-83% HF. Daily feed intakes were measured. Every four weeks, blood were sampled, and body weight was measured before morning feeding. Every eight weeks, rumen fluid was collected using a stomach tube over five consecutive days.

Results: The mean dry matter intake (7.33 kg) and average daily gain (1,033 g) did not differ among treatments. However, significant interactions between roughage source and concentrate type were observed for the rumen and blood parameters (p<0.05). Total volatile fatty acid concentration was highest (p<0.05) in timothy-HF-fed calves. With ryegrass as the roughage source, decreasing the roughage inclusion rate increased the molar proportion of propionate and decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio; the opposite was observed with timothy as the roughage source. Similarly, the effects of concentrate types on plasma total protein, alanine transaminase, Ca, inorganic P, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and creatinine concentrations differed with roughage source (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Decreasing the dietary roughage inclusion rate by replacing forage neutral detergent fiber with that from non-roughage fiber source might be a feasible feeding practice in growing cattle. A combination of low-quality roughage with a high fiber concentrate might be economically beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6817784PMC
November 2019

Identification of meat quality-related differentially methylated regions in the DNA of the muscle in pig.

Anim Biotechnol 2020 Jun 6;31(3):189-194. Epub 2019 May 6.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

The objective of this study was to investigate the association of DNA methylation with postmortem energy metabolism and the pH of the porcine muscle (LDM). Analysis of the DNA methylome of eight LDM samples (four pairs of the highest and lowest pH among littermates) identified a total of 3468 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between high and low pH samples ( ≤ 0.001). Of DMRs, 45.3% co-mapped with quantitative trait loci known to be associated with meat pH and postmortem metabolism. Among the DMRs, 203 hyper-methylated regions (HR) and 190 hypo-methylated regions (HO) were identified for the high pH group compared to the low pH. Furthermore, 44 and 21 protein-coding genes contained HR and HO in their gene body, respectively. It was revealed that , , and , which encode core enzymes in postmortem energy metabolism, contained HR or HO in their gene body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2019.1604378DOI Listing
June 2020

The co-injection of antioxidants with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination altered growth performance and blood parameters of finishing Holstein steers.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019 Jun 29;32(6):792-799. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate whether the co-injection of antioxidants together with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination has the potential to attenuate the negative effects caused by vaccination in Holstein finishing steers.

Methods: A total of 36 finishing Holstein steers (body weight [BW]: 608±45.6 kg, 17 months old) were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: i) control (CON, only FMD vaccination without any co-injection), ii) co-injection of commercial non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) with FMD vaccination at a ratio of 10:1 (NSAID vol/FMD vaccine vol) as a positive control (PCON), iii) co-injection of commercial mixture of vitamin E and selenium with FMD vaccination (VITESEL) (1 mL of FMD vaccine+1 mL of antioxidants per 90 kg of BW). Changes in growth performance and blood parameters because of treatments were determined.

Results: No significant difference in BW, average daily gain, and dry matter intake of the steers was observed among the treatments. The FMD vaccination significantly increased white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, platelets, and mean platelet volume (p<0.01) in blood analysis. The count of lymphocyte tended to increase after vaccination (p = 0.08). In blood analysis, steers in VITESEL tended to have higher numbers of WBC, neutrophils, and platelets compared to that of other treatments (p = 0.09, 0.06, and 0.09, respectively). Eosinophils in VITESEL were higher than those in PCON (p<0.01). Among blood metabolites, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate transaminase were significantly increased, but cholesterol, alanine transferase, inorganic phosphorus, Mg, and albumin were decreased after FMD vaccination (p<0.01).

Conclusion: The use of antioxidants in FMD vaccination did not attenuate growth disturbance because of FMD vaccination. The metabolic changes induced by vaccination were not controlled by the administration of antioxidants. The protective function of antioxidants was effective mainly on the cell counts of leukocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6498087PMC
June 2019

Effects of short-term fasting on in vivo rumen microbiota and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019 06 13;32(6):776-782. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea.

Objective: Fasting may lead to changes in the microbiota and activity in the rumen. In the present study, the effects of fasting on rumen microbiota and the impact of fasting on in vitro rumen fermentation were evaluated using molecular culture-independent methods.

Methods: Three ruminally cannulated Holstein steers were fed rice straw and concentrates. The ruminal fluids were obtained from the same steers 2 h after the morning feeding (control) and 24 h after fasting (fasting). The ruminal fluid was filtrated through four layers of muslin, collected for a culture-independent microbial analysis, and used to determine the in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. Total DNA was extracted from both control and fasting ruminal fluids. The rumen microbiota was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Microbial activity was evaluated in control and fasting steers at various intervals using in vitro batch culture with rice straw and concentrate at a ratio of 60:40.

Results: Fasting for 24 h slightly affected the microbiota structure in the rumen as determined by DGGE. Additionally, several microorganisms, including Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Eubacterium ruminantium, Prevotella albensis, Prevotella ruminicola, and Ruminobacter amylophilus, decreased in number after fasting. In addition, using the ruminal fluid as the inoculum after 24 h of fasting, the fermentation characteristics differed from those obtained using non-fasted ruminal fluid. Compared with the control, the fasting showed higher total gas production, ammonia, and microbial protein production (p<0.05). No significant differences, however, was observed in pH and dry matter digestibility.

Conclusion: When in vitro techniques are used to evaluate feed, the use of the ruminal fluid from fasted animals should be used with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6498081PMC
June 2019

Changes in the ruminal fermentation and bacterial community structure by a sudden change to a high-concentrate diet in Korean domestic ruminants.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019 Jan 26;32(1):92-102. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: To investigate changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and bacterial community by a sudden change to a high concentrate diet (HC) in Korean domestic ruminants.

Methods: Major Korean domestic ruminants (each of four Hanwoo cows; 545.5±33.6 kg, Holstein cows; 516.3±42.7 kg, and Korean native goats; 19.1±1.4 kg) were used in this experiment. They were housed individually and were fed ad libitum with a same TMR (800 g/kg timothy hay and 200 g/kg concentrate mix) twice daily. After two-week feeding, only the concentrate mix was offered for one week in order to induce rapid rumen acidosis. The rumen fluid was collected from each animals twice (on week 2 and week 3) at 2 h after morning feeding using an oral stomach tube. Each collected rumen fluid was analyzed for pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and NH3-N. In addition, differences in microbial community among ruminant species and between normal and an acidosis condition were assessed using two culture-independent 16S polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative real-time PCR).

Results: The HC decreased ruminal pH and altered relative concentrations of ruminal VFA (p<0.01). Total VFA concentration increased in Holstein cows only (p<0.01). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time quantitative PCR analysis using culture-independent 16S PCR-based techniques, revealed rumen bacterial diversity differed by species but not by HC (p<0.01); bacterial diversity was higher in Korean native goats than that in Holstein cows. HC changed the relative populations of rumen bacterial species. Specifically, the abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes was decreased while Lactobacillus spp. and Megasphaera elsdenii were increased (p<0.01).

Conclusion: The HC altered the relative populations, but not diversity, of the ruminal bacterial community, which differed by ruminant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325399PMC
January 2019

- Editorial - Guidelines for experimental design and statistical analyses in animal studies submitted for publication in the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018 Sep 26;31(9):1381-1386. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, Seoul 08776, Korea.

Animal experiments are essential to the study of animal nutrition. Because of the large variations among individual animals and ethical and economic constraints, experimental designs and statistical analyses are particularly important in animal experiments. To increase the scientific validity of the results and maximize the knowledge gained from animal experiments, each experiment should be appropriately designed, and the observations need to be correctly analyzed and transparently reported. There are many experimental designs and statistical methods. This editorial does not aim to review and present particular experimental designs and statistical methods. Instead, we discuss some essential elements when designing an animal experiment and conducting statistical analyses in animal nutritional studies and provide guidelines for submitting a manuscript to the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences for consideration for publication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6127574PMC
September 2018

Molecular cloning, purification, expression, and characterization of β-1, 4-endoglucanase gene () from sp. isolated from Holstein steers' rumen.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018 Apr 18;31(4):607-615. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute, Department of Animal Science, Pusan National University, Miryang 50463, Korea.

Objective: This study was conducted to isolate the cellulolytic microorganism from the rumen of Holstein steers and characterize endoglucanase gene () from the isolated microorganism.

Methods: To isolate anaerobic microbes having endoglucanase, rumen fluid was obtained from Holstein steers fed roughage diet. The isolated anaerobic bacteria had 98% similarity with () Ce2 (Accession number: AB163733). The from isolated sp. was cloned using the published genome sequence and expressed through the BL21.

Results: The maximum activity of recombinant () was observed at 50°C and pH 4.0. The enzyme was constant at the temperature range of 20°C to 40°C but also, at the pH range of 3 to 9. The metal ions including Ca, K, Ni, Mg, and Fe increased the endoglucanase activity but the addition of Mn, Cu, and Zn decreased. The Km and Vmax value of were 14.05 mg/mL and 45.66 μmol/min/mg. Turnover number, Kcat and catalytic efficiency, Kcat/Km values of was 96.69 (s) and 6.88 (mL/mg/s), respectively.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that of isolated from Holstein steers had a broad pH range with high stability under various conditions, which might be one of the beneficial characteristics of this enzyme for possible industrial application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5838334PMC
April 2018

Characterization and functional inferences of a genome-wide DNA methylation profile in the loin () muscle of swine.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018 Jan 14;31(1):3-12. Epub 2017 May 14.

Department of Animal Biosystem Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: DNA methylation plays a major role in regulating the expression of genes related to traits of economic interest (e.g., weight gain) in livestock animals. This study characterized and investigated the functional inferences of genome-wide DNA methylome in the loin () muscle (LDM) of swine.

Methods: A total of 8.99 Gb methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequence data were obtained from LDM samples of eight Duroc pigs (four pairs of littermates). The reference pig genome was annotated with 78.5% of the raw reads. A total of 33,506 putative methylated regions (PMR) were identified from methylated regions that overlapped at least two samples.

Results: Of these, only 3.1% were commonly observed in all eight samples. DNA methylation patterns between two littermates were as diverse as between unrelated individuals (p = 0.47), indicating that maternal genetic effects have little influence on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM. The highest density of PMR was observed on chromosome 10. A major proportion (47.7%) of PMR was present in the repeat regions, followed by introns (21.5%). The highest conservation of PMR was found in CpG islands (12.1%). These results show an important role for DNA methylation in species- and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. PMR were also significantly related to muscular cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism.

Conclusion: This study indicated the biased distribution and functional role of DNA methylation in gene expression of porcine LDM. DNA methylation was related to cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism (e.g., insulin signaling pathways). Nutritional and environmental management may have a significant impact on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756920PMC
January 2018

Social relationships enhance the time spent eating and intake of a novel diet in pregnant Hanwoo () heifers.

PeerJ 2017 9;5:e3329. Epub 2017 May 9.

Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of social relationships on the feed intake, eating behavior, and growth, upon exposure to a novel diet, in Hanwoo () heifers during pregnancy. Twenty-four pregnant Hanwoo heifers, averaging 438 ± 27.8 kg in weight, 21 months in age, and 194 ± 8.5 days in pregnancy, were involved in a two-month (eight weeks) experiment. The heifers were randomly assigned to either the single housing group (SG; one individual per pen, = 12), or the paired housing group (PG; two individuals per pen, = 12). All pens were of the same size (5 × 5 m) and provided with one feed bin, which automatically recorded the individual feed intake and eating behavior. As the experiment began, the diet of the heifers was switched from a total mixed ration (TMR; 250 g/kg ryegrass straw and 750 g/kg concentrate mix) to a forage-only diet (mixed hay cubes composed of 500 g/kg alfalfa, 250 g/kg timothy, and 250 g/kg blue grass hay). The heifers were fed ad libitum twice a day. The individual feed intake and eating behavior were recorded daily throughout the experiment, and body weights (BWs) were measured every four weeks before the morning feeding. PG animals visited the feed bin 22% less often than SG. PG, however, stayed 39% longer in the feed bin and consumed 40% more feed per visit, compared with SG. Consequently, PG heifers spent 23% more time in eating and had 16% more daily dry matter intake than SG during the experiment. Average daily gain during the experimental period tended to be greater in PG than in SG. When pregnant Hanwoo heifers encountered a novel diet, social relationships (i.e., presence of a pen-mate) enhanced their time spent eating and feed intake. Social interactions, even with an unfamiliar individual, may be helpful for pregnant Hanwoo heifers cope with a diet challenge compared to solitary situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5426355PMC
May 2017

Evaluation of the nutritional value of locally produced forage in Korea using chemical analysis and ruminal fermentation.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017 Mar 24;30(3):355-362. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

Objective: The use of locally produced forage (LPF) in cattle production has economic and environmental advantages over imported forage. The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional value of LPF commonly used in Korea. Differences in ruminal fermentation characteristics were also examined for the LPF species commonly produced from two major production regions: Chungcheong and Jeolla.

Methods: Ten LPF (five from each of the two regions) and six of the most widely used imported forages originating from North America were obtained at least three times throughout a year. Each forage species was pooled and analyzed for nutrient content using detailed chemical analysis. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined by anaerobic incubations using strained rumen fluid for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. At each incubation time, total gas, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were measured. By fitting an exponential model, gas production kinetics were obtained.

Results: Significant differences were found in the non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) content among the forage species and the regions (p<0.01). No nutrient, other than NFC, showed significant differences among the regions. Crude protein, NFC, and acid detergent lignin significantly differed by forage species. The amount of acid detergent insoluble protein tended to differ among the forages. The forages produced in Chungcheong had a higher amount of NFC than that in Jeolla (p<0.05). There were differences in ruminal fermentation of LPF between the two regions and interactions between regions and forage species were also significant (p<0.05). The pH following a 48-h ruminal fermentation was lower in the forages from Chungcheong than from Jeolla (p<0.01), and total VFA concentration was higher in Chungcheong than in Jeolla (p = 0.05). This implies that fermentation was more active with the forages from Chungcheong than from Jeolla. Analysis of gas production profiles showed the rate of fermentation differed among forage species (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the nutritional values of some LPF (i.e., corn silage and Italian ryegrass) are comparable to those of imported forages widely used in Korea. This study also indicated that the nutritional value of LPF differs by origin, as well as by forage species. Detailed analyses of nutrient composition and digestion kinetics of LPF should be routinely employed to evaluate the correct nutritional value of LPF and to increase their use in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5337914PMC
March 2017

Evaluation of feed value of a by-product of pickled radish for ruminants: analyses of nutrient composition, storage stability, and in vitro ruminal fermentation.

J Anim Sci Technol 2016 16;58:34. Epub 2016 Sep 16.

Division of Animal & Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: By-products of pickled radish (BPR) are considered food waste. Approximately 300 g/kg of the total mass of raw materials becomes BPR. Production of pickled radish has grown continuously and is presently about 40,000 metric tons annually in Korea. The objective of the present study was thus to explore the possibility of using BPR as a ruminant feed ingredient.

Results: BPR contained a large amount of moisture (more than 800 g/kg) and ash, and comprised mostly sodium (103 g/kg DM) and chloride (142 g/kg DM). On a dry matter basis, the crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) levels in BPR were 75 g/kg and 7 g/kg, respectively. The total digestible nutrient (TDN) level was 527 g/kg and the major portion of digestible nutrients was carbohydrate; 88 % organic matter (OM) was carbohydrate and 65 % of total carbohydrate was soluble or degradable fiber. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nutrient contents among production batches ranged from 4.65 to 33.83 %. The smallest CV was observed in OM, and the largest, in EE. The variation in CP content was relatively small (10.11 %). The storage stability test revealed that storage of BPR at 20 °C (room temperature) might not cause spoilage for 4 d, and possibly longer. If BPR is refrigerated, spoilage can be deferred for 21 d and longer. The in vitro ruminal fermentation study showed that substitution of annual ryegrass straw with BPR improved ruminal fermentation, as evidenced by an increase in VFA concentration, DM degradability, and total gas production.

Conclusion: The major portion of nutrients in BPR is soluble or degradable fiber that can be easily fermented in the rumen without adverse effects, to provide energy to ruminant animals. Although its high sodium chloride content needs to be considered when formulating a ration, BPR can be successfully used as a feed ingredient in a ruminant diet, particularly if it is one component of a total mixed ration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-016-0117-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5025557PMC
September 2016

Comparison of models for estimating methane emission factor for enteric fermentation of growing-finishing Hanwoo steers.

Springerplus 2016 29;5(1):1212. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Department of Animal Biosystem Sciences, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764 Republic of Korea.

The methodology provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines is widely used for estimating enteric methane (CH4) production by cattle. No attempt other than the default values in the IPCC Tier 1 has been made for estimating CH4 emission from Hanwoo, a dominant beef species in Korea raised in a unique feeding system. The objective of this study was to compare models for estimating the CH4 emission factor (MEF; kg CH4/head/year) for enteric fermentation in Hanwoo steers. The MEF was estimated based on Korea- and Hanwoo-specific data obtained from the literature using several models. The models include the IPCC Tier 1 (T1), the IPCC Tier 2 method (T2), the IPCC Tier 2 methodology with actual dry matter intake (T2DMI), and the Japanese Tier 3 method (JT3). The JT3 was included due to the similarity in the beef cattle production system between the two countries. Estimated MEF using T2 were 43.4, 33.9, and 36.2 kg CH4/head/year for the growing, finishing, and overall period, respectively. The overall MEF estimated using T2 was 23 % lower than the estimate by T1 (47.0 kg CH4/head/year). There were significant differences in the estimated MEF for enteric fermentation of Hanwoo steers among the methods (P < 0.05). The overall MEF estimated by JT3 was 69.1 kg CH4/head/year, which was significantly higher than the estimates by T2 (36.2 kg) and T2DMI (33.5 kg). The JT3 estimated the highest values in all periods possibly due to overestimation of the conversion ratio of feed energy to CH4. No significant difference was found in the overall MEF of Hanwoo steers between T2 and T2DMI. However, T2DMI estimated 8 % higher and 14 % lower MEF than T2 for the growing and finishing period, respectively, mainly because the T2 significantly over-predicts the gross energy intake of Hanwoo steers at the high level of intake. The IPCC default methods have limitations in their use for a feeding systems in non-western countries, and thus development of a country-specific methodology and parameter estimates for enteric CH4 production is required for Hanwoo and other cattle production systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2889-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967067PMC
August 2016

Global Metabolic Reconstruction and Metabolic Gene Evolution in the Cattle Genome.

PLoS One 2016 18;11(3):e0150974. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

Department of Animal Biosystem Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

The sequence of cattle genome provided a valuable opportunity to systematically link genetic and metabolic traits of cattle. The objectives of this study were 1) to reconstruct genome-scale cattle-specific metabolic pathways based on the most recent and updated cattle genome build and 2) to identify duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome for better understanding of metabolic adaptations in cattle. A bioinformatic pipeline of an organism for amalgamating genomic annotations from multiple sources was updated. Using this, an amalgamated cattle genome database based on UMD_3.1, was created. The amalgamated cattle genome database is composed of a total of 33,292 genes: 19,123 consensus genes between NCBI and Ensembl databases, 8,410 and 5,493 genes only found in NCBI or Ensembl, respectively, and 266 genes from NCBI scaffolds. A metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome and cattle pathway genome database (PGDB) was also developed using Pathway Tools, followed by an intensive manual curation. The manual curation filled or revised 68 pathway holes, deleted 36 metabolic pathways, and added 23 metabolic pathways. Consequently, the curated cattle PGDB contains 304 metabolic pathways, 2,460 reactions including 2,371 enzymatic reactions, and 4,012 enzymes. Furthermore, this study identified eight duplicated genes in 12 metabolic pathways in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse. Some of these duplicated genes are related with specific hormone biosynthesis and detoxifications. The updated genome-scale metabolic reconstruction is a useful tool for understanding biology and metabolic characteristics in cattle. There has been significant improvements in the quality of cattle genome annotations and the MetaCyc database. The duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse implies evolutionary changes in the cattle genome and provides a useful information for further research on understanding metabolic adaptations of cattle.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150974PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4798299PMC
July 2016

Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation.

PeerJ 2015 22;3:e1343. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Animal Biosystem Sciences, Chungnam National University , Daejeon , Republic of Korea.

Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans) to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps) residues (APR) as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC). The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG), APR, and its fermented form (FAPR). The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01); pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07), especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM) after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW). Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06). Conversely, the fermentation process of SCG and APR significantly decreased total gas production and VFA production as expressed per KRW (P < 0.05). Because of their nutrient composition and relatively lower cost, we concluded that SCG and APR could be used as alternative feed sources, replacing conventional feed ingredients. However, pre-fermentation of agricultural by-products, such as SCG and APR, may be inappropriate for improving their nutritive considering the increase in production costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4627907PMC
November 2015

Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach.

Int J Genomics 2014 13;2014:679437. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Department of Animal Biosystem Sciences, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea.

The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carcass weight of 430.2 ± 40.66 kg) immediately after slaughter. The total mRNA from muscle, IMA, and subcutaneous adipose and omental adipose tissues were isolated and sequenced. The reads that passed quality control were mapped onto the bovine reference genome (build bosTau6), and differentially expressed genes across tissues were identified. The KEGG pathway enrichment tests revealed the opposite direction of metabolic regulation between muscle and IMA. Metabolic gene network analysis clearly indicated that oxidative metabolism was upregulated in muscle and downregulated in IMA. Interestingly, pathways for regulating cell adhesion, structure, and integrity and chemokine signaling pathway were upregulated in IMA and downregulated in muscle. It is thus inferred that IMA may play an important role in the regulation of development and structure of the LD tissues and muscle/adipose communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/679437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4247929PMC
December 2014

Meta-analysis of factors affecting milk component yields in dairy cattle.

J Anim Sci Technol 2014 5;56. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

Department of Animal Biosystem Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 Republic of Korea.

The objectives of this study were thus to identify most significant factors that determine milk component yield (MCY) using a meta-analysis and, if possible, to develop equations to predict MCY using variables that can be easily measured in the field. A literature database was constructed based on the research articles published in the Journal of Dairy Science from Oct., 2007 till May, 2010. The database consisted of a total of 442 observed means for MCY from 118 studies. The candidate factors that determine MCY were those which can be routinely measured in the field (e.g. DMI, BW, dietary forage content, chemical composition of diets). Using a simple linear regression, the best equations for predicting milk fat yield(MFY) and milk protein yield (MPY) were MFY = 0.351 (±0.068) + 0.038 (±0.003) DMI (R(2) = 0.27), and MPY = 0.552 (±0.071) + 0.031 (±0.002) DMI - 0.004 (±0.001) FpDM (%, forage as a percentage of dietary DM) (R(2) = 0.38), respectively. The best equation for predicting milk fat content (%) explained only 12% of variations in milk fat content, and none of a single variable can explain more than 5% of variations in milk protein content. We concluded that among the tested variables, DMI was the only significant factor that affects MFY and both DMI and FpDM significantly affect MPY. However, predictability of linear equations was relatively low. Further studies are needed to identify other variables that can predict milk component yield more accurately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2055-0391-56-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534184PMC
August 2015

Aggregation-deaggregation-triggered, tunable fluorescence of an assay ensemble composed of anionic conjugated polymer and polypeptides by enzymatic catalysis of trypsin.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014 Jan 31;6(2):918-24. Epub 2013 Dec 31.

Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Advanced Organic Materials and Textile System Engineering, Chungnam National University , Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

We prepared a water-soluble conjugated polymer composed of electron-donating units and electron-accepting groups in the backbone. The polymer exhibits a short wavelength (blue) emission in aqueous solution and long wavelength (red) emission in the solid state, because of intermolecular energy transfer. Considering this, we develop a new approach for the sensitive detection of trypsin, which is known to control pancreatic exocrine function, using an ensemble system composed of the anionically charged conjugated polymer and cationically charged polypeptides (such as polylysine and polyarginine). The blue-emitting, water-soluble conjugated polymer becomes aggregated upon exposure to the polypeptides, leading to a red-emitting assay ensemble. The red-emitting assay ensemble becomes dissociated in the conjugated polymer and polypeptide fragments by selective degradation of trypsin, which then exhibits recovery of blue emission. This emission-tuning assay ensemble allows for detection of trypsin at nanomolar concentrations, which enables naked-eye detection. Importantly, this strategy can be employed for label-free, continuous assay for trypsin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am405120yDOI Listing
January 2014

Cobalt ion-mediated cysteine detection with a hyperbranched conjugated polyelectrolyte as a new sensing platform.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2012 Sep 9;33(18):1510-6. Epub 2012 Aug 9.

Department of Advanced Organic Materials and Textile System Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.

A highly efficient colorimetric and fluorescence turn-off probe for the sensitive and selective detection of the biologically important amino acid, cysteine (Cys), is demonstrated using a newly synthesized water-soluble hyperbranched polymer (HP) containing sulfonic acid groups. The detection mechanism involves two steps: (i) the slight quenching of HP in the presence of Co(2+) in advance; and (ii) the gradual quenching of the HP-Co(2+) complex according to the concentration of Cys due to the absorption screening effect of the formation of the Cys-Co(2+) complex, which prevents HP from absorbing excitation energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.201200441DOI Listing
September 2012

Fluorometric detection of lectin with water-soluble hyperbranched conjugated polymer using mannose mediation.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2012 May;12(5):4365-9

Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Nanotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

A water-soluble hyperbranched polymer containing boronic acid groups at the ends of the polymer, which are capable of binding to diol-containing mannose, was syntheized. The hyperbranched polymer was prepared by a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction using the tribromo monomer for the hyperbranched type structure. The water-soluble hyperbranched polymer (HP) exhibited enhanced fluorescence intensity upon exposure to lectin in the presence of mannose compared to other proteins, such as lysozyme and cytochrome c, because mannose plays a key role in binding both lectin and HP resulting in selective sensing toward lectin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2012.5907DOI Listing
May 2012

Identification of Candidate Genes Associated with Beef Marbling Using QTL and Pathway Analysis in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle).

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2012 May 1;25(5):613-20. Epub 2012 May 1.

Division of Animal Genomics and Bioinformatics, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chuksan gil 77, Kwonsun-gu, Suwon, Korea.

Marbling from intramuscular fat is an important trait of meat quality and has an economic benefit for the beef industry. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping was performed to identify the marbling trait in 266 Hanwoo steers using a 10K single nucleotide polymorphism panel with the combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium method. As a result, we found nine putative QTL regions for marbling: three on BTA6, two on BTA17, two on BTA22, and two on BTA29. We detected candidate genes for marbling within 1 cM of either side of the putative QTL regions. Additionally, to understand the functions of these candidate genes at the molecular level, we conducted a functional categorization using gene ontology and pathway analyses for those genes involved in lipid metabolism or fat deposition. In these putative QTL regions, we found 95 candidate genes for marbling. Using these candidate genes, we found five genes that had a direct interaction with the candidate genes. We also found SCARB1 as a putative candidate gene for marbling that involves fat deposition related to cholesterol transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4093113PMC
May 2012
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