Publications by authors named "Seong-Ill Woo"

35 Publications

Correlation of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability with atrial fibrillation progression.

J Int Med Res 2021 Nov;49(11):3000605211057822

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 65745Inha University Hospital, Inha University College of Medicine and Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To examine the combination of heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) progression.

Methods: Data from patients with a first detected episode of AF who underwent treadmill exercise testing and 24-h Holter electrocardiography were retrospectively analysed. Autonomic dysfunction was verified using HRR values. Sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation was analysed by HRV. AF progression was defined as transition from the first detected paroxysmal episode to persistent/permanent AF.

Results: Of 306 patients, mean LF/HF ratio and HRR did not differ significantly by AF progression regardless of age (< or ≥65 years). However, when the LF/HF ratio was divided into tertiles, in patients aged <65 years, the mid LF/HF (1.60-2.40) ratio was significantly associated with lower AF progression rates and longer maintenance of normal sinus rhythm. For patients aged <65 years, less metabolic equivalents were related to higher AF progression rates. For patients aged ≥65 years, a low HRR was associated with high AF progression rates.

Conclusion: In relatively younger age, high physical capacity and balanced autonomic nervous system regulation are important predictors of AF progression. Evaluation of autonomic function assessed by age could predict AF progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211057822DOI Listing
November 2021

The Index of Microcirculatory Resistance after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Predicts Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 16;10(20). Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of Cardiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499, Korea.

The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is a simple method that can measure microvascular function after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). This study is to find out whether IMR predicts clinical long-term outcomes in STEMI patients. A total of 316 patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI from 2005 to 2015 were enrolled. The IMR was measured using pressure sensor/thermistor-tipped guidewire after primary PCI. The primary endpoint was the rate of death or hospitalization for heart failure (HF) over a mean follow-up period of 65 months. The mean corrected IMR was 29.4 ± 20.0. Patients with an IMR > 29 had a higher rate of the primary endpoint compared to patients with an IMR ≤ 29 (10.3% vs. 2.1%, = 0.001). During the follow-up period, 13 patients (4.1%) died and 6 patients (1.9%) were hospitalized for HF. An IMR > 29 was associated with an increased risk of death or hospitalization for HF (OR 5.378, = 0.004). On multivariable analysis, IMR > 29 (OR 3.962, = 0.022) remained an independent predictor of death or hospitalization for HF with age (OR 1.048, = 0.049) and symptom-to-balloon time (OR 1.002, = 0.049). High IMR was an independent predictor for poor long-term clinical outcomes in STEMI patients after primary PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8538070PMC
October 2021

Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio at Emergency Room Predicts Mechanical Complications of ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 17;36(19):e131. Epub 2021 May 17.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine and Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Background: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proven to be a reliable inflammatory marker. A recent study reported that elevated NLR is associated with adverse cardiovascular events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We investigated whether NLR at emergency room (ER) is associated with mechanical complications of STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: A total of 744 patients with STEMI who underwent successful primary PCI from 2009 to 2018 were enrolled in this study. Total and differential leukocyte counts were measured at ER. The NLR was calculated as the ratio of neutrophil count to lymphocyte count. Patients were divided into tertiles according to NLR. Mechanical complications of STEMI were defined by STEMI combined with sudden cardiac arrest, stent thrombosis, pericardial effusion, post myocardial infarction (MI) pericarditis, and post MI ventricular septal rupture, free-wall rupture, left ventricular thrombus, and acute mitral regurgitation during hospitalization.

Results: Patients in the high NLR group (> 4.90) had higher risk of mechanical complications of STEMI ( = 0.001) compared with those in the low and intermediate groups (13% vs. 13% vs. 23%). On multivariable analysis, NLR remained an independent predictor for mechanical complications of STEMI (RR = 1.947, 95% CI = 1.136-3.339, = 0.015) along with symptom-to balloon time ( = 0.002) and left ventricular dysfunction ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: NLR at ER is an independent predictor of mechanical complications of STEMI undergoing primary PCI. STEMI patients with high NLR are at increased risk for complications during hospitalization, therefore, needs more intensive treatment after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129614PMC
May 2021

Sex-related impact on clinical outcomes of patients treated with drug-eluting stents according to clinical presentation: Patient-level pooled analysis from the GRAND-DES registry.

Cardiol J 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The contribution of sex and initial clinical presentation to the long-term outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still debated.

Methods: Individual patient data from 5 Korean-multicenter drug-eluting stent (DES) registries (The GRAND-DES) were pooled. A total of 17,286 patients completed 3-year follow-up (5216 women and 12,070 men). The median follow-up duration was 1125 days (interquartile range 1097-1140 days), and the primary endpoint was cardiac death at 3 years.

Results: The clinical indication for PCI was stable angina pectoris (SAP) in 36.8%, unstable angina pectoris (UAP) or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in 47.4%, and STEMI in 15.8%. In all groups, women were older and had a higher proportion of hypertension and diabetes mellitus compared with men. Women presenting with STEMI were older than women with SAP, with the opposite seen in men. There was no sex difference in cardiac death for SAP or UAP/NSTEMI. In STEMI patients, the incidence of cardiac death (7.9% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.001), all-cause mortality (11.1% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.001), and minor bleeding (2.2% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.043) was significantly higher in women. After multivariable adjustment, cardiac death was lower in women for UAP/NSTEMI (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.89, p = 0.005), while it was similar for STEMI (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.65-1.44, p = 0.884).

Conclusions: There was no sex difference in cardiac death after PCI with DES for SAP and UAP/NSTEMI patients. In STEMI patients, women had worse outcomes compared with men; however, after the adjustment of confounders, female sex was not an independent predictor of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2021.0008DOI Listing
February 2021

Optimal Dose and Type of β-blockers in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2020 12 28;137:12-19. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The clinical benefit of β-blockers in modern reperfusion era is not well determined. We investigated the impact of β-blockers in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention. From the Grand-DES registry, a patient-level pooled registry consisting of 5 Korean multicenter prospective drug-eluting stent registries, a total of 6,690 ACS patients were included. Prescription records of dose and type of β-blockers were investigated trimonthly from discharge. Patients were categorized by the mean value of doses during the follow-up (≥50% [high-dose], ≥25% to <50% [medium-dose], and <25% [low-dose] of the full dose that was used in each randomized clinical trial) and vasodilating property of β-blockers. Three-year cumulative risk of all-cause death, cardiac death, and myocardial infarction were assessed. Patients receiving β-blockers were associated with a lower risk of all-cause and cardiac death compared with those not receiving β-blockers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24 to 0.35 for all-cause death; aHR 0.27, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.34 for cardiac death). Medium-dose β-blocker group was associated with a lower risk of cardiac death compared with high- and low-dose β-blocker groups (aHR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.96, for high-dose; aHR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.74, for low-dose). Patients receiving vasodilating β-blockers were associated with a lower risk of cardiac death compared with those receiving conventional β-blockers (aHR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.84). In conclusion, β-blocker therapy was associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with ACS, especially with medium-dose and vasodilating β-blockers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.09.044DOI Listing
December 2020

Ivabradine-Induced Torsade de Pointes in Patients with Heart Failure Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Int Heart J 2020 Sep 12;61(5):1044-1048. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital Cardiovascular Center.

Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the sinoatrial node "funny" current, prolonging the slow diastolic depolarization. As it has the ability to block the heart rate selectively, it is more effective at a faster heart rate. It is recommended for the treatment of heart failure reduced ejection fraction in the presence of beta-blocker therapy for the further reduction of the heart rate. However, previous reports have shown the association of Torsade de pointes (TdP) with concurrent use of ivabradine and drugs resulting in QT prolongation or blockage of the metabolic breakdown of ivabradine. In this article, we report two cases of patients with heart failure reduced ejection fraction who developed TdP after ivabradine use. Our report highlights the need to exercise caution with the administration of ivabradine in the presence of a reduced repolarization reserve, such as QT prolongation or metabolic insufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.20-073DOI Listing
September 2020

Mechanical and Pharmacological Revascularization Strategies for Prevention of Microvascular Dysfunction in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Analysis from Index of Microcirculatory Resistance Registry Data.

J Interv Cardiol 2020 9;2020:5036396. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: We aimed to identify mechanical and pharmacological revascularization strategies correlated with the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Background: Microvascular dysfunction (MVD) after STEMI is correlated with infarct size and poor long-term prognosis, and the IMR is a useful analytical method for the quantitative assessment of MVD. However, therapeutic strategies that can reliably reduce MVD remain uncertain.

Methods: Patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled. The IMR was measured with a pressure sensor/thermistor-tipped guidewire immediately after primary PCI. High IMR was defined as values ≥66 percentile of IMR in enrolled patients (IMR > 30.9 IU).

Results: A total of 160 STEMI patients were analyzed (high IMR = 54 patients). Clinical factors for Killip class (=0.006), delayed hospitalization from symptom onset (=0.004), peak troponin-I level (=0.042), and multivessel disease (=0.003) were associated with high IMR. Achieving final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction myocardial perfusion grade 3 tended to be associated with low IMR (=0.119), whereas the presence of distal embolization was significantly associated with high IMR (=0.034). In terms of therapeutic strategies that involved adjusting clinical and angiographic factors associated with IMR, preloading of third-generation P2Y12 inhibitors correlated with reducing IMR value ( = -10.30, < 0.001). Mechanical therapeutic strategies including stent diameter/length, preballoon dilatation, direct stenting, and thrombectomy were not associated with low IMR value (all > 0.05), and postballoon dilatation was associated with high IMR ( = 8.30, =0.020).

Conclusions: In our study, mechanical strategies were suboptimal in achieving myocardial salvage. Preloading of third-generation P2Y12 inhibitors revealed decreased IMR value, indicative of MVD prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5036396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368229PMC
November 2020

An analysis of vascular properties using pulse wave analysis in patients with vasovagal syncope.

Clin Cardiol 2020 Jul 18;43(7):781-788. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a common cause of recurrent syncope. Nevertheless, the exact hemodynamic mechanism has not been elucidated. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) is widely used to evaluate vascular properties, as it reflects the condition of the entire arterial system.

Hypothesis: Cardiovascular autonomic modulation may influence the hemodynamic mechanism and result in different vascular properties between VVS patients and healthy individuals.

Methods: We enrolled consecutive patients diagnosed with VVS on head-up tilt testing from January 2014 to August 2019. Healthy subjects were enrolled as the control group. We performed PWA on all participants. Using propensity score matching, we assembled a study population with similar baseline characteristics and compared hemodynamic parameters.

Results: A total of 111 VVS patients (43 ± 18 years, 72 females) and 475 healthy control subjects (48 ± 13 years, 192 females) were enrolled. Compared to the healthy control subjects, the VVS patients had a higher augmentation index (AIx) adjusted to a heart rate of 75 beats per minute ([email protected], 20.5 ± 13.1% vs 16.7 ± 11.9%, P = .003). After 1:1 matched comparison (111 matched control), VVS patients consistently showed higher [email protected] (20.5 ± 13.1% vs 16.7 ± 12.9%, P = .02) than the matched control group. According to age distribution, VVS patients showed significantly higher [email protected] (10.6 ± 11.7% vs 2.5 ± 11.1%, P = .01) in a young age (15-33 years) group.

Conclusions: VVS patients had greater arterial stiffness than healthy subjects. This is one of the plausible mechanisms of the pathophysiology of VVS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368349PMC
July 2020

Effect of Pre-Procedural Beta-Blocker on Clinical Outcome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Int Heart J 2019 Nov 15;60(6):1284-1292. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, School of Medicine, Konkuk University.

The efficacy of pre-procedural beta-blocker use in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is not well established in the current percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era. We investigate the effect of pre-procedural beta-blocker use on clinical outcomes in patients with ACS undergoing PCI. Among 44,967 consecutive cases of PCI enrolled in the nationwide, retrospective, multicenter registry (K-PCI registry), 31,040 patients with ACS were selected and analyzed. We classified patients into pre-procedural beta-blocker group (n = 8,678) and pre-procedural no-beta-blocker group (n = 22,362) according to the use of beta-blockers at least for two weeks before index PCI. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed and resulted in 7,445 pairs. The primary outcome was in-hospital cardiac death. In propensity score-matched populations, the pre-procedural beta-blocker group had a lower incidence of in-hospital cardiac death compared with the pre-procedural no-beta-blocker group (1.1% versus 2.0%, unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.73, P < 0.01). In subgroup analysis, the pre-procedural beta-blocker group had a lower incidence of in-hospital cardiac death, compared with the pre-procedural no-beta-blocker group in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction subpopulation (3.1% versus 6.1%, unadjusted OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.34-0.71, P < 0.01) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction subpopulation (1.5% versus 2.9%, unadjusted OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.33-0.79, P < 0.01). However, in unstable angina subpopulation, the in-hospital cardiac death rate was comparable between both groups. In conclusion, the use of pre-procedural beta-blocker was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital cardiac death in patients with ACS undergoing PCI. This result adds to the body of evidence that use of pre-procedural beta-blocker in patients with ACS might be reasonable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.19-175DOI Listing
November 2019

Coronary artery dissection due to severe coronary vasospasm during ergonovine provocation test.

Coron Artery Dis 2020 05;31(3):315-317

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000811DOI Listing
May 2020

Impact of gender on heart failure presentation in non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Heart Vessels 2020 Feb 3;35(2):214-222. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, 27, Inhang-ro, Jung-gu, Incheon, 400-711, Republic of Korea.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic cardiac disease that represents a broad spectrum of morphologic features and clinical presentations. However, little is known about the impact of gender differences in heart failure (HF) development in non-obstructive HCM. We assessed clinical and echocardiographic parameters according to gender in patients with non-obstructive HCM and evaluated the impact of gender on HF presentation and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in this population. We investigated 202 consecutive patients with non-obstructive HCM. Clinical parameters and conventional echocardiographic measurements including tissue Doppler measurements were evaluated and compared according to gender. Additionally, left ventricular (LV) deformation was assessed with global longitudinal strain (GLS) utilizing 2D speckle tracking software. Of the 202 patients (age = 63 ± 14 years, male: female = 141: 61), 51 patients (24.8%) presented with HF and female patients had HF more frequently (52.5% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001). Females were older, had a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation, had increased left atrial volume (LAV), and a higher ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow to early annular velocity (E/e') than males (70 ± 12 years vs. 59 ± 14 years, P < 0.001 for age; 51.4 ± 19.3 mL/m vs. 40.0 [Formula: see text] 13.4 mL/m, P < 0.001 for indexed LAV; 17.2 [Formula: see text] 6.0 vs. 13.0 [Formula: see text] 4.3, P < 0.001 for E/e'). While LV maximal thickness and LV ejection fraction were comparable between men and women, GLS was decreased significantly in female patients (- 13.5 [Formula: see text] 3.4% vs. - 15.6 [Formula: see text] 4.0%, P = 0.001 for GLS). Even after adjusting for clinical factors, female was independently associated with HF presentation (Odd ratio 5.19, 95% CI 2.24-12.03, P < 0.001). During a median follow-up duration 34.0 months, 20 patients (9.9%) had HF hospitalization or CV death. In a multivariable analysis, female gender was associated with higher risk of the composite of HF hospitalization or CV death and HF hospitalization alone than male (Adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.31, 95% CI 1.17-9.35, P = 0.024 for primary composite outcome of HF hospitalization or CV death; adjusted HR = 4.78, 95% CI 1.53-14.96, P = 0.007 for HF hospitalization). In patients with non-obstructive HCM, female patients presented with HF more frequently and showed a higher risk of CV events than male patients. LA volume, E/e' and LV mechanics were different between the genders, suggesting that these might contribute to greater susceptibility to HF in women with HCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-019-01492-0DOI Listing
February 2020

Relation of blood pressure variability to left ventricular function and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.

Singapore Med J 2019 Aug 11;60(8):427-431. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Division of Cardiology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea.

Introduction: Variability of blood pressure (BP) has been reported to be related to worse cardiovascular outcomes. We examined the impact of daytime systolic BP variability on left ventricular (LV) function and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.

Methods: Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and echocardiography were performed in 116 hypertensive patients. We assessed BP variability as standard deviations of daytime systolic BP on 24-hour ABPM. Conventional echocardiographic parameters, area strain and three-dimensional diastolic index (3D-DI) using 3D speckle tracking were measured. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by acquiring pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index.

Results: Patients with higher BP variability showed significantly increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and late mitral inflow velocity, as well as decreased E/A (early mitral inflow velocity/late mitral inflow velocity) ratio, area strain and 3D-DI than those with lower BP variability (LVMI: p = 0.02; A velocity: p < 0.001; E/A ratio: p < 0.001; area strain: p = 0.02; 3D-DI: p = 0.04). In addition, increased BP variability was associated with higher PWV and augmentation index (p < 0.001). Even among patients whose BP was well controlled, BP variability was related to LV mass, diastolic dysfunction and arterial stiffness.

Conclusion: Increased BP variability was associated with LV mass and dysfunction, as well as arterial stiffness, suggesting that BP variability may be an important determinant of target organ damage in hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2019030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717775PMC
August 2019

Prognostic Impact of Left Atrial Minimal Volume on Clinical Outcome in Patients with Non-Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Int Heart J 2018 Sep 29;59(5):991-995. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital.

Maximal left atrial volume (LAVmax) has been suggested to be an important indicator of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and a prognosticator in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, LAVmax can be influenced by LV longitudinal systolic function, which causes systolic descent of the mitral plane. We investigated the prognostic role of LAVmin in patients with HCM and tested if LAVmin is better than LAVmax in predicting clinical outcome in these patients. A total of 167 consecutive patients with HCM were enrolled (age = 64.7 ± 13.5 years, male: female = 120:47). Clinical parameters and conventional echocardiographic measurement including tissue Doppler measurement were evaluated. Left atrial maximal and minimal volumes were measured just before mitral valve opening and at mitral valve closure respectively using the biplane disk method. The relationship between LAVmin and the clinical outcome of hospitalization for heart failure (HF), stroke or all-cause mortality was evaluated. During a median follow-up of 25.0 ± 17.8 months, the primary end point of HF hospitalization, stroke or death occurred in 35 patients (21%). Indexed LAVmin was predictive of HF, stroke or death after adjustment for age, diabetes, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, LV ejection fraction, and E/e'in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.001). The model including indexed LAVmin was superior to the model including indexed LAVmax in predicting a worse outcome in patients with HCM (P = 0.02). In conclusion, LAVmin was independently associated with increased risk of HF, stroke, or mortality in patients with HCM and was superior to LAVmax in predicting clinical outcome in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.17-606DOI Listing
September 2018

Prognostic Implications of Newly Developed T-Wave Inversion After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2017 02 16;119(4):515-519. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

We investigated the prognostic value of newly developed T-wave inversion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. New T-wave inversion was defined as new onset of T-wave inversion after the primary PCI, without negative T waves on the presenting electrocardiogram. The primary end point was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which consisted of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for heart failure. A total of 271 patients were analyzed and followed up for 24 months in this study. New T-wave inversion was observed in 194 patients (72%), whereas the remaining 77 patients (28%) did not show T-wave inversion after the index PCI. Post-PCI Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 2 or 3 was observed more frequently in patients with new T-wave inversion (97% vs 90%; p = 0.011). The cumulative MACE rate was significantly lower in patients with new T-wave inversion than in those without new T-wave inversion (8% vs 30%; odds ratio 0.197, 95% confidential interval 0.096 to 0.403; p <0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, new T-wave inversion was an independent prognostic factor for MACE (hazard ratio 0.297, 95% confidential interval 0.144 to 0.611; p = 0.001). In conclusion, newly developed T-wave inversion after primary PCI was associated with favorable long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.10.039DOI Listing
February 2017

Relation Between Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Index of Microcirculatory Resistance in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2016 Nov 13;118(9):1323-1328. Epub 2016 Aug 13.

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proved as a reliable inflammatory marker for the atherosclerotic process and as a predictor for clinical outcomes in patients with various cardiovascular diseases. A recent study reported that elevated NLR is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We investigated whether NLR is associated with coronary microcirculation as assessed by the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in patients with STEMI who had undergone primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 123 patients with STEMI who underwent successful primary PCI were enrolled in this study. NLR was obtained on admission, and patients were divided into 3 groups by NLR tertile. IMR was measured using an intracoronary thermodilution-derived method immediately after index PCI. Symptom onset-to-balloon time was significantly longer (p = 0.005), and IMR was significantly higher in the high NLR group than that in the low and intermediate groups (21.94 ± 12.87 vs 23.22 ± 12.73 vs 32.95 ± 20.60, p = 0.003). Furthermore, in multiple linear regression analysis, NLR showed an independent positive correlation with IMR (r = 0.205, p = 0.009). In conclusion, NLR has shown positive correlation with IMR, whereas negative association with infarct-related artery patency in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. Therefore, NLR at admission could reflect myocardial damage and the status of coronary microcirculation in patients with STEMI (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02828137).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.07.072DOI Listing
November 2016

Randomised trial to compare a protective effect of Clopidogrel Versus TIcagrelor on coronary Microvascular injury in ST-segment Elevation myocardial infarction (CV-TIME trial).

EuroIntervention 2016 Oct 10;12(8):e964-e971. Epub 2016 Oct 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea.

Aims: Ticagrelor has shown greater, more rapid and more consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel. However, the superiority of ticagrelor for preventing ischaemic damage in STEMI patients has not been proven. The aim of this trial was to assess whether ticagrelor is superior to clopidogrel in preventing microvascular injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods And Results: Patients with STEMI underwent prospective random assignment to receive a loading dose (LD) of clopidogrel 600 mg or ticagrelor 180 mg (1:1 ratio) before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). As the primary endpoint, the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was measured immediately after primary PCI. The secondary endpoint was the infarct size estimated from the wall motion score index (WMSI). A total of 76 patients were enrolled (clopidogrel group=38, ticagrelor group=38). The IMR in the ticagrelor group was significantly lower than that in the clopidogrel group (22.2±18.0 vs. 34.4±18.8 U, p=0.005). Cardiac enzymes were less elevated in the ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group (CK peak; 2,651±1,710 vs. 3,139±2,698 ng/ml, p=0.06). Infarct size, estimated by WMSI, was not different between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups at baseline (1.55±0.30 vs. 1.61±0.29, p=0.41) or after three months (1.42±0.33 vs. 1.47±0.33, p=0.57).

Conclusions: In patients with STEMI treated by primary PCI, a 180 mg LD of ticagrelor might be more effective in reducing microvascular injury than a 600 mg LD of clopidogrel, as demonstrated by IMR immediately after primary PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV12I8A159DOI Listing
October 2016

Impact of area strain by 3D speckle tracking on clinical outcome in patients after acute myocardial infarction.

Echocardiography 2016 Dec 25;33(12):1854-1859. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Division of Cardiology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea.

Background: Three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has been developed to overcome the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) STE and has been applied in the several clinical settings. However, no data exist about the prognostic value of 3DSTE-based strain on clinical outcome after myocardial infarction (MI). This study was designed to investigate the prognostic value of area strain (AS) by 3D speckle tracking in predicting clinical outcome after acute MI.

Methods: We assessed 96 patients (62±14 years, 72% male) with acute MI and who had undergone a coronary angiography. Clinical parameters and conventional echocardiographic measurements including the left atrial (LA) size and tissue Doppler measurements were evaluated. The global left ventricular (LV) AS was measured using 3D speckle tracking software. The relationship between the AS and clinical outcome of death or hospitalization for heart failure (HF) was assessed.

Results: During a median follow-up of 33±10 months, primary endpoint of death or HF occurred in 12 patients (12.5%). AS was predictive of death or HF after adjustment for age, gender, peak CK-MB, LA volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV mass, the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to early mitral annular velocity, and LV ejection fraction in a multivariate Cox model (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.47, P=.03). In addition, AS added incremental value in predicting death or heart failure on a model based on clinical and standard echocardiographic measures (P=.008).

Conclusion: AS is independently associated with increased risk of death or HF after acute MI, suggesting that it can be a useful prognostic parameter in the patients following MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.13354DOI Listing
December 2016

Beneficial Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Cardiac Structure and Function in Obesity.

Obes Surg 2017 03;27(3):620-625

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Inha University College of Medicine, 7-206, 3-Ga, Shinheung-Dong, Jung-Gu, Incheon, 400-711, South Korea.

Background: Bariatric surgery is being considered as a therapeutic option for morbidly obese patients. Data are accumulating showing that this surgical intervention may improve in major cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the effects of bariatric surgery on left ventricular (LV) structure and function including LV mechanics in obese patients.

Methods: Thirty-seven patients (age = 36 ± 10 years; male:female = 11:26) undergoing bariatric surgery were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed before and after at least 1 year of bariatric surgery. Conventional echocardiographic parameters, including tissue Doppler measurements, were measured. LV global longitudinal, circumferential, and radial deformations were assessed utilizing 2D speckle tracking software.

Results: Patients decreased body mass index by 11.8 ± 4.7 over 15.6 ± 5.5 months. Bariatric surgery led to significant decreases in left ventricular (LV) size and mass (51.0 ± 3.3 to 49.1 ± 3.4 mm, p < 0.001 for LV end-diastolic dimension; 192.6 ± 33.5 to 146.2 ± 29.1 g, p < 0.001 for LV mass), and increases were noted in the ratio of early-to-late diastolic mitral inflow (E/A), early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity (Em), and LV longitudinal strain (1.42 ± 0.52 to 1.59 ± 0.56, p = 0.04 for E/A ratio; 9.7 ± 2.0 to 11.0 ± 2.4 cm/s, p < 0.001 for Em; 14.1 ± 1.9 to 16.2 ± 1.4 %, p < 0.001 for longitudinal strain). Changes of LV longitudinal strain were related to LV mass reduction (p = 0.04). However, LV ejection fraction, LV circumferential, and radial strains were all comparable at follow-up.

Conclusion: Significant weight loss by bariatric surgery was associated with improved LV structure and function in obese patients, suggesting potential favorable effects of bariatric surgery to prevent future cardiovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-016-2330-xDOI Listing
March 2017

A Case of Endovascular Treatment of Severe Graft Limb Kinking after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

Vasc Specialist Int 2016 Mar 31;32(1):26-8. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been recommended as an alternative to open aneurysm repair. The risk of severe perioperative complications is lower than that in open surgical repair; however, late complications are more likely. After EVAR, regular yearly surveillance by duplex ultrasonography or computed tomography is recommended. We report the case of a 67-year-old man with a severely kinked left iliac branch of the stent graft 10 years after EVAR. He had not undergone regular follow-up during the last 4 years. We realigned the endograft kink by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5758/vsi.2016.32.1.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4816023PMC
March 2016

Epicardial Artery Stenosis with a High Index of Microcirculatory Resistance Is Frequently Functionally Insignificant as Estimated by Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR).

Intern Med 2016 15;55(2):97-103. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, South Korea.

Objective Differences in microvascular integrity can diversely influence the functional assessment of epicardial coronary artery disease in each patient. We investigated the relevance of the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) of intermediate coronary lesions. Methods The IMR and FFR were measured in 67 intermediate coronary lesions of the left anterior descending artery of 67 patients, by using a pressure sensor/thermistor-tipped guidewire. Results To assess the differences in FFR in relationship to the IMR value, patients were divided into tertile IMR groups as follows: Low-IMR (n=22, IMR 14±3), Mid-IMR (n=23, IMR 21±2), and High-IMR (n=22, IMR 36±10). An analysis of variance showed that the High-IMR group had significantly higher FFR values (0.87±0.07) than the Low-IMR group (0.81±0.08) (p=0.03). Functionally significant lesions with FFR ≤0.8 accounted for 9% of lesions in the High-IMR group, 36% in the Low-IMR group and 22% in the Mid-IMR group (p=0.02). In the multivariate logistic analysis, the IMR value was an independent determinant of FFR ≤0.8 (p=0.03). Conclusion In patients with a high IMR, intermediate lesions as identified with visual estimation were more frequently functionally insignificant. The IMR can provide additional information in understanding the mismatch between the anatomical and functional severity of intermediate coronary stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.55.4080DOI Listing
August 2016

Comprehensive assessment of microcirculation after primary percutaneous intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: insight from thermodilution-derived index of microcirculatory resistance and coronary flow reserve.

Coron Artery Dis 2016 Jan;27(1):34-9

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea.

Objectives: A pathophysiological mechanism of microvascular dysfunction in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is multifactorial; thus, multiple modalities were needed to precisely evaluate a microcirculation.

Methods: We complementarily assessed microcirculation in STEMI by the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) immediately after a primary percutaneous intervention in 89 STEMI patients. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) including cardiovascular death, target vessel failure, heart failure, and stroke were assessed during a mean follow-up period of 3.0 years.

Results: The microcirculation of enrolled patients was classified into four groups using cutoff CFR and IMR values (CFR>2 and mean IMR): group-1 (n=23, CFR>2 and IMR ≤ 27); group-2 (n=31, CFR ≤ 2 and IMR ≤ 27); group-3 (n=9, CFR>2 and IMR>27); and group-4 (n=26, CFR<2 and IMR>27). On echocardiography 3 months later, improvement in the wall motion score index was shown in group-1 (P<0.01), group-2 (P<0.01), and group-3 (P=0.04), whereas group-4 did not show improvement in wall motion score index (P=0.06). During clinical follow-up, there were no MACCE in group-1 and the patients in group-2 and group-3 showed significantly lower MACCE compared with group-4 (group-1=0%, group-2, and group-3=10%, group-4=23.1%, P=0.04).

Conclusion: Complimentary assessment of microcirculation by the IMR and CFR may be useful to evaluate myocardial viability and the long-term prognosis of STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4885592PMC
January 2016

Clinical and Echocardiographic Factors Affecting Tricuspid Regurgitation Severity in the Patients with Lone Atrial Fibrillation.

J Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2015 Sep 24;23(3):136-42. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) can be a risk factor for development of significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR). We investigated which clinical and echocardiographic parameters were related to severity of functional TR in patients with lone AF.

Methods: A total of 89 patients with lone AF were enrolled (75 ± 11 years; 48% male): 13 patients with severe TR, 36 patients with moderate TR, and 40 consecutive patients with less than mild TR. Clinical parameters and echocardiographic measurements including right ventricular (RV) remodeling and function were evaluated.

Results: Patients with more severe TR were older and had more frequently persistent AF (each p < 0.001). TR severity was related to right atrial area and tricuspid annular systolic diameter (all p < 0.001). The patients with moderate or severe TR had larger left atrial (LA) volume and increased systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) than the patients with mild TR (p = 0.04 for LA volume; p < 0.001 for SPAP). RV remodeling represented by enlarged RV area and increased tenting height was more prominent in severe TR than mild or moderate TR (all p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed type of AF, LA volume, tricuspid annular diameter and tenting height remained as a significant determinants of severe TR. In addition, tenting height was independently associated with the presence of severe TR (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: In patients with lone AF, TR was related to type of AF, LA volume, tricuspid annular diameter and RV remodeling. Especially, tricuspid valvular tethering seemed to be independently associated with development of severe functional TR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4250/jcu.2015.23.3.136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4595700PMC
September 2015

Clinical and Angiographic Predictors of Microvascular Dysfunction in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Yonsei Med J 2015 Sep;56(5):1235-43

Division of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Purpose: We aimed to discover clinical and angiographic predictors of microvascular dysfunction using the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Materials And Methods: We enrolled 113 patients with STEMI (age, 56±11 years; 95 men) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The IMR was measured with a pressure sensor/thermistor-tipped guidewire after primary PCI. The patients were divided into three groups based on IMR values: Low IMR [<18 U (12.9±2.6 U), n=38], Mid IMR [18-31 U (23.9±4.0 U), n=38], and High IMR [>31 U (48.1±17.1 U), n=37].

Results: The age of the Low IMR group was significantly lower than that of the Mid and High IMR groups. The door-to-balloon time was <90 minutes in all patients, and it was not significantly different between groups. Meanwhile, the symptom-onset-to-balloon time was significantly longer in the High IMR group, compared to the Mid and Low IMR groups (p<0.001). In the high IMR group, the culprit lesion was found in a proximal location significantly more often than in a non-proximal location (p=0.008). In multivariate regression analysis, age and symptom-onset-to-balloon time were independent determinants of a high IMR (p=0.013 and p=0.003, respectively).

Conclusion: Our data suggest that age and symptom-onset-to-balloon time might be the major predictors of microvascular dysfunction in STEMI patients with a door-to-balloon time of <90 minutes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2015.56.5.1235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4541652PMC
September 2015

Anomalous origin of the left circumflex artery from the right sinus of valsalva: non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Intern Med 2015 1;54(9):1053-6. Epub 2015 May 1.

Department of Cardiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Korea.

An anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva (RSV) is rare. We herein report the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with chest pain. Emergent coronary angiography was performed following a diagnosis of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. A right coronary angiogram showed that the common trunk originating from the RSV branched into the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. Although the initial angiogram failed to show the left circumflex artery (LCx), considered to be the culprit vessel, computed tomographic angiography demonstrated that the LCx was located immediately below the common trunk and exhibited a retroaortic course. We successfully treated the patient and obtained optimal angiography results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.54.2956DOI Listing
September 2015

Refractory vascular spasm associated with coronary bypass grafting.

Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Oct 5;47(5):468-72. Epub 2014 Oct 5.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Inha University Hospital.

Diffuse refractory vascular spasms associated with coronary bypass artery grafting (CABG) are rare but devastating. A 42-year-old male patient with a past history of stent insertion was referred for the surgical treatment of a recurrent left main coronary artery disease. A hemodynamic derangement developed during graft harvesting, necessitating a hurried initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although CABG was carried out as planned, the patient could not be weaned from the bypass. An emergency coronary angiography demonstrated a diffuse spasm of both native coronary arteries and grafts. CPB was switched to the femorofemoral extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO). Although he managed to recover from heart failure, his discharge was delayed due to the ischemic injury of the lower limb secondary to cannulation for ECMO. We reviewed the case and literature, placing emphasis on the predisposing factors and appropriate management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5090/kjtcs.2014.47.5.468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4207106PMC
October 2014

Comparing the effect of clopidogrel versus ticagrelor on coronary microvascular dysfunction in acute coronary syndrome patients (TIME trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2014 May 1;15:151. Epub 2014 May 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, 7-206, 3-GA Sinheung-Dong, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-711, South Korea.

Background: Although prompt reperfusion treatment restores normal epicardial flow, microvascular dysfunction may persist in some patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Impaired myocardial perfusion is caused by intraluminal platelets, fibrin thrombi and neutrophil plugging; antiplatelet agents play a significant role in terms of protecting against thrombus microembolization. A novel antiplatelet agent, ticagrelor, is a non-thienopyridine, direct P2Y12 blocker that has shown greater, more rapid and more consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel. However, the effects of ticagrelor on the prevention of microvascular dysfunction are uncertain. The present study is a comparison between clopidogrel and ticagrelor use for preventing microvascular dysfunction in patients with ST elevation or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI or NSTEMI, respectively).

Methods/design: The TIME trial is a single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-arm study designed to demonstrate the superiority of ticagrelor over clopidogrel. A total of 152 patients with a spectrum of STEMI or NSTEMI will undergo prospective random assignment to clopidogrel or ticagrelor (1:1 ratio). The primary endpoint is an index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) measured after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); the secondary endpoint is wall motion score index assessed at 3 months by using echocardiography.

Discussion: The TIME trial is the first study designed to compare the protective effect of clopidogrel and ticagrelor on coronary microvascular dysfunction in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02026219. Registration date: 24 December 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-15-151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4031487PMC
May 2014

The relationship between J wave on the surface electrocardiography and ventricular fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction.

J Korean Med Sci 2014 May 25;29(5):685-90. Epub 2014 Apr 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

We investigated whether the presence of J wave on the surface electrocardiography (sECG) could be a potential risk factor for ventricular fibrillation (VF) during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We performed a retrospective study of 317 patients diagnosed with AMI in a single center from 2009 to 2012. Among the enrolled 296 patients, 22 (13.5%) patients were selected as a VF group. The J wave on the sECG was defined as a J point elevation manifested through QRS notching or slurring at least 1 mm above the baseline in at least two leads. We found that the incidence of J wave on the sECG was significantly higher in the VF group. We also confirmed that several conventional risk factors of VF were significantly related to VF during AMI; time delays from the onset of chest pain, blood concentrations of creatine phosphokinase and incidence of ST-segment elevation. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of J wave and the presence of a ST-segment elevation were independent predictors of VF during AMI. This study demonstrated that the presence of J wave on the sECG is significantly related to VF during AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2014.29.5.685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4024957PMC
May 2014

Thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for preserving the index of microcirculatory resistance: a randomised study.

EuroIntervention 2014 Jan;9(9):1057-62

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea.

Aims: We aimed to investigate whether thrombus aspiration could preserve the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods And Results: Sixty-three patients with STEMI were randomised into two groups: primary PCI after thrombus aspiration (aspiration group, n=33) and primary PCI without thrombus aspiration (non-aspiration group, n=30). IMR was measured using a pressure-temperature sensor-tipped coronary wire. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and at six-month follow-up. No significant differences in baseline ejection fraction (EF, 47.3±8.5% vs. 49.5±7.8%, p=0.281) and baseline wall motion score index (WMSI, 1.45±0.31 vs. 1.37±0.27, p=0.299) were observed between the two groups. However, significant differences in IMR (23.5±10.2 U vs. 34.2±21.7 U, p=0.018), %E2%88%86EF (follow-up EF - baseline EF; 3.33±4.6% vs. 0.73±1.9%, p=0.005), and %E2%88%86WMSI (follow-up WMSI - baseline WMSI; -0.121±0.16 vs. -0.004±0.07, p=0.001) were observed between the two groups.

Conclusions: Thrombus aspiration as an adjunctive method to primary PCI for STEMI may preserve microvascular integrity and have beneficial effects on myocardial microcirculation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV9I9A179DOI Listing
January 2014

Two dislodged and crushed coronary stents: treatment of two simultaneously dislodged stents using crushing techniques.

Korean J Intern Med 2013 Nov 29;28(6):718-23. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Coronary stent dislodgement is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. We report a rare case of dislodgement of two intracoronary stents. On withdrawal of two balloon catheters, one with a guide wire was mechanically distorted from the left main (LM) to the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) while the other was dislodged from the LM to the ostial left circumflex artery. The stent in the LAD could not be retrieved into the guide catheter using a Goose neck snare, because it was caught on a previously deployed stent at the mid LAD. A new stent was quickly deployed from the LM to the proximal LAD, because the patient developed cardiogenic shock. Both stents, including a distorted and elongated stent, were crushed to the LM wall. Stent deployment and crushing may be a good alternative technique to retrieving a dislodged stent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2013.28.6.718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3846999PMC
November 2013

Successful coronary stent retrieval from the ascending aorta using a gooseneck snare kit.

Korean J Intern Med 2013 Jul 1;28(4):481-5. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Coronary stent dislodgement is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. We report a case of stent dislodgement in the ascending thoracic aorta. The stent was mechanically distorted in the left circumflex artery (LCX) while being delivered to the proximal LCX lesion. The balloon catheter was withdrawn, but the stent with the guide wire was remained in the ascending thoracic aorta. The stent was unable to be retrieved into the guide catheter, as it was distorted. A goose neck snare was used successfully to catch the stent in the ascending thoracic aorta and retrieved the stent externally via the arterial sheath.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2013.28.4.481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712157PMC
July 2013
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