Publications by authors named "Seon-Ok Kim"

121 Publications

Axillary Lymph Node Dissection Rates and Prognosis From Phase III Neoadjuvant Systemic Trial Comparing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy With Neoadjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Pre-Menopausal Patients With Estrogen Receptor-Positive and HER2-Negative, Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:741120. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea.

In this study, we aimed to evaluate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) rates and prognosis in neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) compare with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-), lymph node (LN)-positive, premenopausal breast cancer patients (NCT01622361). The multicenter, phase 3, randomized clinical trial enrolled 187 women from July 5, 2012, to May 30, 2017. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either 24 weeks of NCT including adriamycin plus cyclophosphamide followed by intravenous docetaxel, or NET involving goserelin acetate and daily tamoxifen. ALND was performed based on the surgeon's decision. The primary endpoint was ALND rate and surgical outcome after preoperative treatment. The secondary endpoint was long-term survival. Among the 187 randomized patients, pre- and post- neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) assessments were available for 170 patients. After NST, 49.4% of NCT patients and 55.4% of NET patients underwent mastectomy after treatment completion. The rate of ALND was significantly lower in the NCT group than in the NET group (55.2% 69.9%, P=.046). Following surgery, the NET group showed a significantly higher mean number of removed LNs (14.96 11.74, P=.003) and positive LNs (4.84 2.92, P=.000) than the NCT group. The axillary pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was significantly higher in the NCT group (13.8% 4.8%, P=.045) than in the NET group. During a median follow-up of 67.3 months, 19 patients in the NCT group and 12 patients in the NET group reported recurrence. The 5-year ARFS (97.5% 100%, P=.077), DFS (77.2% 84.8%, P=.166), and OS (97.5% 94.7%, P=.304) rates did not differ significantly between the groups. In conclusion, although survival did not differ significantly, more NCT patients might able to avoid ALND, with fewer LNs removed with lower LN positivity.

Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01622361, identifier NCT01622361.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.741120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515848PMC
September 2021

Cervicocerebral atherosclerosis and its hepatic and coronary risk factors in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Asan Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background/aims: This study aimed to investigate the silent atherosclerotic burden of cervicocephalic vessels in cirrhotic patients compared with the general population, and the relevant risk factors including coronary parameters.

Methods: The study population consisted of 993 stroke-free subjects with LC who were screened by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the head and neck as a pre-liver transplant workup, and 6,099 health checkup participants who underwent MRA examination. The two cohorts were matched for cerebrovascular risk factors, and the prevalence rates of atherosclerosis in the major intracranial and extracranial arteries were compared in 755 matched pairs. Also, traditional, hepatic and coronary variables related to the cerebral atherosclerosis were assessed in cirrhotics.

Results: Overall, intracranial atherosclerosis was significantly less prevalent in the LC samples than the matched controls (2.3% vs. 5.4%; P=0.002), whereas the prevalence of extracranial atherosclerosis were similar (4.4% vs. 5.8%; P=0.242). These results were maintained in multivariate analyses in the pooled samples, with the corresponding adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for LC of 0.56 and 0.77 (95% CIs, 0.36-0.88 and 0.55-1.09), respectively. In the cirrhotic series, lower platelet count was inversely correlated with intracranial atherosclerosis (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.76). Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score ≥100 was the only factor predicting both intra- and extra-cranial atherosclerosis (adjusted ORs, 4.06 and 5.43; 95% CIs, 1.45-11.41 and 2.68-11.00, respectively).

Conclusions: Our data suggest that LC confers protection against intracranial atherosclerosis, and that thrombocytopenia may be involved in this protection. High CAC score could serve as a potential surrogate for cervicocerebral vascular screening in asymptomatic cirrhotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2021.0202DOI Listing
October 2021

Long-Term Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents or Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Multivessel Coronary Disease.

Am J Cardiol 2021 Oct 2. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Division of Cardiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

More evidence is required with respect to the comparative effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with second-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in contemporary clinical practice. This prospective observational registry-based study compared the outcomes of 6,647 patients with multivessel disease who underwent PCI with second-generation DES (n = 3,858) or CABG (n = 2,789) between January 2006 and June 2018 and for whom follow-up data were available for at least 2 to 13 years (median 4.8). The primary outcome was a composite of death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or stroke. Baseline differences were adjusted using propensity scores and inverse probability weighting. In the overall cohort, there were no significant between-group differences in the adjusted risks for the primary composite outcome (hazard ratio [HR] for PCI vs CABG 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86 to 1.25, p = 0.73) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.20, p = 0.68). This relative treatment effect on the primary outcome was similar in patients with diabetes (HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.46, p = 0.25) and without diabetes (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.22, p = 0.67) (p for interaction = 0.24). The adjusted risk of the primary outcome was significantly greater after PCI than after CABG in patients with left main involvement (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.90, p = 0.044), but not in those without left main involvement (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.16, p = 0.56) (p = 0.03 for interaction). In this prospective real-world long-term registry, we observed that the risk for the primary composite of death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or stroke was similar between PCI with contemporary DES and CABG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.08.047DOI Listing
October 2021

Ten-year outcomes of early generation sirolimus- versus paclitaxel-eluting stents in patients with left main coronary artery disease.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Aug 22. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Division of Cardiology, Center for Medical Research and Information, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

To compare 10-year outcomes after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) versus paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) for left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis. Very long-term outcome data of patients with LMCA disease treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) have not been well described. In 10-year extended follow-up of the MAINCOMPARE registry, we evaluated 778 patients with unprotected LMCA stenosis who were treated with SES (n = 607) or PES (n = 171) between January 2000 and June 2006. The primary composite outcome (a composite of death, myocardial infarction [MI] or target-vessel revascularization [TVR]) was compared with an inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighting (IPTW) adjustment. Clinical events have linearly accumulated over 10 years. At 10 years, there were no significant differences between SES and PES in the observed rates of the primary composite outcome (42.0% vs. 47.4%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-1.10), and definite stent thrombosis (ST) (1.9% vs. 1.8%; HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.28-3.64). In the IPTW-adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences between SES and PES in the risks for the primary composite outcome (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.65-1.14) or definite ST (adjusted HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.29-3.90). In patients who underwent DES implantation, high overall adverse clinical event rates (with a linearly increasing event rate over time) were observed during extended follow-up. At 10 years, there were no measurable differences in outcomes between patients treated with SES vs. PES for LMCA disease. The incidence of stent thrombosis was quite low and comparable between the groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29930DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparison of empagliflozin and sitagliptin therapy on myocardial perfusion reserve in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

Nucl Med Commun 2021 Sep;42(9):972-978

Department of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

Objectives: We compared the effects of empagliflozin vs. sitagliptin therapy on myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) using dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging.

Methods: In total, 100 patients with type 2 diabetes, CAD and an MPR <2.5 were randomized to receive either empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or sitagliptin (100 mg once daily). Dynamic SPECT examinations were performed at baseline and at 6 months. The primary endpoint was the percent change of global MPR. Evaluable SPECT data were available for 98 patients.

Results: Baseline clinical characteristics and SPECT data were well balanced between the two groups. At a 6-month follow-up, the fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels significantly decreased in both groups. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels significantly increased in the empagliflozin group but not in the sitagliptin group. The global MPR significantly improved after treatment in both groups (34.5 ± 70.6%; P = 0.005 for empagliflozin vs. 22.4 ± 45.7%; P = 0.024 for sitagliptin). However, there was no significant difference in the global MPR between the two groups (P = 0.934). Similar findings were detected with regard to the regional MPR.

Conclusion: Among patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD, both empagliflozin and sitagliptin significantly improved the global MPR with no significant difference between the groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0000000000001429DOI Listing
September 2021

The Effects of Horticultural Activity Program on Vegetable Preference of Elementary School Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 30;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Bio and Healing Convergence, Graduate School, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

This study was conducted to investigate effects of a horticultural activity program based on a mediating variable model for improving vegetable preference among elementary students. A quasi-experimental design was employed with 136 students and 136 primary carers in Seoul, South Korea. Based on the mediation model for improving children's vegetable preference, 12 sessions were conducted, including gardening, nutrition education, and cooking activities using harvests. The program was conducted weekly for 12 weeks from March to July 2019. To investigate the effect of this program, mediating factors of the children were evaluated before and after the program. Pearson correlation analysis was used to identify the mediating factors. The nutrition index, attitude, knowledge, and eating habits of the primary carers were evaluated. Results showed children's nutrition and gardening knowledge, dietary self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and vegetable preference were significantly improved ( < 0.001). Primary carers showed significant improvement in the nutrition index, knowledge, and attitude ( < 0.05). The correlation analysis confirmed that most of the mediating factors had significant correlations ( < 0.05). Therefore, administering a structured program involving horticultural activities and nutrition education as mediating factors for 12 sessions was effective in improving eating behavior for vegetables elementary school students and primary carers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345950PMC
July 2021

Patient-Reported Outcomes From Phase III Neoadjuvant Systemic Trial Comparing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy With Neoadjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Pre-Menopausal Patients With Estrogen Receptor-Positive and HER2-Negative, Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:608207. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea.

We aimed to evaluate the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in a prospective phase III clinical trial, comparing neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) with conventional neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in patients with hormone status positive, lymph node-positive premenopausal breast cancer (NCT01622361). The patients were randomized prospectively to either 24 weeks of NCT with adriamycin plus cyclophosphamide followed by taxane or NET with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and tamoxifen. The patients were examined at the surgery unit of a large tertiary care hospital with a comprehensive cancer center. PROs were assessed on the first day of the trial (day 1, baseline) and at the end of treatment, using the breast cancer module of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 23 (EORTC QLQ BR23). One hundred and eighty-seven patients were randomly assigned to chemotherapy (n=95) or endocrine therapy (n=92), and 174 patients completed 24 weeks of the neoadjuvant treatment period (n=87, in each group). Baseline scores were similar between the groups. After treatment, there were no statistically significant differences in the function scales, including body image, sexual functioning, and sexual enjoyment between the groups, although the endocrine treatment group showed a significant improvement in the future perspective (hazard ratio, 8.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-18.38; P = 0.021). Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in the symptom scales between the groups, including adverse effects of systemic therapy, breast symptoms, arm symptoms, and upset about hair loss. In conclusion, overall PROs were similar in both treatment groups, except for "future perspective," which was significantly better in the NET group than in the NCT group.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.Gov, identifier NCT01622361.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.608207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284076PMC
July 2021

Changes in Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction after Mitral Valve Repair for Primary Mitral Regurgitation.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 26;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

This study sought to identify the short- and long-term changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after mitral valve repair (MVr) in patients with chronic primary mitral regurgitation according to preoperative LVEF (pre-LVEF) and preoperative left ventricular end-systolic diameter (pre-LVESD). This study evaluated 461 patients. Restricted cubic spline regression models were constructed to demonstrate the long-term changes in postoperative LVEF (post-LVEF). The patients were divided into four groups according to pre-LVEF (<50%, 50-60%, 60-70%, and ≥70%). The higher the pre-LVEF was, the greater was the decrease in LVEF immediately after MVr. In the same pre-LVEF range, immediate post-LVEF was lower in patients with pre-LVESD ≥ 40 mm than in those with pre-LVESD < 40 mm. The patterns of long-term changes in post-LVEF differed according to pre-LVEF ( for interaction < 0.001). The long-term post-LVEF reached a plateau of approximately 60% when the pre-LVEF was ≥50%, but it seemed to show a downward trend after reaching a peak at approximately 3-4 years after MVr when the pre-LVEF was ≥70%. The patterns of short- and long-term changes in post-LVEF differed according to pre-LVEF and pre-LVESD values in patients with chronic primary mitral regurgitation after MVr.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267705PMC
June 2021

Initial experience of endoscopic ultrasound-guided antegrade covered stent placement with long duodenal extension for malignant distal biliary obstruction (with video).

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background/purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided antegrade covered stent placement with long duodenal extension (EASL) for malignant distal biliary obstruction (MDBO) with duodenal obstruction (DO) or surgically altered anatomy (SAA) after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Methods: Outcomes were technical and clinical success, reintervention rate, adverse events, stent patency, and overall survival. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) and competing-risk analysis were performed to compare with conventional EUS-BD.

Results: Twenty-five patients (DO, n = 18; SAA, n = 7) were included. The technical and clinical success rates were 96% and 84%, respectively. Reintervention occurred in two patients (8.3%). Adverse events occurred in six patients (24%; two cholangitis, 16%; four mild postprocedural pancreatitis [24% (n = 4/17) in patients with non-pancreatic cancers]). The median patency was 9.4 months, and the overall survival was 2.73 months. After IPTW adjustment, the median patency in the EASL (n = 25) and conventional EUS-BD (n = 29) were 10.1 and 6.5 months, respectively (P = .018).

Conclusions: EASL has acceptable clinical outcomes with a low reintervention rate but higher rate of postprocedural pancreatitis in patients with non-pancreatic cancers. Randomized trials comparing EASL and conventional EUS-BD for MDBO with pancreatic cancers and DO/SAA after failed ERCP are needed to validate our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.1011DOI Listing
June 2021

Development of Brain Metastases in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and No Brain Metastases at Initial Staging Evaluation: Cumulative Incidence and Risk Factor Analysis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Nov 26;217(5):1184-1193. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Olympic-ro 33, Seoul 05505, Republic of Korea.

Although established guidelines give indications for performing staging brain MRI at initial diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), guidelines are lacking for performing surveillance brain MRI for patients without brain metastases at presentation. The purpose of this study is to estimate the cumulative incidence of and risk factors for brain metastasis development in patients with NSCLC without brain metastases at initial presentation. This retrospective study included 1495 patients with NSCLC (mean [± SD] age, 65 ± 10 years; 920 men and 575 women) without brain metastases at initial evaluation that included brain MRI. Follow-up brain MRI was ordered at the discretion of the referring physicians. MRI examinations were reviewed in combination with clinical records for brain metastasis development; patients not undergoing MRI were deemed to have not had metastases develop through last clinical follow-up. The cumulative incidence of brain metastases was determined, with death considered a competing risk, and was stratified by clinical stage group, cell type, and epidermal growth factor receptor () gene mutation status. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. A total of 258 of 1495 patients (17.3%) underwent follow-up brain MRI, and 72 (4.8%) had brain metastases develop at a median of 12.3 months after initial diagnosis of NSCLC. Of the 72 patients who had metastases develop, 44.4% had no neurologic symptoms, and 58.3% had stable primary thoracic disease. The cumulative incidence of brain metastases at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after initial evaluation was 0.6%, 2.1%, 4.2%, and 6.8%, respectively. Cumulative incidence at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months was higher ( < .001) in patients with clinical stage III-IV disease (1.3%, 3.9%, 7.7%, and 10.9%, respectively) than in those with clinical stage I-II disease (0.0%, 0.8%, 1.2%, and 2.6%, respectively), and it was higher ( < .001) in patients with mutation-positive adenocarcinoma (0.7%, 2.5%, 6.3%, and 12.3%, respectively) than in those with mutation-negative adenocarcinoma (0.4%, 1.8%, 2.9%, and 4.4%, respectively). Among 1109 patients with adenocarcinoma, independent risk factors for the development of brain metastasis were clinical stage III-IV (hazard ratio [HR], 9.39; < .001) and mutation-positive status (HR, 1.78; = .04). The incidence of brain metastasis over the study interval was 8.7% among patients with clinical stage III-IV disease and 17.4% among those with mutation-positive adenocarcinoma. Clinical stage III-IV and mutation-positive adenocarcinoma are independent risk factors for brain metastasis development. For patients with clinical stage III-IV disease or mutation-positive adenocarcinoma, surveillance brain MRI performed 12 months after initial evaluation may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.21.25787DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparison of metabolic changes after neoadjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 05 18;11(1):10510. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Breast Surgery, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic ro 43 gil, song pa gu, Seoul, 138-736, Korea.

Survival of breast cancer patients has improved, and treatment-related changes regarding metabolic profile deterioration after neoadjuvant systemic treatment (NST) become important issues in cancer survivors. We sought to compare metabolic profile changes and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) between patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) and neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) 3 years after the treatment. In a prospective, randomized, phase III trial which compared 24 weeks of NCT with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel and NET with goserelin and tamoxifen (NEST), 123 patients in the Asan Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate metabolic changes, such as body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TC), fasting glucose, and the NLR. The mean age of patients was 42 years. The changes in BMI, serum glucose, and TC during NST and after 3 years were significantly different between NCT and NET. The proportion of overweight + obese group and the mean BMI were significantly increased during NCT (26.6% to 37.5%, 22.84 kg/m to 23.87 kg/m, p < 0.05), and these attributes found to have normalized at the 3-year follow-up. In the NET group, BMI changes were not observed (p > 0.05, all). There were no differences in changes over time among in the Hypertension group during NCT and NET (p = 0.96). The mean value of serum TC and fasting glucose significantly increased (< 0.05, both) during NCT and decreased 3 years after NCT (p < 0.05); however, no significant changes were observed in the NET group. The NLR was increased from 1.83 to 3.18 after NCT (p < 0.05) and decreased from 1.98 to 1.43 (p < 0.05) after NET. Compared with minimal metabolic effect of NET, NCT worsens metabolic profiles, which were recovered over 3 years. The NLR was increased after NCT but decreased after NET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89651-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131718PMC
May 2021

The role of APOE in cognitive trajectories and motor decline in Parkinson's disease.

Sci Rep 2021 04 9;11(1):7819. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Korea.

We aimed to investigate the role of the APOE genotype in cognitive and motor trajectories in Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PD registry data, we retrospectively investigated a total of 253 patients with PD who underwent the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) two or more times at least 5 years apart, were aged over 40 years, and free of dementia at the time of enrollment. We performed group-based trajectory modeling to identify patterns of cognitive change using the MMSE. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to investigate the role of the APOE genotype in cognitive and motor progression. Trajectory analysis divided patients into four groups: early fast decline, fast decline, gradual decline, and stable groups with annual MMSE scores decline of - 2.8, - 1.8, - 0.6, and - 0.1 points per year, respectively. The frequency of APOE ε4 was higher in patients in the early fast decline and fast decline groups (50.0%) than those in the stable group (20.1%) (p = 0.007). APOE ε4, in addition to older age at onset, depressive mood, and higher H&Y stage, was associated with the cognitive decline rate, but no APOE genotype was associated with motor progression. APOE genotype could be used to predict the cognitive trajectory in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86483-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035327PMC
April 2021

A Risk Prediction Model for Operative Mortality after Heart Valve Surgery in a Korean Cohort.

J Chest Surg 2021 Apr;54(2):88-98

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

Background: This study aimed to develop a new risk prediction model for operative mortality in a Korean cohort undergoing heart valve surgery using the Korea Heart Valve Surgery Registry (KHVSR) database.

Methods: We analyzed data from 4,742 patients registered in the KHVSR who underwent heart valve surgery at 9 institutions between 2017 and 2018. A risk prediction model was developed for operative mortality, defined as death within 30 days after surgery or during the same hospitalization. A statistical model was generated with a scoring system by multiple logistic regression analyses. The performance of the model was evaluated by its discrimination and calibration abilities.

Results: Operative mortality occurred in 142 patients. The final regression models identified 13 risk variables. The risk prediction model showed good discrimination, with a c-statistic of 0.805 and calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit p-value of 0.630. The risk scores ranged from -1 to 15, and were associated with an increase in predicted mortality. The predicted mortality across the risk scores ranged from 0.3% to 80.6%.

Conclusion: This risk prediction model using a scoring system specific to heart valve surgery was developed from the KHVSR database. The risk prediction model showed that operative mortality could be predicted well in a Korean cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5090/jcs.20.102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038884PMC
April 2021

Prediction model for cervical lymph node metastasis in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

Eur Radiol 2021 Oct 29;31(10):7429-7439. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 86 Asanbyeongwon-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 138-736, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To develop and validate a risk scoring system based on clinical and imaging findings to predict lymph node metastasis from HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

Methods: This study population who had undergone neck dissections or lymph node biopsies in patients with HPV+ OPSCC was obtained from a historical cohort from two tertiary referral hospitals. The training set from one hospital included 455 lymph nodes from 82 patients, and the test set from the other hospital included 150 lymph nodes from 42 patients. The baseline clinical and imaging findings on pretreatment CT or MR were investigated and the reference standards were the histopathologic results. A risk scoring system was constructed based on logistic regression and validated both internally and externally.

Results: A 7-point risk scoring system was developed based on the following variables: central necrosis, infiltration of adjacent planes, lymph node level, and the maximal axial diameter of the lymph node. This risk scoring system showed good discriminative ability for metastasis in the training set (C-statistic 0.952; 95% CI, 0.931-0.972) and test set (C-statistic 0.968, 95% CI, 0.936-0.999) and good calibration ability in the training set (p = 0.723) and test set (p = 0.253).

Conclusions: We developed and validated a reliable risk scoring system that predicts lymph node metastasis from HPV+ OPSCCs based on the clinical data and pretreatment imaging findings. We expect this risk scoring system to be a useful guide for better decision-making in practice.

Key Points: • It is important to diagnose lymph node metastasis from HPV+ OPSCC for treatment planning; however, there has been little research on that. • We developed and externally validated a new scoring system for stratifying the risk of lymph node metastasis from HPV+ OPSCC based on clinical and imaging data. • A predictive model combining both clinical and imaging data showed high diagnostic accuracy and efficiency for lymph node metastasis from HPV+ OPSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07766-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Variceal bleeding is aggravated by portal venous invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma: a matched nested case-control study.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jan 5;21(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, South Korea.

Background: We hypothesized that portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increases portal pressure and causes esophageal varices and variceal bleedings. We examined the incidence of high-risk varices and variceal bleeding and determined the indications for variceal screening and prophylaxis.

Methods: This study included 1709 asymptomatic patients without any prior history of variceal hemorrhage or endoscopic prophylaxis who underwent upper endoscopy within 30 days before or after initial anti-HCC treatment. Of these patients, 206 had PVTT, and after 1:2 individual matching, 161 of them were matched with 309 patients without PVTT. High-risk varices were defined as large/medium varices or small varices with red-color signs and variceal bleeding. Bleeding rates from the varices were compared between matched pairs. Risk factors for variceal bleeding in the entire set of patients with PVTT were also explored.

Results: In the matched-pair analysis, the proportion of high-risk varices at screening (23.0% vs. 13.3%; P = 0.003) and the cumulative rate of variceal bleeding (4.5% vs. 0.4% at 1 year; P = 0.009) were significantly greater in the PVTT group. Prolonged prothrombin time, lower platelet count, presence of extrahepatic metastasis, and Vp4 PVTT were independent risk factors related to high-risk varices in the total set of 206 patients with PVTT (Adjusted odds ratios [95% CIs], 1.662 [1.151-2.401]; 0.985 [0.978-0.993]; 4.240 [1.783-10.084]; and 3.345 [1.457-7.680], respectively; Ps < 0.05). During a median follow-up of 43.2 months, 10 patients with PVTT experienced variceal bleeding episodes, 9 of whom (90%) had high-risk varices. Presence of high-risk varices and sorafenib use for HCC treatment were significant predictors of variceal bleeding in the complete set of patients with PVTT (Adjusted hazard ratios [95% CIs], 26.432 [3.230-216.289]; and 5.676 [1.273-25.300], respectively; Ps < 0.05).

Conclusions: PVTT in HCC appears to increase the likelihood of high-risk varices and variceal bleeding. In HCC patients with PVTT, endoscopic prevention could be considered, at least in high-risk variceal carriers taking sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07708-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786454PMC
January 2021

Superiority of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in the Plasma Over Whole Blood for Prognostication of Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma.

Front Oncol 2020 30;10:594692. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Extranodal natural killer T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with invariable infection of lymphoma cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the presence of EBV-DNA in the blood is a well-known prognosticator. However, there is no consensus on which blood compartment is more optimal for predicting survival outcomes.

Methods: We analyzed 60 patients who were newly diagnosed with ENKTL from a prospectively collected database. EBV-DNA was measured in the whole-blood (WB) and plasma at the time of diagnosis and after treatment completion.

Results: EBV-DNA was detected in pre-treatment WB and plasma in 37 (61.7%) and 23 (38.3%) patients, respectively. The presence of pre-treatment plasma EBV-DNA was significantly associated with advanced stage while presence of WB EBV-DNA did not. Positivity of pre-treatment plasma-EBV, but not WB EBV-DNA, was independently associated with poor PFS (HR, 4.22;95% CI, 1.79-9.97; =0.001) and OS (HR, 8.38; 95% CI, 3.03-23.19; <0.001) in the multivariate analysis. After treatment completion, positivity of plasma-EBV was independently associated with poor PFS (HR, 9.41; 95% CI, 2.27-39.02; =0.002) and OS (HR, 32.38; 95% CI, 3.25-322.56; =0.003), whereas no significant association was observed between WB-EBV status and survival outcomes.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that EBV-DNA in the plasma has better prognostic values than WB in patients with ENKTL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.594692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734249PMC
November 2020

Interobserver Reproducibility in Sonographic Measurement of Diameter and Volume of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma.

Thyroid 2021 03 18;31(3):452-458. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Active surveillance is recommended as an alternative to immediate surgery for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), and determining meaningful changes in diameter and volume on ultrasonography (US) is critical. However, interobserver reproducibility of the sonographic measurement of maximum diameter and volume of PTMC has not been well established. We aimed to determine the reproducibility in the measurement of maximum diameter and volume of PTMC on US. Consecutive patients who underwent US for pathologically proven PTMC between December 2018 and December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Two observers independently performed sonographic measurement of each nodule using standardized measurement methods. Each observer measured maximum transverse, anteroposterior, and longitudinal nodule diameters, and using these, nodule volume was calculated using the ellipsoid formula. Interobserver reproducibility in the measurement of the maximum diameter and volume was assessed using percentage reproducibility coefficient (RC). Z-tests of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to compare the interobserver reproducibility in subgroups defined according to sonographic characteristics, such as the presence of microcalcification, nodule size, and parenchymal heterogeneity. A total of 197 thyroid nodules from 188 patients were included in the study series. The percentage RCs were 71.8% [95% confidence interval, CI 65.4-79.7%] and 23.7% [CI 21.6-26.3%] for volume and maximum diameter measurements, respectively. There were no significant differences noted in the ICC values according to nodule orientation, presence of calcifications, size, or parenchymal heterogeneity. For PTMC, a difference of up to 24% in the maximum diameter and 72% in the volume may be considered to be within measurement error on US. This value may be used to determine the cutoff for defining meaningful change in the maximum diameter and volume for PTMC during active surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2020.0317DOI Listing
March 2021

Added diagnostic values of three-dimensional high-resolution proton density-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for unruptured intracranial aneurysms in the circle-of-Willis: Comparison with time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(12):e0243235. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Advanced imaging methods can enhance the identification of aneurysms of the infundibula, which can reduce unnecessary follow-ups or further work-up, fear, and anxiety in patients.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the added diagnostic value of three-dimensional proton density-weighted vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (3D-PD MRI) in identifying aneurysms from index lesions refer to vascular bulging lesions without vessels arising from the apex, observed using volume-rendered TOF-MRA in the circle-of-Willis compared with time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA).

Study Type: Retrospective.

Population: A total of 299 patients who underwent 3D-PD MRI, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and TOF-MRA between January 2012 and December 2016 were retrospectively enrolled in this study.

Field Strength/sequence: 3 Tesla, 3D-PD MRI.

Assessment: Three neuroradiologists independently evaluated TOF-MRA and 3D-PD MRI combined with TOF-MRA for the determination of intracranial aneurysms in patients with index lesions within the circle of Willis. Final diagnoses were made by another neuroradiologist and neurointerventionist in consensus using DSA as the reference standard. The diagnostic performance and proportions of undetermined lesions on TOF-MRA and 3D-PD MRI with TOF-MRA were assessed based on the final diagnoses.

Statistical Tests: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for the diagnosis of unruptured intracranial aneurysms were calculated for each imaging modality.

Results: Of 452 lesions identified on volume-rendered TOF-MRA images, 173 (38%) aneurysms and 276 (61%) infundibula were finally diagnosed on DSA. 3D-PD MRI with TOF-MRA showed superior diagnostic performance (p = .001; accuracy, 85.5% versus 95.4%), superior area under the receiver operating characteristic curve over TOF-MRA (p = .001; 0.837 versus 0.947), and a lower proportion of undetermined lesions than TOF-MRA (p = .001; 25.1% versus 2.3%).

Data Conclusion: For unruptured intracranial aneurysms in the circle of Willis, 3D-PD MRI can complement TOF-MRA to improve diagnostic performance and lower the proportion of undetermined lesions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243235PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714200PMC
January 2021

Early Surgical and Long-term Oncological Outcomes of Totally Laparoscopic Near-total Gastrectomy in >150 Cases.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2020 Dec;30(6):529-533

Departments of Surgery.

Background: This study aimed to examine the early surgical outcomes and long-term oncological safety of totally laparoscopic near-total gastrectomy for the treatment of upper-third early gastric cancer.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively collected and analyzed the data of 167 consecutive patients who underwent totally laparoscopic near-total gastrectomy for upper-third early gastric cancer between January 2008 and May 2018. Data on clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes, including operation time, length of postoperative hospital stay, pathologic findings, and postoperative complications, were obtained. We also analyzed recurrence-free and overall survival rates to evaluate the oncological outcomes.

Results: The mean operation time was 149.44±37.59 minutes; none of the patients required conversion to laparotomy during surgery. The average postoperative hospital stay was 7.57±5.69 days. On final pathologic analysis, the mean proximal resection margin was 1.97±1.68 cm. No patients had an involved proximal resection margin. Twenty-seven patients (16.17%) had postoperative complications; of them, 6 patients (3.59%) had Clavien-Dindo classification grade 3 or higher complications, all within 1 month. The median follow-up duration was 54.35 months. The 3- and 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 98.3% and 97.1%, respectively. The overall survival rate was 97.1% at both 3 and 5 years.

Conclusions: Our study shows that totally laparoscopic near-total gastrectomy is a safe and feasible procedure for treating the upper-third early gastric cancer. Further, in the current study, the procedure demonstrated a favorable oncological outcome for a relatively long follow-up period and large sample size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000823DOI Listing
December 2020

Ischemic colitis after enema administration: Incidence, timing, and clinical features.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Nov;26(41):6442-6454

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, South Korea.

Background: Enema administration is a common procedure in the emergency department (ED). However, several published case reports on enema-related ischemic colitis (IC) have raised the concerns regarding the safety of enema agents. Nevertheless, information on its true incidence and characteristics are still lacking.

Aim: To investigate the incidence, timing, and risk factors of IC in patients receiving enema.

Methods: We consecutively collected the data of all adult patients receiving various enema administrations in the ED from January 2010 to December 2018 and identified patients confirmed with IC following enema. Of 8320 patients receiving glycerin enema, 19 diagnosed of IC were compared with an age-matched control group without IC.

Results: The incidence of IC was 0.23% among 8320 patients receiving glycerin enema; however, there was no occurrence of IC among those who used other enema agents. The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of patients with glycerin enema-related IC was 70.2 ± 11.7. The mean time interval ± SD from glycerin enema administration to IC occurrence was 5.5 h ± 3.9 h (range 1-15 h). Of the 19 glycerin enema-related IC cases, 15 (79.0%) were diagnosed within 8 h. The independent risk factors for glycerin-related IC were the constipation score [Odds ratio (OR), 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.5, = 0.017] and leukocytosis (OR, 4.5; 95%CI: 1.4-14.7, = 0.012).

Conclusion: The incidence of glycerin enema-related IC was 0.23% and occurred mostly in the elderly in the early period following enema administration. Glycerin enema-related IC was associated with the constipation score and leukocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i41.6442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656214PMC
November 2020

Determinants of clinical outcomes of surgery for isolated severe tricuspid regurgitation.

Heart 2021 03 2;107(5):403-410. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, The Republic of Korea

Objectives: Although the incidence of patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is increasing, data regarding the clinical outcomes of isolated TR surgery are limited. This study sought to investigate the prognostic implications according to procedural types, and to identify preoperative predictors of clinical outcomes after isolated TR surgery.

Methods: Among consecutive 2610 patients receiving tricuspid valve (TV) procedure, we analysed 238 patients (age, 59.6 years; 143 females) who underwent stand-alone TV surgery (repair, 132; replacement, 106) for severe TR. Primary outcome was the composite of all-cause mortality and heart transplantation. Clinical outcomes between the repair and the replacement groups were compared after adjusting with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) method.

Results: During follow-up (median, 4.1 years), 53 patients died and 4 received heart transplantation. Multivariable analysis revealed that age (p=0.001), haemoglobin level (p=0.003), total bilirubin (p=0.040), TR jet area (p=0.005) and right atrial (RA) pressure (p=0.022) were independent predictors of the primary outcome. After IPTW adjustment, there were no significant intergroup differences in the risk of primary outcome (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.87). In the subgroup analysis, tricuspid annular diameter was identified as a significant effect modifier (p=0.012) in the comparison between repair versus replacement, showing a trend favouring replacement in patients with annular diameter >44 mm.

Conclusions: The outcomes of stand-alone severe TR surgery were independently associated with the severity of TR and RA pressure. In selected patients with severe annular dilation >44 mm, replacement may become a feasible option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317715DOI Listing
March 2021

Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Differentiating Necrotizing Fasciitis from Severe Cellulitis: A Magnetic Resonance Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (MRINEC) Algorithm.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 21;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 06973, Korea.

We developed a new magnetic resonance indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (MRINEC) algorithm for differentiating necrotizing fasciitis (NF) from severe cellulitis (SC). All adults with suspected NF between 2010 and 2018 in a tertiary hospital in South Korea were enrolled. Sixty-one patients were diagnosed with NF and 28 with SC. Among them, 34 with NF and 15 with SC underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRINEC algorithm, a two-step decision tree including T2 hyperintensity of intermuscular deep fascia and diffuse T2 hyperintensity of deep peripheral fascia, diagnosed NF with 94% sensitivity (95% confidence interval (CI), 80-99%) and 60% specificity (95% CI, 32-84%). The algorithm accurately diagnosed all 15 NF patients with a high (≥8) laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score. Among the five patients with an intermediate (6-7) LRINEC score, sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% CI, 78-100%) and 0% (95% CI, 0-84%), respectively. Finally, among the 29 patients with a low (≤5) LRINEC score, the algorithm had a sensitivity and specificity of 88% (95% CI, 62-98%) and 69% (95% CI, 39-91%), respectively. The MRINEC algorithm may be a useful adjuvant method for diagnosing NF, especially when NF is suspected in patients with a low LRINEC score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564512PMC
September 2020

Inconsistency in the use of the term "validation" in studies reporting the performance of deep learning algorithms in providing diagnosis from medical imaging.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(9):e0238908. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The development of deep learning (DL) algorithms is a three-step process-training, tuning, and testing. Studies are inconsistent in the use of the term "validation", with some using it to refer to tuning and others testing, which hinders accurate delivery of information and may inadvertently exaggerate the performance of DL algorithms. We investigated the extent of inconsistency in usage of the term "validation" in studies on the accuracy of DL algorithms in providing diagnosis from medical imaging.

Methods And Findings: We analyzed the full texts of research papers cited in two recent systematic reviews. The papers were categorized according to whether the term "validation" was used to refer to tuning alone, both tuning and testing, or testing alone. We analyzed whether paper characteristics (i.e., journal category, field of study, year of print publication, journal impact factor [JIF], and nature of test data) were associated with the usage of the terminology using multivariable logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations. Of 201 papers published in 125 journals, 118 (58.7%), 9 (4.5%), and 74 (36.8%) used the term to refer to tuning alone, both tuning and testing, and testing alone, respectively. A weak association was noted between higher JIF and using the term to refer to testing (i.e., testing alone or both tuning and testing) instead of tuning alone (vs. JIF <5; JIF 5 to 10: adjusted odds ratio 2.11, P = 0.042; JIF >10: adjusted odds ratio 2.41, P = 0.089). Journal category, field of study, year of print publication, and nature of test data were not significantly associated with the terminology usage.

Conclusions: Existing literature has a significant degree of inconsistency in using the term "validation" when referring to the steps in DL algorithm development. Efforts are needed to improve the accuracy and clarity in the terminology usage.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238908PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485764PMC
November 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Cystatin C-Guided Renal Dose Adjustment of Cefepime Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Pneumonia.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 30;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 06973, Korea.

Cystatin C (CysC) may estimate renal function more accurately than serum creatinine (SCr). The clinical impact of renal dose adjustment of cefepime according to CysC rather than SCr has remained uncertain. We investigated the efficacy and safety of CysC-guided cefepime dosing compared with SCr-guided dosing in hospitalized patients with pneumonia. All adults hospitalized with pneumonia between July 2016 and December 2018 who used cefepime for at least 3 days were enrolled. Mortality, acute kidney injury (AKI), cefepime-induced encephalopathy (CIE), and infection were compared between the CysC-guided and SCr-guided groups. One hundred and ninety patients were divided into two groups: 129 and 61 received cefepime based on CysC and SCr, respectively. In-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between the groups (12% versus 31%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31-1.77; = 0.50). CysC-guided cefepime dosing decreased the risk of AKI (13% versus 61%; HR 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07-0.44; < 0.001) and CIE (2% versus 11%; HR 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.47; = 0.003) compared with SCr-guided dosing. There was no significant difference in the risk of infection. CysC-guided dosing of cefepime was associated with decreased risk of the cefepime-associated morbidities including AKI and CIE without increasing mortality among the hospitalized patients with pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564664PMC
August 2020

Estimating Recurrence after Upfront Surgery in Patients with Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Using Pancreatic CT: Development and Validation of a Risk Score.

Radiology 2020 09 14;296(3):541-551. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

From the Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (D.W.K., S.S.L., J.H.K., H.J.K., J.H.B.), Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (S.O.K.), Department of Oncology (C.Y., K.P.K.), and Department of Surgery (K.B.S., S.C.K.), University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu Seoul, Seoul 138-736, Republic of Korea.

Background No preoperative model is available for predicting postsurgical prognosis of patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Purpose To develop and validate a preoperative risk scoring system using clinical and CT variables to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) after upfront surgery in patients with resectable PDAC. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, consecutive patients with resectable PDAC underwent upfront surgery from January 2014 to December 2015 (development set) and from January 2016 to January 2017 (test set). In the development set, multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling with bootstrapping was used to select clinical and CT variables associated with RFS and to construct a risk scoring system. The discrimination capability of the risk score was assessed by using the Harrell C-index and compared with that of pathologic American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage. The risk score was validated in the test set. Results A total of 395 patients were evaluated, including 262 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 64 years ± 10; 155 men) in the development set and 133 (mean age, 64 years ± 9; 79 men) in the test set. Five independent variables predicted risk of recurrence or death: tumor size (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.44; = .009), hypodense tumor in the portal venous phase (HR, 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.73; = .04), tumor necrosis (HR, 2.04; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.03; < .001), peripancreatic tumor infiltration (HR, 1.50; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.11; = .02), and suspicious metastatic lymph nodes (HR, 1.94; 95% CI: 1.38, 2.72; < .001). In the test set, the risk score showed good discrimination capability (C-index of 0.68; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.74) and outperformed the pathologic tumor stage (C-index of 0.60; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.66; = .03). Patients were categorized into favorable, intermediate, and poor prognosis groups with 1-year RFS of 0.87, 0.58, and 0.26, respectively. Conclusion The presented preoperative risk score can predict recurrence-free survival after upfront surgery in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Pandharipande and Anderson in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200281DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinicopathological characteristics of primary central nervous system lymphoma with low 18F-fludeoxyglucose uptake on brain positron emission tomography.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(20):e20140

Department of Neurosurgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) typically shows a strong uptake of F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) imaged by positron emission tomography (PET). Uncommonly, PCNSL demonstrates a low uptake on FDG PET. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of the unusual cases of PCNSL with low FDG uptake.We retrospectively enrolled 104 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL who underwent baseline brain FDG PET. The degree of FDG uptake of PCNSL was visually scored by 4 grades (0, ≤contralateral white matter; 1, >contralateral white matter and contralateral gray matter). Grades 0-2 were considered as PCNSL with low uptake. We investigated association of low uptake of PCNSL with the following clinicopathological factors: age, sex, steroid treatment, lactate dehydrogenase level, cerebrospinal fluid protein level, condition of PET scanning, immunohistochemical markers (cluster of differentiation 10 [CD10], B-cell lymphoma 6 [BCL-6], B-cell lymphoma 2 [BCL-2], multiple myeloma oncogene 1 [MUM1], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] protein, and Ki67), location of lesions, tumor size, multiplicity of lesions, involvement of deep brain structures, and cystic or necrotic appearance of lesions.Of the 104 patients with PCNSL, 14 patients (13.5%) showed PCNSL with low FDG uptake on PET. Among various clinicopathological factors, MUM1 negativity was the only factor associated with low FDG uptake PCNSL by univariate (P = .002) and multivariate analysis (P = .007).This study suggests that the different clinicopathological characteristics between patients with high uptake and low uptake of PCNSL on FDG PET is closely associated with lack of MUM1, a protein known to be a crucial regulator of B-cell development and tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254841PMC
May 2020

Prognostic Value of Resting Distal-to-Aortic Coronary Pressure in Clinical Practice.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 05 29;13(5):e007868. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Cardiology, Asan Medical Center (J.-M.A., D.-W.P., D.-Y.K., P.H.L., S.-W.L., S.-W.P., S.-J.P.), University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The resting distal-to-aortic coronary pressure ratio (Pd/Pa) is a universally available, hyperemia-free physiological index of coronary stenosis. We investigated clinical outcomes according to resting Pd/Pa versus hyperemic fractional flow reserve (FFR).

Methods: From the IRIS-FFR (Interventional Cardiology Research Incooperation Society Fractional Flow Reserve) registry, 7014 lesions in 4707 patients with valid resting Pd/Pa and FFR were included in this study. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE; a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and repeat intervention). The MACE rate was compared among resting Pd/Pa ≤0.92 and FFR ≤0.80. A marginal Cox model accounted for correlated data in patients with multiple lesions.

Results: During a median follow-up of 2.0 years, 223 MACEs occurred. Resting Pd/Pa was an independent predictor for the occurrence of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.89 [95% CI, 1.32-2.71]; =0.001) over clinical and angiographic variables. When resting Pd/Pa and FFR were added into a multivariable model, MACE was no longer significantly associated with resting Pd/Pa (aHR, 1.35 [95% CI, 0.93-1.97]; =0.12) but remained to be associated with FFR (aHR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.56-3.54]; <0.001). Compared with lesions with normal value of resting Pa/Pa and FFR, lesions with abnormal values of either resting Pd/Pa (aHR, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.17-3.84]; =0.014) or FFR (aHR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.52-3.55]; <0.001) or both (aHR, 2.37 [95% CI, 1.57-3.57]; <0.001) showed a significantly increased risk of the occurrence of MACE.

Conclusions: Resting Pd/Pa appeared to be a less-robust prognostic index than FFR. Resting Pd/Pa could be used as a prognostic index when hyperemic agents are contraindicated or not easily available. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01366404.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.118.007868DOI Listing
May 2020

Rates and Independent Correlates of 10-Year Major Adverse Events and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Left Main Coronary Arterial Revascularization.

Am J Cardiol 2020 04 29;125(8):1148-1153. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Division of Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Patients who underwent myocardial revascularization for significant left main coronary artery disease (LMCA) are at high risks of ischemic events and death during follow-up. We sought to determine the independent correlates for very long-term outcomes after LMCA revascularization, which would be clinical value for risk stratification in such high-risk patients. The 10-year rates of clinical outcomes and independent correlates of adverse events were evaluated in 2,240 patients with LMCA disease in the MAIN-COMPARE registry, including 1,102 patients who underwent stenting and 1,138 who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and target-vessel revascularization (TVR). The 10-year rates of the primary composite outcome, all-cause mortality, and TVR were 24.7%, 22.2%, and 13.6%, respectively. Age >65 years, diabetes, previous heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, chronic renal failure, atrial fibrillation, ejection fraction <40%, and distal LMCA bifurcation disease were independent correlates of the primary outcome in the overall population. Several clinical and anatomic parameters were also identified as independent correlates of all-cause death and TVR. Interaction analysis showed no heterogeneities of the effects of variables depending on revascularization type. These clinical descriptors can assist clinicians in identifying high-risk patients within the broad range of risk for patients who underwent LMCA revascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.01.023DOI Listing
April 2020

Garden-Based Integrated Intervention for Improving Children's Eating Behavior for Vegetables.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 15;17(4). Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Bio and Healing Convergence, Graduate School, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

This study was conducted to develop and verify the effects of a garden-based integrated intervention for improving children's eating behavior for vegetables. A pre-pos-test experimental design was employed. The participants were 202 elementary school students (average age: 11.6 ± 1.5 years). The garden-based integrated intervention program was conducted during regular school hours for a total of 12 weeks. The program, based on a mediator model for improving children's eating behavior, included gardening, nutritional education, and cooking activities utilizing harvests. In order to examine effects of the program, the mediating factors related to children's eating behavior were evaluated using pre-post questionnaires. As a result of the program, dietary self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, gardening knowledge, nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference, and vegetable consumption were significantly increased, and food neophobia was significantly decreased. In addition, there were positive correlations between most mediating factors. Thus, the garden-based integrated intervention developed in this study was effective in improving children's eating behavior for vegetables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068610PMC
February 2020

Wave-CAIPI susceptibility-weighted imaging achieves diagnostic performance comparable to conventional susceptibility-weighted imaging in half the scan time.

Eur Radiol 2020 Apr 17;30(4):2182-2190. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, 102 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the agreement in the detection of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) between conventional susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and fast SWI using wave-controlled aliasing in parallel imaging (CAIPI) acceleration. We also scrutinized the diagnostic agreement for intracranial lesions and compared the image quality between both sequences.

Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived for this retrospective study. We included 181 consecutive patients who had undergone brain MRI with both conventional SWI (scan time, 251 s) and wave-CAIPI SWI (scan time, 113 s) from September 2017 to November 2017. All images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the detection and counting of CMBs using the Microbleed Anatomical Rating Scale (MARS). One neuroradiologist diagnosed intracranial lesions and scored image quality using visual analysis. The agreement for detection of CMBs and intracranial lesions was calculated, and interobserver agreements were analyzed by using kappa and intraclass correlation.

Results: For detection of CMBs, both the conventional and wave-CAIPI SWI showed significantly high agreement of 100% for the presence of CMBs, and 94.5% using MARS. Wave-CAIPI SWI achieved more than 97% agreement of MARS when divided by anatomical locations, with excellent agreement. Interobserver agreements were also excellent. The diagnosis for intracranial lesions (33 lesions in 28 patients) demonstrated 100% agreement. The image quality of both sequences is not significantly different (p = 0.20).

Conclusions: Wave-CAIPI SWI achieved high agreement for CMB detection and diagnosis of intracranial lesions compared to conventional SWI within half of the scan time.

Key Points: • Wave-CAIPI SWI achieves a diagnostic performance for the detection of cerebral microbleeds that is comparable to that of conventional SWI in half the scan time. • Interobserver agreement for the detection (presence vs. absence) and counting of cerebral microbleeds of wave-CAIPI SWI was excellent. • Wave-CAIPI SWI demonstrated a 100% agreement for the diagnosis of intracranial lesions and comparable image quality compared to conventional SWI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06574-1DOI Listing
April 2020
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