Publications by authors named "Seng Joe Lim"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Enzymatic hydrolysis: Sialylated mucin (SiaMuc) glycoprotein of edible swiftlet's nest (ESN) and its molecular weight distribution as bioactive ESN SiaMuc-glycopeptide hydrolysate.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 6;175:422-431. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia; Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor. Electronic address:

Bioactive edible swiftlet's nest (ESN) sialylated-mucin (SiaMuc) hydrolysate is produced by alcalase hydrolysis. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ESN breakdown high-valued ESN SiaMuc-glycoprotein into bioactive SiaMuc-glycopeptide. This is a breakthrough for the issue of insolubility and low extraction rate in ESN, and even increases the bioavailability of ESN nutritional functionality and health benefits. Hydrolysis of ESN SiaMuc-glycoprotein was performed for 1 to 4 h and its effect on physicochemical properties, molecular weight (MW) distribution, SiaMuc-glycoprotein and glycopeptide integrity were determined. Other than improvement in solubility and bioavailability as SiaMuc-glycopeptide, results from SDS-PAGE revealed that MW of SiaMuc-glycoprotein decreased from 42.0-148.8 kDa to 17.7-142.7 kDa with increasing hydrolysis period. Further hydrolysis from maximized DH (90 min) showed an insignificant effect on the MW of ESN SiaMuc-glycopeptide and remained constant at 15.2 kDa. This highlights that enzymatic hydrolysis only influences macro SiaMuc-glycoprotein fractions (142.7, 115.3 and 102.7 kDa), while the majority of SiaMuc-glycopeptide fractions from 36.6-98.6 kDa remained intact. Conclusively, alcalase hydrolysis of ESN showed high recovery in the form of bioactive ESN SiaMuc-glycopeptide. Therefore, enzymatic biotechnology is an economic alternative applicable on ESN that broaden industrial utilization by reducing the MW without destroying the quality of bioactive SiaMuc-glycoprotein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Comprehensive computational target fishing approach to identify Xanthorrhizol putative targets.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 15;11(1):1594. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol (XNT), is a bioactive compound found in Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. This study aimed to determine the potential targets of the XNT via computational target fishing method. This compound obeyed Lipinski's and Veber's rules where it has a molecular weight (MW) of 218.37 gmol, TPSA of 20.23, rotatable bonds (RBN) of 4, hydrogen acceptor and donor ability is 1 respectively. Besides, it also has half-life (HL) values 3.5 h, drug-likeness (DL) value of 0.07, oral bioavailability (OB) of 32.10, and blood-brain barrier permeability (BBB) value of 1.64 indicating its potential as therapeutic drug. Further, 20 potential targets were screened out through PharmMapper and DRAR-CPI servers. Co-expression results derived from GeneMANIA revealed that these targets made connection with a total of 40 genes and have 744 different links. Four genes which were RXRA, RBP4, HSD11B1 and AKR1C1 showed remarkable co-expression and predominantly involved in steroid metabolic process. Furthermore, among these 20 genes, 13 highly expressed genes associated with xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, chemical carcinogenesis and steroid metabolic pathways were identified through gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis. In conclusion, XNT is targeting multiple proteins and pathways which may be exploited to shape a network that exerts systematic pharmacological effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81026-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810825PMC
January 2021

Functional polysaccharides of fucoidan, laminaran and alginate from Malaysian brown seaweeds (Sargassum polycystum, Turbinaria ornata and Padina boryana).

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 11;167:1135-1145. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; Innovation Centre for Confectionery Technology (MANIS), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Brown seaweeds are rich source of functional polysaccharides that exhibit various bioactivities. However, Malaysian seaweeds are under-utilised, leading to low revenue throughout the supply chain of the seaweed industry. The aims of this study were to extract the functional polysaccharides, namely fucoidan (F), laminaran (L) and alginate (A) from Malaysian brown seaweeds (Sargassum polycystum, Turbinaria ornata and Padina boryana) and subsequently evaluate the properties of the extracted polysaccharides. P. boryana recorded the significantly (p ≤ 0.05) highest carbohydrate content (74.78 ± 1.63%) with highest fucoidan yield (F = 1.59 ± 0.16%) while T. ornata contained significantly (p ≤ 0.05) highest alginate yield (A = 105.19 ± 3.45%). Water activities of these extracted polysaccharides varied from 0.63-0.71 with average score of browning indexes (~40). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the extracted polysaccharides exhibited similar spectral pattern of spectra with the respective standards. Meanwhile, laminaran extracts showed the significantly highest (p ≤ 0.05) total phenolic contents (L = 43.29 ± 0.43 mgGAE/g) and superoxide anion scavenging activity (L = 21.7 ± 3.6%). On the other hand, the significantly highest (p ≤ 0.05) DPPH scavenging activity was recorded in alginate with A at 85.3 ± 0.8%. These findings reported the properties and bioactivities of natural polysaccharides from Malaysian brown seaweeds that revealed the potential to develop high-value functional ingredients from Malaysian brown seaweeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.067DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Thermal Processing on Physico-Chemical and Antioxidant Properties in Mulberry Silkworm ( L.) Powder.

Foods 2020 Jul 3;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi 43600, Malaysia.

The mulberry silkworm ( L.) is a common edible insect in many countries. However, the impact of thermal processing, especially regarding Thai silkworm powder, is poorly known. We, therefore, determined the optimum time for treatment in hot water and subsequent drying temperatures in the production of silkworm powder. The silkworms exposed to 90 °C water for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min showed values of Total Phenolic Compounds (TPCs), 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DPPH) assay, 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay, and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay that were significantly ( < 0.05) higher at the 5 min exposure time compared with the other times. The reduction of microorganisms based on log CFU/g counts was ≥3 log CFU/g (99%) at the 5 min treatment. To determine the optimum drying temperature, the silkworms exposed to 90 °C water for 5 min were subjected to a hot-air dryer at 80, 100, 120, and 140 °C. The TPC value was the highest ( < 0.05) at 80 °C. The silkworm powder possessed significantly ( < 0.05) higher DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and ferric ion reducing capability (FRAP assay) at 80 °C compared with other drying temperatures. This study indicates that shorter exposure times to hot water and a low drying temperature preserve the antioxidant activities. High antioxidant activities (in addition to its known protein and fat content) suggest that silkworms and silkworm powder can make a valuable contribution to human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9070871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404714PMC
July 2020

Recovery of value-added glycopeptides from edible bird's nest (EBN) co-products: enzymatic hydrolysis, physicochemical characteristics and bioactivity.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Oct 25;100(13):4714-4722. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor, 43600, Malaysia.

Background: Processing of edible bird's nest (EBN) requires extensive washing to remove impurities and produces huge amounts of EBN co-products, which contain mainly feathers with glycoproteins attached, which are usually discarded. This study was conducted to recover the valuable EBN glycoproteins from the waste material. Enzymatic hydrolysis was applied to recover EBN glycopeptides from EBN co-products (EBN ) and processed cleaned EBN (EBN ) was used as control, which were then freeze-dried into EBN hydrolysates (EBNh and EBNh , respectively).

Results: The recovery yield for EBNh and EBNh were 89.09 ± 0.01% and 47.64 ± 0.26%, respectively, indicating nearly 50% of glycopeptide can be recovered from the waste material. Meanwhile, N-acetylneuraminic acid, a major acid sugar in EBN glycoproteins, of EBNh increased by 229% from 58.6 ± 3.9 to 192.9 ± 3.1 g kg , indicating the enzymatic hydrolysis removed impurities and thus enhanced the N-acetylneuraminic acid content. Total soluble protein was more than 330 g kg for all the samples. Colour parameter showed that hydrolysate samples have greater L* (lightness) values. Chroma result indicates the intensity of all the samples were low (< 11). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum displayed that the EBNh exhibited similar functional groups with EBNh , indicating that the EBN has similar functionality as EBN . Significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities were reported in EBNh after the enzymatic reaction.

Conclusion: EBNh were successfully recovered from low value EBN with enhanced antioxidant activities. The findings of this work are beneficial for the EBN industry to reduce wastage and enhance economic values of EBN co-products, both economically and nutritionally. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10530DOI Listing
October 2020

Alcoholic fermentation of soursop (Annona muricata) juice via an alternative fermentation technique.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Feb 26;100(3):1012-1021. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Wines are produced via the alcoholic fermentation of suitable substrates, usually sugar (sugar cane, grapes) and carbohydrates (wheat, grain). However, conventional alcoholic fermentation is limited by the inhibition of yeast by ethanol produced, usually at approximately 13-14%. Aside from that, soursop fruit is a very nutritious fruit, although it is highly perishable, and thus produces a lot of wastage. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce fermented soursop juice (soursop wine), using combination of two starter cultures, namely mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as well as to determine the effects of fermentation on the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of fermented soursop juice. Optimisation of four factors (pH, temperature, time and culture ratio) using response surface methodology were performed to maximise ethanol production.

Results: The optimised values for alcoholic fermentation were pH 4.99, 28.29 °C, 131 h and a 0.42 culture ratio (42:58, P. pulmonarius mycelia:S. cerevisiae) with a predicted ethanol concentration of 22.25%. Through a verification test, soursop wine with 22.29 ± 0.52% ethanol was produced. The antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase from the soursop juice to soursop wine.

Conclusion: The alternative fermentation technique using yeast and mushroom has successfully been optimised, with an increased ethanol production in soursop wine and higher antioxidant activities. Ultimately, this finding has high potential for application in the brewing industry to enhance the fermentation process, as well as in the development of an innovative niche product, reducing wastage by converting the highly-perishable fruit into wine with a more stable and longer shelf-life. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10103DOI Listing
February 2020

A review on conventional and biotechnological approaches in white pepper production.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Apr 7;99(6):2665-2676. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Centre for Biotechnology and Functional Food, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Malaysia.

White pepper is the dried seeds obtained from pepper berries (Piper nigrum L.) after the removal of the pericarp. It has been widely used as seasoning and condiments in food preparation. Globally, white pepper fetches a higher price compared to black pepper due to its lighter colour, preferable milder flavour and pungency. Increasing global demand of the spice outpaced the supply as the conventional production method used is laborious, lengthy and also not very hygienic. The most common conventional method is water retting but can also include pit soil, chemical, boiling, steaming and mechanical methods. The introduction of a biotechnological approach has gained a lot of interest, as it is a more rapid, convenient and hygienic method of producing white pepper. This technique involves the application of microorganisms and/or enzymes. This review highlights both conventional and latest biotechnological processes of white pepper production. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9481DOI Listing
April 2019

Structural elucidation of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus (Okinawa mozuku).

Food Chem 2019 Jan 9;272:222-226. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemistry of Renewable Resources, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide, made up mainly of l-fucose, which is found in brown seaweeds. Its chemical structure is diverse and depends on maturity, species and geographical location. The objective of this study was to elucidate the chemical structure of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus harvested in Japan. The fucoidan was subject to purification prior to monosaccharide profiling, sulphate content determination, and linkage analysis. Our results showed that Japanese Cladosiphon okamuranus fucoidan contained 70.13 ± 0.22 wt% fucose and 15.16 ± 1.17 wt% sulphate. Other minor monosaccharides found were d-xylose, d-galactose, d-mannose, d-glucose, d-arabinose, d-rhamnose and d-glucuronic acid. Linkage analysis revealed that fucopyranoside units along the backbone are linked, through α-1,3-glycosidic bonds, with fucose branching at C-2, and one sulphate group at C-4 per every three fucose units, i.e. the structure of fucoidan from Japanese Cladosiphon okamuranus is [→3)-α-fuc(1→][→3)-α-fuc-4-OSO-(1→][→2)-α-fuc].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.034DOI Listing
January 2019

Varieties, production, composition and health benefits of vinegars: A review.

Food Chem 2017 Apr 31;221:1621-1630. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Vinegars are liquid products produced from the alcoholic and subsequent acetous fermentation of carbohydrate sources. They have been used as remedies in many cultures and have been reported to provide beneficial health effects when consumed regularly. Such benefits are due to various types of polyphenols, micronutrients and other bioactive compounds found in vinegars that contribute to their pharmacological effects, among them, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidative, antiobesity and antihypertensive effects. There are many types of vinegars worldwide, including black vinegar, rice vinegar, balsamic vinegar and white wine vinegar. All these vinegars are produced using different raw materials, yeast strains and fermentation procedures, thus giving them their own unique tastes and flavours. The main volatile compound in vinegar is acetic acid, which gives vinegar its strong, sour aroma and flavour. Other volatile compounds present in vinegars are mainly alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes and ketones. The diversity of vinegars allows extensive applications in food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.128DOI Listing
April 2017

Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers.

Food Chem 2017 Apr 30;220:225-232. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers was characterized for its proximate composition, physicochemical properties and toxicity. This starch contains 44.47±1.86% amylose, 4.84±0.29% moisture, 0.88±0.21% ash, 1.34±0.11% proteins and 92.73±0.48% carbohydrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed a type-C starch with a relative crystallinity of 23.31±2.41%. The starch granules are polyhedral, with a diameter of 2.8 to 5.6μm and average size of 3.93±1.47μm. Initial, peak and finishing gelatinization temperatures for the starch were 71.51±0.07, 75.05±0.15, and 78.25±0.18°C, respectively; the gelatinization enthalpy was 3.86±0.02J/g, and the peak height index was 1.09±0.05. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a weight loss of 85.81±0.52% and a decomposition temperature of 320.16±0.35°C, which indicated that there was good thermal stability of the starch. Fish embryo toxicity (FET) showed that the starch was not toxic and that it was suitable for food and non-food industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.09.196DOI Listing
April 2017

Characterisation of fucoidan extracted from Malaysian Sargassum binderi.

Food Chem 2016 Oct 18;209:267-73. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide that consists mainly of fucose, normally found in brown seaweeds. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Sargassum binderi (Fsar) from Malaysia and subsequently characterised. The chemical characteristics of Fsar were found to be different than those of commercial food grade fucoidan (Fysk) and those of previously studied fucoidans. NMR analysis proposed that the main structure of Fsar is →3)fuc-2-OSO3(-)(1→3)fuc(1→. The molecular weight (47.87kDa) and degree of sulphation (0.20) of Fsar were higher than those of Fysk, at 27.98kDa and 0.15, respectively. However, Fsar's polydispersity index (1.12) and fucose content (34.50%) were lower than those of Fysk, at 1.88 and 43.30%, respectively. Both Fsar and Fysk showed similar thermo-gravimetric properties with four mass losses, amorphous in nature and negative optical rotations. Results show that Fsar has fundamental characteristics of fucoidan with different structural conformation i.e. variation in glycosidic linkages and sulphate group orientation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.058DOI Listing
October 2016

Chemical properties and toxicology studies of fucoidan extracted from Malaysian .

Food Sci Biotechnol 2016 31;25(Suppl 1):23-29. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide that consists mainly of fucose and is found in brown seaweeds. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from (F) from Malaysia and subsequently characterized in terms of composition, structure and toxicology. It was found that the molecular weight, polydispersity index, monosaccharide profile and degree of sulfation of F differed from those of commercial food-grade fucoidan (F). NMR analysis suggested that the main structure of F was →3)fuc-2-OSO(1→3)fuc-2-OSO(1→. A cytotoxicity study employing up to 200 mg/mL extract showed that cell inhibition was less than 50% (IC), while acute toxicity results classified as category 5 (unclassified) according to the OECD Guideline 423, as no mortality was observed at the highest dosage (2,000 mg/kg). Both toxicity results showed that this material is safe to be consumed. The chemical characteristics and non-toxicity of F demonstrate its potential in biological and food product applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0094-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6049416PMC
March 2016