Publications by authors named "Senbagavalli Prakash Babu"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence and factors associated with diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in South India-a cross-sectional analytical study.

BMJ Open 2021 10 22;11(10):e050542. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, Puducherry, India.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus (DM) among tuberculosis (TB) patients and to assess the additional yield and number needed to screen (NNS) to obtain a newly diagnosed DM among TB patients.

Design: We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the cohort data under Regional Prospective Observational Research for Tuberculosis-India consortium. Newly diagnosed TB patients recruited into the cohort between 2014 and 2018 were included. Pretested standardised questionnaires and tools were used for data collection. Prevalence of DM among TB patients was summarised as proportion with 95% CI. Type II DM was diagnosed if random blood sugar level was >200 mg/dL or if the participant had a documented history of DM. NNS by blood glucose testing to diagnose one new DM case among TB patients was also calculated.

Setting: Three districts of South India: Puducherry, Cuddalore and Villupuram SUBJECTS: Newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients aged ≥16 years RESULTS: In total, 1188 TB patients were included. Prevalence of DM among TB patients was 39% (95% CI: 36.2% to 41.8%). In unadjusted analysis, elderly TB, marital status, caste, gender, higher education level, household income and obesity had a significant association with DM. However, in adjusted analysis, only marital status (currently married aPR; 3.77 (95 CI: 2.20 to 6.49), widowed/separated/divorced aPR; 3.66 (95 CI: 1.96 to 6.83)) and body mass index category (normal weight aPR; 3.26 (95 CI: 2.55 to 4.16), overweight aPR; 3.86 (95 CI: 2.69 to 5.52), obesity aPR; 4.08 (95 CI: 2.81 to 5.94)) were found to be significant determinants. The number of TB patients needed to be screened to find a new DM case was 12.

Conclusion: We found that one in three TB patients had coexisting DM. The number of TB patients needed to be screened to obtain a newly diagnosed DM patients was also determined. The study supports and highlights the need of RNTCP's effort in bidirectional screening of TB and DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8543642PMC
October 2021

'People listen more to what actors say': A qualitative study of tuberculosis-related knowledge, behaviours, stigma, and potential interventions in Puducherry, India.

Glob Public Health 2021 Oct 16:1-13. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

India has made substantial advancements in reducing the burden of tuberculosis (TB), but persons living with active TB (PLWATB) still face myriad challenges in seeking and receiving care, including TB-related stigma. To meet the END TB targets, it is critical that PLWATB engage in care and are able to adhere to treatment. This qualitative study aimed to understand TB-related stigma (perceived, enacted, and internalised) and possible interventions to reduce stigma in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, India. We conducted 47 in-depth interviews with PLWATB and household members and eight focus group discussions: two each with PLWATB, their household members, healthcare workers, and key informants. We found varying TB-related knowledge: the vast majority of interview participants reported incorrect modes of transmission, although most were also aware that TB is curable. Participants reported high levels of perceived stigma, with nearly two-thirds of PLWATB choosing to hide their disease to avoid being stigmatised in their community. Participants supported interventions including celebrity advocacy and school-based programming to increase community knowledge and reduce enacted stigma as well as support groups and counselling to reduce internalised stigma in PLWATB. This study has the potential to inform future interventions to reduce TB-related stigma in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2021.1990372DOI Listing
October 2021

Prevalence and risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among household contacts of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in South India.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Preventive & Social Medicine, JIPMER, Puducherry, India.

Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence and find the risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among the household contacts (HHC) of pulmonary TB patients.

Methods: This cohort study was conducted from 2014 to 2019. Pretested standardised questionnaires and tools were used for data collection. The prevalence of LTBI among HHCs of TB patients was summarised as proportion with 95% confidence interval (CI). Mixed-effects generalised linear modelling function (meglm) in STATA with family Poisson and log link was performed to find the factors associated with LTBI.

Results: In total, 1523 HHC of pulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Almost all HHC shared their residence with the index case (IC) for more than a year; 25% shared the same bed with the IC. The prevalence of LTBI among the HHC of TB patients was 52.6% (95% CI: 50.1-55.1%). In an adjusted model, we found that among HHC belonging to the age group of 19-64 years (aIRR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.3; p-value: 0.02), to the age group >65 years (aIRR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9, p-value: 0.02) and sharing the same bed with the IC (aIRR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3, p value: 0.04) were independent determinants of LTBI among the HHC.

Conclusion: One in two household contacts of TB patients have latent tuberculosis infection. This underscores the need of targeted contact screening strategies, effective contact tracing and testing using standardised methods in high TB burden settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13693DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparison of profile and treatment outcomes between elderly and non-elderly tuberculosis patients in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, South India.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(8):e0256773. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Preventive & Social Medicine, JIPMER, Puducherry, India.

The rising geriatric population and the increased susceptibility of this age group to tuberculosis (TB), the deadliest single infectious agent, is bothersome for India. This study tried to explore the demographic and treatment outcome differences between the elderly (aged 60 years and above) and non-elderly TB (<60 years) patients from South India. This study was part of a large ongoing cohort study under the RePORT India consortium. Newly diagnosed TB patients recruited into the cohort between 2014 and 2018 were included in this study. Pretested and standardized questionnaire and tools were used to collect data and were stored securely for the entire cohort. Required demographic, anthropometric and treatment related variables were extracted from this database and analyzed using Stata version 14.0. Prevalence of elderly TB was summarized as percentage with 95% confidence interval (CI). Generalized linear modelling was attempted to find the factors associated with elderly TB. A total of 1,259 eligible TB patients were included into this present study. Mean (SD) of the participants in the elderly and non-elderly group was 65.8 (6.2) and 40.2 (12.0) respectively. Prevalence of elderly TB was 15.6% (95%CI: 13.6%-17.6%) with nearly 71% belonging to 60-69 age category. Male sex, OBC caste, poor education, unemployment, marriage, alcohol consumption and unable to work as per Karnofsky score were found to be significantly associated with an increased prevalence of elderly TB. Unfavorable outcomes (12% vs 6.5%, p value: 0.018), including death (9.3% vs 3.4%, p value: 0.001) were significantly higher among the elderly group when compared to their non-elderly counterparts. The current TB programme should have strategies to maintain follow up with due attention to adverse effects, social support and outcomes. Additional research should focus on predictors for unfavorable outcomes among the elderly TB group and explore ways to handle the same. Rendering adequate social support from the health system side and family side would be a good start.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256773PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396735PMC
August 2021

Eosinophil Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in TB: What We Know so Far.

Front Immunol 2019 14;10:2639. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

National Institute of Research in Tuberculosis (ICMR), Chennai, India.

Knowledge on the cellular immune responses to infection with has improved drastically in recent years. Though eosinophils and hypereosinophilia are linked with the disease process of tuberculosis, there is paucity of information to prove the actual role played by these polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the existing literature on what is known so far about eosinophils and tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6868031PMC
November 2020
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