Publications by authors named "Senay Simsek"

64 Publications

Do ancient wheats contain less gluten than modern bread wheat, in favour of better health?

Nutr Bull 2022 Jun 13;47(2):157-167. Epub 2022 May 13.

Rothamsted Research Harpenden Hertfordshire UK.

Popular media messaging has led to increased public perception that gluten-containing foods are bad for health. In parallel, 'ancient grains' have been promoted with claims that they contain less gluten. There appears to be no clear definition of 'ancient grains' but the term usually includes einkorn, emmer, spelt and Khorasan wheat. Gluten is present in all wheat grains and all can induce coeliac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Analyses of 'ancient' and 'modern' wheats show that the protein content of modern bread wheat () has decreased over time while the starch content increased. In addition, it was shown that, compared to bread wheat, ancient wheats contain more protein and gluten and greater contents of many CD-active epitopes. Consequently, no single wheat type can be recommended as better for reducing the risks of or mitigating the severity of CD. An estimated 10% of the population of Western countries suffers from gastrointestinal symptoms that lack a clear organic cause and is often referred to as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Many of these patients consider themselves gluten sensitive, but in most cases this is not confirmed when tested in a medical setting. Instead, it may be caused by gas formation due to fermentation of fructans present in wheat or, in some patients, effects of non-gluten proteins. A significant overlap of symptoms with those of CD, IBS and inflammatory bowel disease makes a medical diagnosis a priority. This critical narrative review examines the suggestion that 'ancient' wheat types are preferred for health and better tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nbu.12551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9322029PMC
June 2022

A Review: Cereals on Modulating the Microbiota/Metabolome for Metabolic Health.

Curr Nutr Rep 2022 Sep 3;11(3):371-385. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Diet can modulate both the composition and functionality of the human gut microbiota. Cereals are rich in specific macro and functional elements that are considered important dietary components for maintaining human health; therefore, it is important to examine precise nutritional mechanism involved in exerting the health benefits via modulating gut microbiota. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent research on how different cereals in the diet can regulate the microbiota for health and disease.

Recent Findings: There is an increased interest in targeting the gut microbiome for the treatment of chronic diseases. Cereals can alter the gut microbiome and may improve energy and glucose homeostasis, interfere with host energy homeostasis, appetite, blood glucose regulation, insulin sensitivity, and regulation of host metabolism. However, more human research is necessary to confirm the beneficial health outcomes of cereals via modulating gut microbiota. Cereals play an essential role in shaping the intestinal microbiota that contributes to exerting health effects on various diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13668-022-00424-1DOI Listing
September 2022

Impact of Chlorinated Water on Pathogen Inactivation during Wheat Tempering and Resulting Flour Quality.

J Food Prot 2022 08;85(8):1210-1220

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824.

Abstract: Outbreaks of enteric pathogens linked to wheat flour have led the wheat milling industry to seek solutions addressing this food safety concern. Chlorinated water at 400 to 700 ppm has been used in the flour milling industry as a tempering aid to control growth of yeast and mold in tempering bins. However, the effectiveness of chlorinated water for inactivating enteric pathogens on wheat kernels was unknown. Five strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and two strains of Salmonella were inoculated onto hard red spring wheat at 7 log CFU/g and stored at room temperature for 1 month. Inoculated wheat was tempered with four concentrations (0, 400, 800, and 1,200 ppm) of chlorinated water (pH 6.5). The reduction due to chlorine was determined by calculating change in microbial loads at each chlorine level by using the response at 0 ppm as a reference. Uninoculated wheat tempered with chlorinated water was used to measure flour quality parameters. Changes in pathogen population over 18 h ranged from -2.35 to -0.30 log CFU/g with 800 ppm of chlorinated water and were not significantly different from changes at 400 and 1,200 ppm. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in the extent of reduction were observed among strains. However, the effect of chlorinated water at reducing native microbes on wheat kernels was minimal, with an average reduction of 0.39 log CFU/g for all concentrations. No significant (P > 0.05) changes occurred in flour quality and gluten functionality or during bread making for grains tempered at 400 and 800 ppm of chlorinated water. There were small but significant (P < 0.05) changes in flour protein content, final viscosity, and water absorption when tempered with 1,200 ppm of chlorinated water. The data showed that the level of chlorinated water currently used in industry for tempering could reduce enteric pathogen numbers by 1.22 log CFU/g for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and 2.29 log CFU/g for Salmonella, with no significant effects on flour quality and gluten functionality.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-22-076DOI Listing
August 2022

Analysis of molecular weight and structural changes in water-extractable arabinoxylans during the breadmaking process.

Food Chem 2022 Aug 23;386:132772. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Arabinoxylans are important for dough and breadmaking properties. It is not clear how arabinoxylans of different molecular weights behave during the breadmaking process as well as the changes in individual structures. We investigated changes in the molecular weight and structure of water-extractable arabinoxylans. It was revealed that molecules larger than high molecular weight arabinoxylans were formed during the mixing and 1st fermentation (105 min before 1st punch). High molecular weight arabinoxylan continued to be degraded from mixing to the proofing stage. The arabinose to xylose ratio increased at mixing and the 1st fermentation due to solubilization of highly substituted arabinoxylan. Low molecular weight arabinoxylan did not show degradation and structural changes during the fermentation process, whereas the weight average molecular weight of low molecular weight arabinoxylan significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at mixing. Water extractable arabinoxylan shows different behaviors for molecular weight and structural changes during the breadmaking process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132772DOI Listing
August 2022

Time Course Metabolite Profiling of Fusarium Head Blight-Infected Hard Red Spring Wheat Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time of Flight/MS.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Apr 17;70(13):4152-4163. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Food Science & Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.

Wheat is an important food crop, yet its value is reduced by fungal infections (ex. ). Metabolite profiling is a useful tool for explaining resistance mechanisms. By analyzing near-isogenic lines (NILs) with contrasting alleles and three wheat varieties, a time course resulting in 61 relevant metabolites was studied. The presence of one metabolite as resistant related constitutive late in the time course was detected. Results confirm the presence of hydroxycinnamic acid amides conjugated with polyamine derivatives (hydroxycinnamic acid amides, HCAAs), which have been shown to induce thickening of cell walls. These compounds are shared by resistant and susceptible genotypes with no difference in intensities but vary in time as early- or late-occurring, suggesting that for the NIL studied here, HCAAs were a normal part of the host reaction. Overall, metabolites synthesized as a result of infection were observed regardless of susceptibility but occurred at different times after infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c08374DOI Listing
April 2022

Holistic View of Starch Chemistry, Structure and Functionality in Dry Heat-Treated Whole Wheat Kernels and Flour.

Foods 2022 Jan 12;11(2). Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa.

Heat treatment is used as a pre-processing step to beneficially change the starch properties of wheat flour to enhance its utilisation in the food industry. Heat-treated wheat flour may provide improved eating qualities in final wheat-based products since flour properties predominantly determine the texture and mouthfeel. Dry heat treatment of wheat kernels or milled wheat products involves heat transfer through means of air, a fluidising medium, or radiation-often resulting in moisture loss. Heat treatment leads to changes in the chemical, structural and functional properties of starch in wheat flour by inducing starch damage, altering its molecular order (which influences its crystallinity), pasting properties as well as its retrogradation and staling behaviour. Heat treatment also induces changes in gluten proteins, which may alter the rheological properties of wheat flour. Understanding the relationship between heat transfer, the thermal properties of wheat and the functionality of the resultant flour is of critical importance to obtain the desired extent of alteration of wheat starch properties and enhanced utilisation of the flour. This review paper introduces dry heat treatment methods followed by a critical review of the latest published research on heat-induced changes observed in wheat flour starch chemistry, structure and functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11020207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8774515PMC
January 2022

Stability of Wheat Floret Metabolites during Untargeted Metabolomics Studies.

Metabolites 2022 Jan 11;12(1). Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

A typical metabolomic analysis consists of a multi-step procedure. Variation can be introduced in any analysis segment if proper care in quality assurance is not taken, thus compromising the final results. Sample stability is one of those factors. Although sophisticated studies addressing sample decay over time have been performed in the medical field, they are emerging in plant metabolomics. Here, we focus on the stability of wheat floret extracts on queue inside an auto-injector held at 25 °C. The objective was to locate an analytical time window from extraction to injection with no significant difference occurring in the sample. Total ion current chromatograms, principal component analysis, and volcano plots were used to measure changes in the samples. Results indicate a maximum work window time of 7:45 h for Steele-ND wheat methanolic extractions in an auto-sampler at 25 °C. Comparisons showed a significant gradual increase in the number and intensity of compounds observed that may be caused by the degradation of other molecules in the sample extract. The approach can be applied as preliminary work in a metabolite profiling study, helping to set the appropriate workload to produce confident results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo12010062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8780833PMC
January 2022

Clean Label in Bread.

Foods 2021 Aug 31;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Food Science, 745 Agricultural Mall Drive, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Bread is considered a staple food worldwide, and therefore there is much interest in research around the topic. The bread industry is usually looking for ways to improve its formulations. Therefore, other ingredients such as dough conditioners, crumb softeners, emulsifiers, and surfactants can be added to enhance bread quality. These ingredients perform functions such as helping standardize processes in the industry, reducing dough-mixing time, increasing water absorption, improving bread quality, and extending its shelf life. Consumers are concerned about the effect of these ingredients on their health, and this has increased the popularity of clean-label bread formulations. A clean label generally indicates that a product is free of chemical additives, has an ingredient list that is easy to understand, has undergone natural or limited processing, and/or is organic and free of additives or preservatives. However, there is no scientific definition of the term "clean label." Researchers have focused on these clean-label initiatives to replace dough strengtheners and preservatives in bread formulations and give consumers what they perceive as a healthier product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10092054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466822PMC
August 2021

Transcriptome Alterations of an -Selected, Moderately Resistant, Two-Row Malting Barley in Response to 3ADON, 15ADON, and NIV Chemotypes of .

Front Plant Sci 2021 11;12:701969. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Fusarium head blight caused by is a devastating disease of malting barley. Mycotoxins associated with contaminated grain can be transferred from malt to beer and pose a health risk to consumers. In western Canada, has undergone an adaptive shift from 15ADON constituency to dominance by virulent 3ADON-producers; likewise, NIV-producers have established in regions of southern United States. Lack of adapted resistance sources with adequate malting quality has promoted the use of alternative breeding methodologies, such as selection. We studied the low-deoxynivalenol characteristic of selected, two-row malting barley variety "Norman" by RNAseq in contrast to its parental line "CDC Kendall," when infected by 15ADON-, 3ADON-, and NIV-producing isolates of . The current study documents higher mycotoxin accumulation by 3ADON isolates, thereby representing increased threat to barley production. At 72-96-h post infection, significant alterations in transcription patterns were observed in both varieties with pronounced upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway and detoxification gene categories (UGT, GST, CyP450, and ABC), particularly in 3ADON treatment. Defense response was multitiered, where differential expression in "Norman" associated with antimicrobial peptides (thionin 2.1, defensing, non-specific lipid-transfer protein) and stress-related proteins, such as late embryogenesis abundant proteins, heat-shock, desiccation related, and a peroxidase (). Several gene targets identified in "Norman" would be useful for application of breeding varieties with reduced deoxynivalenol content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.701969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385242PMC
August 2021

Fate of Salmonella and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on Wheat Grain.

J Food Prot 2021 12;84(12):2109-2115

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Abstract: Wheat flour has been connected to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses with increased frequency in recent years, specifically, outbreaks involving Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). However, there is little information regarding the survival of these pathogens on wheat grain during long-term storage in a low-moisture environment. This study aims to evaluate the long-term survival of these enteric pathogens on wheat grain over the course of a year. Hard red spring wheat was inoculated with strains of four serovars of Salmonella (Enteritidis, Agona, Tennessee, and Montevideo) and six serotypes of EHEC (O157:H7, O26:H11, O121:H19, O45:NM, O111:H8, and O103:H2) in triplicate, sealed in Mylar bags to maintain the water activity, and stored at room temperature (22 ± 1°C). The survival of each pathogen was evaluated by plating onto differential media. Viable counts of strains from all four serovars of Salmonella (Enteritidis, Agona, Tennessee, and Montevideo) were detected on wheat grain stored at room temperature (22 ± 1°C) for the duration of the study (52 weeks). Viable counts of strains from EHEC serotypes O45:NM, O111:H8, and O26:H11 were only detected for 44 weeks, and strains from serotypes O157:H7, O121:H19, and O103:H2 were only detected for 40 weeks until they passed below the limit of detection (2.0 log CFU/g). The D-values were found to be significantly different between Salmonella and EHEC (adjusted P ≤ 0.05) with Salmonella D-values ranging from 22.9 ± 2.2 weeks to 25.2 ± 1.0 weeks and EHEC D-values ranging from 11.4 ± 0.6 weeks to 13.1 ± 1.8 weeks. There were no significant differences among the four Salmonella strains or among the six EHEC strains (adjusted P > 0.05). These observations highlight the wide range of survival capabilities of enteric pathogens in a low-moisture environment and confirm these pathogens are a food safety concern when considering the long shelf life of wheat grain and its products.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-21-076DOI Listing
December 2021

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Yield and Related Traits Under Drought Stressed and Non-stressed Environments in Wheat.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:649988. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA, United States.

Understanding the genetics of drought tolerance in hard red spring wheat (HRSW) in northern USA is a prerequisite for developing drought-tolerant cultivars for this region. An association mapping (AM) study for drought tolerance in spring wheat in northern USA was undertaken using 361 wheat genotypes and Infinium 90K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. The genotypes were evaluated in nine different locations of North Dakota (ND) for plant height (PH), days to heading (DH), yield (YLD), test weight (TW), and thousand kernel weight (TKW) under rain-fed conditions. Rainfall data and soil type of the locations were used to assess drought conditions. A mixed linear model (MLM), which accounts for population structure and kinship (PC+K), was used for marker-trait association. A total of 69 consistent QTL involved with drought tolerance-related traits were identified, with ≤ 0.001. Chromosomes 1A, 3A, 3B, 4B, 4D, 5B, 6A, and 6B were identified to harbor major QTL for drought tolerance. Six potential novel QTL were identified on chromosomes 3D, 4A, 5B, 7A, and 7B. The novel QTL were identified for DH, PH, and TKW. The findings of this study can be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for drought-tolerance breeding in spring wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.649988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258415PMC
June 2021

Comparative Study on Kernel Quality and Chemical Composition of Ancient and Modern Wheat Species: Einkorn, Emmer, Spelt and Hard Red Spring Wheat.

Foods 2021 Apr 2;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Cereal Science Graduate Program, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA.

Hulled wheat species are often used as whole grains in processing, and have been attracting attention in the last 20 years in the food industry. Whole wheat flour of hulled wheat can be used in the food industry for value addition. This study was conducted to evaluate the kernel quality and chemical composition of the whole grain flour of hulled wheats as a preliminary approach to use these species for value addition. The experimental design was separate, randomized complete block designs for einkorn, emmer, and spelt, with four field replicates. According to the results, significant differences ( < 0.05) were observed in kernel quality traits, such as test weight, 1000 kernel weight, and kernel hardness, compared to hard red spring wheat. The results of the chemical composition revealed that hulled wheats were characterized by significantly lower ( < 0.05) protein and higher ( < 0.05) crude fat contents compared to whole wheat flour of hard red spring wheat. Among hulled wheats, total dietary fiber content was highest in emmer, followed by einkorn and spelt. In conclusion, the whole wheat flour of einkorn, emmer, and spelt used in this study differ from hard red spring wheat in their kernel quality and chemical composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066832PMC
April 2021

Physicochemical and multi-scale structural alterations of pea starch induced by supercritical carbon dioxide + ethanol extraction.

Food Chem 2021 May 24;344:128699. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Dairy and Food Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to establish the impacts of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) processing on the physicochemical properties of pea flour and the structure of isolated pea starch. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in protein content and reduction in several pasting and thermal parameters as measured by rapid visco-analyzer and differential scanning calorimeter were observed after SFE. Additionally, SFE increased starch digestibility as determined by an in vitro starch digestion assay. An increased amylopectin content and crystallinity along with the loss of double helix content was supported by size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR data, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed minimal alterations of starch, by SFE, in long-range crystalline and morphological structure of starch granules, respectively. The data demonstrated SFE influenced the physicochemical and structural characteristics of pea starch. These outcomes illustrated that SFE might be a green and novel technology for starch modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128699DOI Listing
May 2021

Alginate-based double-network hydrogel improves the viability of encapsulated probiotics during simulated sequential gastrointestinal digestion: Effect of biopolymer type and concentrations.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 12;165(Pt B):1675-1685. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Food Ingredients and Biopolymers Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA. Electronic address:

The impact of secondary polysaccharide, i.e., low methoxyl pectin (LMP) or κ-carrageenan (KC), and its concentration (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6%) on particle size, shape, morphological, textural properties and swelling behavior of sodium alginate (ALG)- based double-network hydrogel particles, as well as the viability of encapsulated probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in simulated sequential gastrointestinal (GI) digestion was investigated. We found the addition of LMP impaired the sphericity of double-network hydrogel particles, while the incorporation of KC increased the particle size. The FT-IR results indicated the miscibility and cross-linking capacity of the two polysaccharides in forming double-network hydrogel particles. With respect to the swelling behavior in simulated GI digestion, all hydrogel particles shrank in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) but swelled in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Among the two types of double-networking, ALG-KC hydrogel particles showed noticeable shrank in SGF in conjunction with the reduced swelling in SIF, which was unfavorable for protection and the controlled release of probiotics. In the case of death rate of encapsulated LGG, the presence of LMP at a lower level (0.2 or 0.4%) exhibited protective effect against LGG death during the sequential GI digestion, while addition of KC demonstrated an opposite role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.028DOI Listing
December 2020

Preparation and Characterization of Inclusion Complexes of -Cyclodextrin and Phenolics from Wheat Bran by Combination of Experimental and Computational Techniques.

Molecules 2020 Sep 18;25(18). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA.

Bitterness often associated with whole wheat products may be related to phenolics in the bran. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are known to form inclusion complexes. The objective was to form inclusion complexes between -CD and wheat phenolics. Pure phenolic acids (trans-ferulic acid (FA), caffeic acid (CA), and -coumaric acid (CO)) and phenolic acids from wheat bran were used to investigate complex formation potential. Complexes were characterized by spectroscopy techniques, and a computational and molecular modeling study was carried out. The relative amount of complex formation between -CD and wheat bran extract was CA > CO > FA. The phenolic compounds formed inclusion complexes with -CDs by non-covalent bonds. The quantum-mechanical calculations supported the experimental results. The most stable complex was CO/-CD complex. The Δ value for CO/-CD complex was -11.72 kcal/mol and was about 3 kcal/mol more stable than the other complexes. The QSPR model showed good correlation between binding energy and H NMR shift for the H signal. This research shows that phenolics and -CD inclusion complexes could be utilized to improve the perception of whole meal food products since inclusion complexes have the potential to mask the bitter flavor and enhance the stability of the phenolics in wheat bran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7570723PMC
September 2020

Go clean label: replacement of commercial dough strengtheners with hard red spring wheat flour in bread formulations.

J Food Sci Technol 2020 Oct 15;57(10):3581-3590. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Plant Sciences, Cereal Science Graduate Program, Department 7640, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108-6050 USA.

There is growing interest in the application of natural ingredients to replace chemical dough improvers in bread formulations in order to meet consumer demands of clean label products. The goal of this study was to evaluate the dough quality and baking quality of hard red spring (HRS) wheat flour blends to replace commercial dough improvers. Hard red winter (HRW) wheat flour is commonly used in bread and diner roll formulations. In this study, doughs were prepared by adding 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of HRS wheat flour to HRW wheat base-flour to compare the dough quality and baking quality relative to different levels of commercial improvers. Additional to commercial HRS flour, two commonly grown HRS wheat varieties (Glenn and Linkert) were included in the study. All of the HRS wheat flour blends had significantly (p < 0.05) higher farinograph stability and extensograph resistance at 135 min than doughs containing most of the commercial additives. Bread flour with 40% Glenn and 40% Linkert showed the highest loaf volumes of 920 cm and 950 cm, respectively with the firmness of 1553.50 and 1525.50 mN, respectively. Baking quality of HRS wheat flour blends also showed significant (p < 0.05) correlation with dough rheology but commercial additives did not have the correlations. Therefore, HRS wheat flour may be used as a replacement for dough improvers, as it had better dough and bread properties compared to commercial additives and provides a great alternative for "clean-label" bread products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04390-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447701PMC
October 2020

Surface Treatment of Carbon Nanotubes Using Modified Tapioca Starch for Improved Force Detection Consistency in Smart Cementitious Materials.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 17;20(14). Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Nanoenvirology Research Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA.

The remarkable mechanical properties and piezo-responses of carbon nanotubes (CNT) makes this group of nanomaterials an ideal candidate for use in smart cementitious materials to monitor forces and the corresponding structural health conditions of civil structures. However, the inconsistency in measurements is the major challenge of CNT-enabled smart cementitious materials to be widely applied for force detection. In this study, the modified tapioca starch co-polymer is introduced to surface treat the CNTs for a better dispersion of CNTs; thus, to reduce the inconsistency of force measurements of the CNTs modified smart cementitious materials. Cement mortar with bare (unmodified) CNTs (direct mixing method) and surfactant surface treated CNTs using sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (NaDDBS) were used as the control. The experimental results showed that when compared with samples made from bare CNTs, the samples made by modified tapioca starch co-polymer coated CNTs (CCNTs) showed higher dynamic load induced piezo-responses with significantly improved consistency and less hysteresis in the cementitious materials. When compared with the samples prepared with the surfactant method, the samples made by the developed CCNTs showed slightly increased force detection sensitivity with significantly improved consistency in piezo-response and only minor hysteresis, indicating enhanced dispersion effectiveness. The new CNT surface coating method can be scaled up easily to cater the potential industry needs for future wide application of smart cementitious materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20143985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7412146PMC
July 2020

Evaluation of Chemical Properties, Amino Acid Contents and Fatty Acid Compositions of Sesame Seed Provided from Different Locations.

J Oleo Sci 2020 Aug 9;69(8):795-800. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University.

In this study, chemical properties, amino acid contents, fatty acid compositions of sesame seeds dependin on growing locations of sesame plants were evaluated. Protein contents of sesame seeds changed between 20.80% (Afghanistan) and 26.01% (India). Oil contents of seeds were changed between 44.69% (Mozambique) and 55.37% (Niger-Kany). Crude fiber contents of sesame seeds ranged from 17.30% (Ethiopia-Volega) to 28.78% (Mozambique). The highest protein, crude oil and crude fiber were found in India, Niger-Kany and Mozambique sesame seed samples, respectively. In addition, while glutamic acid contends of seeds change between 3.28% (Uganda and Niger-Benje) and 4.57% (India), arginine contents of seeds ranged from 2.36% (Uganda) to 3.10% (India). The total amino acid contents of sesame seeds ranged from 18.12% (Uganda) to 23.51% (India). Palmitic acid contents of sesame oils ranged from 7.93% (Uganda) to 9.55% (Burkina Faso). While oleic acid contents of sesame seed oils are found between 35.88% (Mozambique) and 44.54% (Afghanistan), linoleic acid contents of oils ranged from 37.41% (Afghanistan) to 47.44% (Mozambique). The high amount of protein, oil contents, amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids can be positively considered from the nutritional point of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess20041DOI Listing
August 2020

Effects of pre-harvest glyphosate use on protein composition and shikimic acid accumulation in spring wheat.

Food Chem 2020 Dec 27;332:127422. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108-6050, USA. Electronic address:

During wheat cultivation, glyphosate-based herbicides are recommended to be applied a week prior to harvest during the ripe stage of physiological maturity. However, some grains may not be at this physiological stage due to non-uniform maturation within the field. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of glyphosate-based herbicide timing on the chemistry of wheat gluten proteins and shikimic acid accumulation. The results of the study indicate that pre-harvest glyphosate application does not impact the amino acid composition, protein secondary structure or gluten protein composition. However, pre-harvest glyphosate application decreased the molecular weight of SDS extractable and unextractable proteins, and significantly increased the amount of shikimic acid accumulation, especially when applied early. Thus, this study indicates that pre-harvest use of glyphosate-based herbicides can cause significant differences in wheat protein chemistry and shikimic acid levels, especially when applied earlier than recommended, emphasizing the importance of timely application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127422DOI Listing
December 2020

Pre-harvest glyphosate application and effects on wheat starch chemistry: Analysis from application to harvest.

J Food Biochem 2020 08 18;44(8):e13330. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA.

The objective of this study was to determine if the pre-harvest glyphosate application time affects the chemistry of wheat starch. Glyphosate was sprayed at the ripe stage (recommended) and the soft dough stage (early application) of hard red spring wheat. Wheat kernel samples were collected before application and every 3 days until harvest, after which different starch characteristics were analyzed. The results indicate that glyphosate timing does not impact the spatial distribution or morphology of starch granules, as well as the percentage or molecular weight of amylose and amylopectin. However, thermal characteristics of wheat starch, especially when glyphosate was applied at the soft dough stage, showed significant differences. A decrease in the average amylopectin chain length and differences in the proportion of short-, medium-, and long-chain amylopectin was also observed. Overall, this study shows that the pre-harvest application of glyphosate can affect wheat starch chemistry, especially if applied earlier than recommended. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide in the world, and it is sometimes used pre-harvest during wheat cultivation. The recommended time of application is 7 days prior to harvest when the crops are in the ripe stage of physiological maturity. However, some crops may not be at this stage during application due to non-uniform maturation in the field. The goal of this work was to determine the effect of glyphosate application time (recommended/ripe stage vs. early/soft dough stage) on wheat starch chemistry. The results show that the starch chain length characteristics and thermal behavior are impacted, especially if applied early. Thus, this study shows the importance of timely application to avoid effects on starch chemical properties, which in return could impact starch functionality in food systems. This information is critical in the field of agriculture and to our knowledge this study is one of the first in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13330DOI Listing
August 2020

Physical, Barrier, Mechanical, and Biodegradability Properties of Modified Starch Films with Nut By-Products Extracts.

Foods 2020 Feb 20;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, PO Box 6050, Dept# 7670, Fargo, ND 58108-6050, USA.

Starch-based films with phenolic extracts could replace the use of petroleum-based plastics. In this study, octenyl succinate starch (OSS) films with pecan nutshell extract (PSE) or hazelnut skin extract (HSE) were prepared. The water resistance, as well as the optical, physical, mechanical, and biodegradable properties of these films, were investigated. The PSE and HSE improved the water resistance (decreasing the solubility to 17% and increasing the contact angle to 96.80°) and UV-light barrier properties of the films. For PSE and HSE, as their concentrations increased, the film rigidity decreased since these extracts acted as plasticizers. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depicted a homogeneous surface as a result of extracts dispersion through the polymeric matrix and the interactions between the phenolic compounds (PC) of the extracts and the OSS. The phenolic extracts from nut by-products and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch could be used to develop films to replace the conventional plastics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9020226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073851PMC
February 2020

Viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG microencapsulated in alginate/chitosan hydrogel particles during storage and simulated gastrointestinal digestion: role of chitosan molecular weight.

Soft Matter 2020 Feb;16(7):1877-1887

Food Ingredients and Biopolymers Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA.

Sodium alginate hydrogel particles coated with cationic biopolymers have been shown to be one of the promising means for probiotic encapsulation and protection. In this study, we aimed to systematically explore the effect of molecular weight of chitosan coating on the functional performance of sodium alginate hydrogel particles for improving the viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). We first electrostatically deposited three different molecular weights of chitosan coatings, i.e., chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), low molecular weight chitosan (LMW-chitosan) and medium molecular weight chitosan (MMW-chitosan) on sodium alginate hydrogel particles. Both SEM and FTIR results indicated that chitosan was successfully deposited onto the surface of the hydrogel particles. We then evaluated the effect of chitosan MW on the viability of LGG encapsulated in the hydrogels during long-term storage and simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Among them, the hydrogel particles coated with COS prevented the viability loss of LLG during long-term storage at different temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). However, we did not find any improvement in the viability of the encapsulated LGG by all three chitosan coatings during simulated digestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sm02387aDOI Listing
February 2020

Effect of Vacuum Steam Treatment of Hard Red Spring Wheat on Flour Quality and Reduction of Escherichia coli O121 and Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30.

J Food Prot 2020 May;83(5):836-843

Department of Plant Sciences (ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0238-5947 [S.S.]) and.

Abstract: Recent outbreaks traced to contaminated flour have created a need in the milling industry for a process that reduces pathogens in wheat while maintaining its functional properties. Vacuum steam treatment is a promising technology for treatment of low-moisture foods. Traditional thermal treatment methods can compromise wheat functionality due to high temperatures; thus, maintaining the functional quality of the wheat protein was critical for this research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vacuum steam treatment of hard red spring (HRS) wheat kernels on final flour quality and the overall efficacy of vacuum stream treatment for reducing pathogens on HRS wheat kernels. HRS wheat samples were treated with steam under vacuum at 65, 70, 75, and 85°C for 4 and 8 min. Significant changes in dough and baked product functionality were observed for treatments at ≥70°C. Treatment time had no significant effect on the qualities evaluated. After determining that vacuum steam treatment at 65°C best preserved product quality, HRS wheat was inoculated with Escherichia coli O121 and Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 and processed at 65°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. The treatments achieved a maximum average reduction of 3.57 ± 0.33 log CFU/g for E. coli O121 and 3.21 ± 0.27 log CFU/g for Salmonella. Vacuum steam treatment could be an effective pathogen inactivation method for the flour milling industry.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-19-491DOI Listing
May 2020

Preharvest Glyphosate Application during Wheat Cultivation: Effects on Wheat Starch Physicochemical Properties.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Jan 7;68(2):503-511. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Plant Sciences , NDSU Dept. 7670 , PO Box 6050, Fargo , North Dakota 58108-6050 , United States.

Due to nonuniform maturation, some plants may not be at the recommended stage of maturity when preharvest glyphosate is applied. The objective of this study was to determine how preharvest glyphosate timing affects wheat starch physicochemical properties. Two wheat cultivars were grown in three locations, and glyphosate was applied at the soft dough stage (early application) and the ripe stage (commercial standard). Upon harvest, starch chemical characteristics were studied. The proportion of B-type starch granules was lower in treated samples, although the starch molecular weight was not affected. Rapidly digestible starch content was highest when glyphosate was applied at the ripe stage, and lowest in the control, and vice versa for slowly digestible starch. Additionally, flour pasting viscosity was significantly higher in samples treated at the soft dough stage. Overall, the effects on wheat starch physicochemical characteristics were more pronounced when glyphosate was applied at the soft dough stage of maturity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b06456DOI Listing
January 2020

Celiac Antigenicity of Ancient Wheat Species.

Foods 2019 Dec 12;8(12). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108-6050, USA.

Ancient grains have gained renewed interest in the last few years due to their perceived nutritional benefits. The goal of this study was to examine the presence of celiac epitopes in different ancient grains and determine differences in the gliadin protein profile of such grains. To investigate celiac epitopes, an untargeted mass spectrometric method was used, and the gliadin protein profile was studied using reverse phase-HPLC. Our findings show that celiac epitopes can be detected in wheat-related ancient grains, such as einkorn, emmer, and Kamut, indicating that these ancient grains have the potential to elicit the immune response associated with celiac disease. Additionally, the results showed that the gliadin protein composition is significantly different between ancient grain species, which could result in varying functional properties in end-use applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8120675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963764PMC
December 2019

Effect of Varieties on Bioactive Properties and Mineral Contents of Some Sorghum, Millet and Lupin Seeds.

J Oleo Sci 2019 Nov 15;68(11):1063-1071. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Food Science & Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University.

In this study, some physico-chemical properties, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars and mineral contents of sorghum, millet and lupin seeds. Sorghum (red, white and yellow) and millet seeds were purchased from market in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh). Lupin seeds were provided from in Turkey (Konya). Protein contents of seed samples ranged from 8.6% (yellow sorghum) to 37.7% (lutop) (p < 0.05). The extractable phenolics contents for gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of grains ranged between 1.43 mgGAE/g (white sorghum) to 8.23 mgGAE/g (red sorghum), and hydrolysable phenolics contents for GAE of grains varied between 1.48 mgGAE/g (white sorghum) to 26.10 mgGAE/g (red sorghum (p < 0.05). Total phenol contents of seeds were found between 2769 mg GAE/g (bablon) to 6087 mgGAE/g (yellow sorghum) (p < 0.05). Amino acid contents of millet changed between 0.02% (ornithine) and 2.07% (glutamic acid), while amino acid contents of yellow sorghum range from 0.02% (hydroxyproline) to 1.71% (glutamic acid), amino acid values of white sorghum changed between 0.02% (hydroxyproline) and 2.21% (glutamic acid), amino acid values of lutop seed changed between 0.02% (ornithine) and 6.77% (glutamic acid) (p < 0.05).While the oleic acid contents change between 25.27% (white sorghum) and 53.50% (Bablone), linoleic acid contents ranged from 14.60% (Bablone) to 42.67% (Millet) (p < 0.05). However, the amount of potassium in the seeds varied between 1831.34 mg/kg (while sorghum) and 11895.8 mg/kg (Lutop). Generally, protein, oleic acid, amino acid and mineral contents of lupin varieties were higher as compared to those of millet phenol, anthocyanin and sorghum seeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess19113DOI Listing
November 2019

Genome wide genetic dissection of wheat quality and yield related traits and their relationship with grain shape and size traits in an elite × non-adapted bread wheat cross.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(9):e0221826. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, United States of America.

The genetic gain in yield and quality are two major targets of wheat breeding programs around the world. In this study, a high density genetic map consisting of 10,172 SNP markers identified a total of 43 genomic regions associated with three quality traits, three yield traits and two agronomic traits in hard red spring wheat (HRSW). When compared with six grain shape and size traits, the quality traits showed mostly independent genetic control (~18% common loci), while the yield traits showed moderate association (~53% common loci). Association of genomic regions for grain area (GA) and thousand-grain weight (TGW), with yield suggests that targeting an increase in GA may help enhancing wheat yield through an increase in TGW. Flour extraction (FE), although has a weak positive phenotypic association with grain shape and size, they do not share any common genetic loci. A major contributor to plant height was the Rht8 locus and the reduced height allele was associated with significant increase in grains per spike (GPS) and FE, and decrease in number of spikes per square meter and test weight. Stable loci were identified for almost all the traits. However, we could not find any QTL in the region of major known genes like GPC-B1, Ha, Rht-1, and Ppd-1. Epistasis also played an important role in the genetics of majority of the traits. In addition to enhancing our knowledge about the association of wheat quality and yield with grain shape and size, this study provides novel loci, genetic information and pre-breeding material (combining positive alleles from both parents) to enhance the cultivated gene pool in wheat germplasm. These resources are valuable in facilitating molecular breeding for wheat quality and yield improvement.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221826PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6750600PMC
March 2020

How Do Arabinoxylan Films Interact with Water and Soil?

Foods 2019 Jun 17;8(6). Epub 2019 Jun 17.

North Dakota State University, Department of Plant Sciences, Cereal Science Graduate Program, Fargo, ND 6050, USA.

Biodegradable materials made from cereal arabinoxylan could provide an alternative source of packaging to replace current nonbiodegradable plastics. The main purpose of this research was to determine how arabinoxylan (AX) films made from wheat bran (WB) AX, maize bran (MB) AX, and dried distillers grain (DDG) AX made with either glycerol or sorbitol at varying levels (10, 25 or 50%) interacts with soil and water. The biodegradability of all films ranged from 49.4% biodegradable (DDG AX with 10% sorbitol) to 67.7% biodegradable (MB AX with 50% glycerol). In addition, the MB AX films with 25% sorbitol had the lowest moisture content at 9.7%, the MB AX films with 10% glycerol had the highest water solubility at 95.6%, and the MB AX films with 50% glycerol had the highest water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) at 90.8 g h m. Despite these extreme trends in the MB AX films, the WB AX films were the least hydrophilic on average while the DDG AX films were the most hydrophilic on average. The 18 materials developed in this research demonstrate varying affinities for water and biodegradation. These materials can be used for many different packaging materials, based on their unique characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8060213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617299PMC
June 2019

Effect of germination on the chemical composition, thermal, pasting, and moisture sorption properties of flours from chickpea, lentil, and yellow pea.

Food Chem 2019 Oct 24;295:579-587. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. Electronic address:

Chemical composition, thermal, pasting, and moisture adsorption properties of flours from chickpea (Cicer aretinium L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Merr.), and yellow pea (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated over a 6-day germination. Protein content increased for pulses over germination while lentil had the highest protein content that increased from 30.65 to 33.60 g/100 g dry basis (d.b.). Lipid content in pulse flours decreased over germination with chickpea having the greatest decline, i.e. from 8.00 to 5.90 g/100 g (d.b.). Total starch decreased in lentil and yellow pea flours during germination, while there was no significant change (p > 0.05) in germinated chickpea flours. Thermal properties of pulse flours changed slightly, while pasting properties varied among pulses. The highest final viscosities for chickpea, lentil, and yellow pea flours were 1061, 981, and 1052 cP and were observed after 2, 1, and 0 days of germination, respectively. Moisture adsorption isotherms showed improved water adsorption capability after germination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.167DOI Listing
October 2019

Deciphering the Genetics of Major End-Use Quality Traits in Wheat.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 05 7;9(5):1405-1427. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797

Improving the end-use quality traits is one of the primary objectives in wheat breeding programs. In the current study, a population of 127 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Glenn (PI-639273) and Traverse (PI-642780) was developed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 16 end-use quality traits in wheat. The phenotyping of these 16 traits was performed in nine environments in North Dakota, USA. The genotyping for the RIL population was conducted using the wheat Illumina iSelect 90K SNP assay. A high-density genetic linkage map consisting of 7,963 SNP markers identified a total of 76 additive QTL (A-QTL) and 73 digenic epistatic QTL (DE-QTL) associated with these traits. Overall, 12 stable major A-QTL and three stable DE-QTL were identified for these traits, suggesting that both A-QTL and DE-QTL played an important role in controlling end-use quality traits in wheat. The most significant A-QTL () was detected on chromosome 1B for mixograph middle line peak time. The A-QTL was located very close to the position of the Glu-B1 gene encoding for a subunit of high molecular weight glutenin and explained up to 24.43% of phenotypic variation for mixograph MID line peak time. A total of 23 co-localized QTL loci were detected, suggesting the possibility of the simultaneous improvement of the end-use quality traits through selection procedures in wheat breeding programs. Overall, the information provided in this study could be used in marker-assisted selection to increase selection efficiency and to improve the end-use quality in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.119.400050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505165PMC
May 2019
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