Publications by authors named "Selvam Sekar"

10 Publications

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Modeling of aquifer vulnerability index using deep learning neural networks coupling with optimization algorithms.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

College of Petroleum Engineering & Geosciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia.

A reliable assessment of the aquifer contamination vulnerability is essential for the conservation and management of groundwater resources. In this study, a recent technique in artificial intelligence modeling and computational optimization algorithms have been adopted to enhance the groundwater contamination vulnerability assessment. The original DRASTIC model (ODM) suffers from the inherited subjectivity and a lack of robustness to assess the final aquifer vulnerability to nitrate contamination. To overcome the drawbacks of the ODM, and to maximize the accuracy of the final contamination vulnerability index, two levels of modeling strategy were proposed. The first modeling strategy used particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE) algorithms to determine the effective weights of DRASTIC parameters and to produce new indices of ODVI-PSO and ODVI-DE based on the ODM formula. For strategy-2, a deep learning neural networks (DLNN) model used two indices resulting from strategy-1 as the input data. The adjusted vulnerability index in strategy-2 using the DLNN model showed more superior performance compared to the other index models when it was validated for nitrate values. Study results affirmed the capability of the DLNN model in strategy-2 to extract the further information from ODVI-PSO and ODVI-DE indices. This research concluded that strategy-2 provided higher accuracy for modeling the aquifer contamination vulnerability in the study area and established the efficient applicability for the aquifer contamination vulnerability modeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14522-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Environmental contamination by heavy metals and associated human health risk assessment: a case study of surface water in Gomti River Basin, India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Water and Environment, Chang'an University, No. 126 Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710054, Shaanxi, China.

The aim of the present study was to assess the status of heavy metal contamination and health risks associated with the use of water from River Gomti by millions of people. The value of the degree of contamination (C) was found to be '11.93', signifying 'high' risk levels due to heavy metal contamination in River Gomti across an approximate stretch of 61 km including upstream, midstream, and downstream locations of Lucknow city. The potential sources of heavy metal pollution in River Gomti include both sewage and industrial effluents, being transported by drains which overflow into the river. The heavy metals were found to have low mobility owing to the 'near neutral' pH of river water. The findings from the human health risk assessment revealed that the hazard index associated with non-carcinogenic risks exceeded the permissible limits at all sampling stations. The highest health risk was found at Bharwara sewage treatment plant discharge point, downstream of Lucknow city signifying the elevated levels of heavy metal in the river water post treatment from Bharwara STP. The results of carcinogenic risk assessment suggested that children were more susceptible to health risks, and immediate remedial measures are required to control the elevated levels of heavy metals at all the sampling stations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14592-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Recent environmental geochemical trends in water and sediments-a framework on OSPRC.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr;28(15):18421-18422

Department of Applied Geology, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Curtin University Malaysia, CDT 250, 98009, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988380PMC
April 2021

Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on the water quality index of River Gomti, India, with potential hazard of faecal-oral transmission.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Centre of Advanced Study in Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, 226007, India.

The COVID-19 lockdown has been reported as a "ventilator" for the reinstatement of natural resources across the globe. Hence, the present study attempts to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the water quality of River Gomti across its stretch of ~960 km through the assessment of 'Water Quality Index' (WQI). The study also highlights the potential risk of faecal-oral transmission of COVID-19 through intake of river water facing the issue of direct discharge of domestic sewage. A deterioration in the water quality was witnessed at ~69% sampling locations during the lockdown period (May 2020). Interestingly, none of the water samples during the pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown periods across the whole stretch belonged to the "excellent" category (WQI<25). The DO levels fell across ~69% and ~88% of the sites during the lockdown and post-lockdown periods, respectively. Moreover, there was an increase in the BOD levels across ~69% and 75% of the sites during lockdown and post-lockdown periods, respectively. These findings indicate that the release of sewage without or with partial treatment is a chief contributor of water pollution in the groundwater fed River Gomti. Thereby, highlighting the possible risk of faecal-oral transmission of the corona virus, and creating a major concern for the residents across its stretch. The urban sprawl and riverfront development in Lucknow city also emerge as potential causes of water quality deterioration in River Gomti, considering that the water quality at five sites within the city was under the "unfit" category regardless of the lockdown situation. Thus, the urgent need of management of domestic sewage release into the river and further research on the potential risk of faecal-oral transmission of COVID-19 have been suggested in the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13096-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910200PMC
February 2021

ANFIS-MOA models for the assessment of groundwater contamination vulnerability in a nitrate contaminated area.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 24;286:112162. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Systems Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

The enhanced assessment of groundwater contamination vulnerability is necessary for the management and conservation of groundwater resources because groundwater contamination has been much increased continuously in the world by anthropogenic origin. The purpose of this study is to determine the best model among three ANFIS-MOA models (the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) combined with metaheuristic optimization algorithms (MOAs) such as genetic algorithm (GA), differential evolution algorithm (DE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO)) in assessing groundwater contamination vulnerability at a nitrate contaminated area. The Miryang City of South Korea was selected as the study area because the nitrate contamination was widespread in the city with two functions of urban and rural activities. Eight parameters (depth to water, net recharge, topographic slope, aquifer type, impact to vadose zone, hydraulic conductivity and landuse) were classified into the numerical ratings on basis of modified DRASTIC method (MDM) for the input variables of ANFIS-MOA models. The Original ANFIS, and 3 combined models of ANFIS-PSO, ANFIS-DE and, ANFIS-GA used 95 adjusted vulnerability indices (AVI) as the target data of training (70% data) and testing (30% data) processing. The performance of 4 models was evaluated by mean absolute errors (MAE), root mean square errors (RMSE), correlation coefficients (R), ROC/AUC curves and predicted AVI (PAVI) maps. The statistical results, spatial vulnerability maps and correlation coefficients between PAVIs and nitrate concentrations revealed that the order of model excellence was ANFIS-PSO, ANFIS-DE, ANFIS-GA, and Original ANFIS, and that ANFIS-PSO showed the highest performance in training and testing processing. The performance rates of ANFIS-MOA models were also compared with 10 recent popular worldwide models using the correlation coefficients between PVI and nitrate concentrations, and they were superior to other recent popular models. ANFIS-MOA models were also useful for resolving the subjectivity of physical and hydrogeological parameters in original DRASTIC method (ODM) and MDM. It is expected that ANFIS-PSO models will produce the excellent results in assessing groundwater contamination vulnerability and that they can greatly contribute to the groundwater security in other areas of the world as well as Miryang City of South Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112162DOI Listing
May 2021

Groundwater pollution index (GPI) and GIS-based appraisal of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation in coastal aquifers of Tiruchendur, South India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Geology, V.O. Chidambaram College, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India.

We assessed groundwater pollution index (GPI) and groundwater quality of coastal aquifers from Tiruchendur in South India for drinking and irrigation by evaluating the physico-chemical parameters of 35 samples of mainly Na-Cl type in an area of 470 km with respect to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard as well as by estimating different indices such as total hardness (TH), sodium percentage (Na%), magnesium ratio (MR), Kelley's ratio index (KR), potential salinity (PS), Langelier saturation index (LSI), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), sodium adsorption rate (SAR), permeability index (PI), and the irrigation water quality index (IWQI). Minimal influence of aquifer lithology and the dominant influence of evaporation on groundwater chemistry reflected the semi-arid climate of the study area. Electrical conductivity (EC) of about 89% of the samples across 418 km exceeded the permissible limit and Ca values of 74% of samples, however, remained within the allowable limit for drinking. More chloride was caused by influx of seawater and salt leaching and higher K was due to excessive fertilizer usage for agriculture. The spatial distribution map created using inverse distance weighting (IDW) method shows that the suitable groundwater is present close to the river basin. GPI values between 0.40 and 4.7, with an average of 1.5, classify insignificant pollution in 43% of the study region and the groundwater suitable for drinking purposes. In addition, 17% of the groundwater samples are also marginally suitable for drinking. The irrigation water quality indices provided contradictory assessments. Indices of TH, Na%, MR, PS, and LSI suggested 32-95% of the samples as unsuitable for irrigation, whereas the indices of RSC, SAR, and PI grouped 72-100% samples as permissible for irrigation. The IWQI map, however, indicated that the groundwater from more than half of the study area are not apt for irrigation and the groundwater of about one-third of the area could only be applied to salt-resistant plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12702-6DOI Listing
February 2021

An investigation to human health risks from multiple contaminants and multiple origins by introducing 'Total Information Management'.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 21;28(15):18702-18724. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Geology, V.O. Chidambaram College, Tuticorin-8, Tamil Nadu, India.

A capability for aggregating risks to aquifers is explored in this paper for cases with sparse data exposed to anthropogenic and geogenic contaminants driven by poor/non-existent planning/regulation practices. The capability seeks 'Total Information Management' (TIM) under sparse data by studying hydrogeochemical processes, which is in contrast to Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) by the USEPA for using sample data and a procedure with prescribed parameters without deriving their values from site data. The methodology for TIM pools together the following five dimensions: (i) a perceptual model to collect existing knowledge-base; (ii) a conceptual model to analyse a sample of ion-concentrations to determine groundwater type, origin, and dominant processes (e.g. statistical, graphical, multivariate analysis and geological survey); (iii) risk cells to contextualise contaminants, where the paper considers nitrate, arsenic, iron and lead occurring more than three times their permissible values; (iv) 'soft modelling' to firm up information by learning from convergences and/or divergences within the conceptual model; and (v) study the processes within each risk cell through the OSPRC framework (Origins, Sources, Pathways, Receptors and Consequence). The study area comprises a series of patchy aquifers but HHRA ignores such contextual data and provides some evidence on both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to human health. The TIM capability provides a greater insight for the processes to unacceptable risks from minor ions of anthropogenic nitrate pollutions and from trace ions of arsenic, iron and lead contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11853-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Causes of heavy metal contamination in groundwater of Tuticorin industrial block, Tamil Nadu, India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 4;28(15):18651-18666. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Geology, V.O. Chidambaram College, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, 628008, India.

Groundwater is the major freshwater resource in urban and rural areas of India that provides potable water. The quality evaluation of existing groundwater resources is vital and it's quantity for the optimal utilization and maintenance. The bounding coordinates of the selected study area of Tuticorin industrial area is between 8°38'24" and 8°51'0" latitude and between 77°54'36" and 78°12'36" longitude. Groundwater samples were collected as grid form at 40 locations during the pre- and postmonsoon seasons in the year 2017. Fe, Zn, Co, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Cu metal concentrations were determined using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer)-Perkin Elmer makes the model AAnalyst 200. Most of the groundwater samples were exceeded by the WHO 2008; USEPA 2009; and BIS 2012 guideline for drinking water standards. Further to assess the groundwater pollution status based on the heavy metal indices such as heavy metal pollution index (HPI), heavy metal evaluation index (HEI), degree of contamination (DOC), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI). Statistical analyses to found the appropriateness of groundwater for consumption and factors of contamination. The evaluation results indicate that groundwater is highly deteriorated and unsuitable for drinking in premonsoon period. While evaporation of water which increases the heavy metal concentration in premonsoon and dilution factor was affected in postmonsoon season. The increased concentration of heavy metals in groundwater might have been caused by evaporation, anthropogenic activities, and dissolution of rock formations which poses risk to human health. If this kind of growing contamination in the groundwater is unattended, it may lead to various health issues to the people from this region. Therefore, a consistent and sustainable water management should be carried out in this region in order to improve the groundwater quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11704-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Processes and characteristics of hydrogeochemical variations between unconfined and confined aquifer systems: a case study of the Nakdong River Basin in Busan City, Korea.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Mar 13;27(9):10087-10102. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Division of Earth Environmental System Science, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, South Korea.

This study is to assess the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater at the deltaic region of the Nakdong River Basin in the Busan Metropolitan City of Korea. The study area is covered by the Quaternary sedimentary deposits and the Cretaceous granites associated with unconformity. The thick sedimentary deposits consists of two aquifers, i.e., unconfined and confined aquifers on the basis of clay deposit. Groundwater samples were collected from seven boreholes: two from unconfined aquifer and five from confined aquifer systems during the wet season of 2017 year. ORP and DO indicates that the groundwater of the unconfined aquifer exists in the oxidization condition and that of the confined aquifer pertains in the reduction condition. Piper's trilinear diagram shows CaSO type for groundwater of the unconfined aquifer, and NaCl type for that of the confined aquifer. Ionic concentrations of groundwater increase in the confined aquifer because of direct and reverse ion exchange processes. Carbonate weathering and evaporation are other mechanisms in the water-rock interaction. Saturation indices of dolomite and calcite are observed as oversaturated, while halite reveals undersaturation. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) exhibits that cluster 1 and cluster 2 represents the properties of groundwater in unconfined and confined aquifers, respectively. Factor analysis shows that groundwater of the confined aquifer is much influenced by seawater, and includes heavy metals of iron and aluminum. Groundwater samples in unconfined and confined aquifers are located at the rock weathering and evaporation zones in the Gibbs diagram. Inverse geochemical modeling of PHREEQC code suggests that carbonate dissolution and ion exchange of major ions are the prevailing geochemical processes. This comprehensive research provides the distinguished hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in confined and unconfined aquifer systems of the Nakdong River Basin in Busan City, Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07451-6DOI Listing
March 2020

Factors controlling groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu District of Busan City, Korea, using the hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Oct 31;24(30):23679-23693. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Division of Earth Environmental System Science, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, South Korea.

The hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS techniques were used to evaluate the groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu district of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. The highest concentrations of major ions were mainly related to the local geology. The seawater intrusion into the river water and municipal contaminants were secondary contamination sources of groundwater in the study area. Factor analysis represented the contamination sources of the mineral dissolution of the host rocks and domestic influences. The Gibbs plot exhibited that the major ions were derived from the rock weathering condition. Piper's trilinear diagram showed that the groundwater quality was classified into five types of CaHCO, NaHCO, NaCl, CaCl, and CaSO types in that order. The ionic relationship and the saturation mineral index of the ions indicated that the evaporation, dissolution, and precipitation processes controlled the groundwater chemistry. The fuzzy GIS map showed that highly contaminated groundwater occurred in the northeastern and the central parts and that the groundwater of medium quality appeared in most parts of the study area. It suggested that the groundwater quality of the study area was influenced by local geology, seawater intrusion, and municipal contaminants. This research clearly demonstrated that the geochemical analyses and fuzzy GIS method were very useful to identify the contaminant sources and the location of good groundwater quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9990-5DOI Listing
October 2017