Publications by authors named "Seisuke Arai"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phosphorylation of human phospholipase A1 DDHD1 at newly identified phosphosites affects its subcellular localization.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 3;297(1):100851. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Faculty of Pharma-Science, Teikyo University, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Phospholipase A1 (PLA1) hydrolyzes the fatty acids of glycerophospholipids, which are structural components of the cellular membrane. Genetic mutations in DDHD1, an intracellular PLA1, result in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) in humans. However, the regulation of DDHD1 activity has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we examined the phosphorylation of DDHD1 and identified the responsible protein kinases. We performed MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis and Phos-tag SDS-PAGE in alanine-substitution mutants in HEK293 cells and revealed multiple phosphorylation sites in human DDHD1, primarily Ser8, Ser11, Ser723, and Ser727. The treatment of cells with a protein phosphatase inhibitor induced the hyperphosphorylation of DDHD1, suggesting that multisite phosphorylation occurred not only at these major, but also at minor sites. Site-specific kinase-substrate prediction algorithms and in vitro kinase analyses indicated that cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1/cyclin A2 phosphorylated Ser8, Ser11, and Ser727 in DDHD1 with a preference for Ser11 and that CDK5/p35 also phosphorylated Ser11 and Ser727 with a preference for Ser11. In addition, casein kinase CK2α1 was found to phosphorylate Ser104, although this was not a major phosphorylation site in cultivated HEK293 cells. The evaluation of the effects of phosphorylation revealed that the phosphorylation mimic mutants S11/727E exhibit only 20% reduction in PLA1 activity. However, the phosphorylation mimics were mainly localized to focal adhesions, whereas the phosphorylation-resistant mutants S11/727A were not. This suggested that phosphorylation alters the subcellular localization of DDHD1 without greatly affecting its PLA1 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234217PMC
July 2021

Both Svp26 and Mnn6 are required for the efficient ER exit of Mnn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

J Gen Appl Microbiol 2019 Dec 6;65(5):215-224. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo.

Incorporation of membrane and secretory proteins into COPII vesicles are facilitated either by the direct interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins, or by ER exit adaptor proteins which mediate the interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins. Svp26 is one of the ER exit adaptor proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ER exit of several type II membrane proteins have been reported to be facilitated by Svp26. We demonstrate here that the efficient incorporation of Mnn4, a type II membrane protein required for mannosyl phosphate transfer to glycoprotein-linked oligosaccharides, into COPII vesicles is also dependent on the function of Svp26. We show that Mnn4 is localized to the Golgi. In addition to Mnn4, Mnn6 is known to be also required for the transfer of mannosyl phosphate to the glycans. We show, by indirect immunofluorescence, that Mnn6 localizes to the ER. As in the case with Svp26, deletion of the MNN6 gene results in the accumulation of Mnn4 in ER. In vitro COPII vesicle budding assays show that Svp26 and Mnn6 facilitate the incorporation of Mnn4 into COPII vesicles. In contrast to Svp26, which is itself efficiently captured into the COPII vesicles, Mnn6 was not incorporated into the COPII vesicles. Mnn4 and Mnn6 have the DXD motif which is often found in the many glycosyltransferases and functions to coordinate a divalent cation essential for the reaction. Alcian blue dye binding assay shows that substitution of the first D in this motif present in Mnn4 by A impairs the Mnn4 function. In contrast, amino acid substitutions in DXD motifs present in Mnn6 did not affect the function of Mnn6. These results suggest that Mnn4 may be directly involved in the mannosyl phosphate transfer reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2323/jgam.2018.10.002DOI Listing
December 2019

Svp26 facilitates ER exit of mannosyltransferases Mnt2 and Mnt3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

J Gen Appl Microbiol 2019 Sep 31;65(4):180-187. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo.

After being translocated into the ER lumen, membrane and secretory proteins are transported from the ER to the early Golgi by COPII vesicles. Incorporation of these cargo proteins into COPII vesicles are facilitated either by direct interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins or by ER exit adaptor proteins which mediate the interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins. Svp26 is one of the ER exit adaptor proteins in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ER exit of several type II membrane proteins have been reported to be facilitated by Svp26. We demonstrate here that efficient incorporation of Mnt2 and Mnt3 into COPII vesicles is also dependent on the function of Svp26. Mnt2 and Mnt3 are Golgi-localized α-1,3-mannosyltransferases with type II membrane topology involved in protein O-glycosylation. Immunoisolation of the yeast Golgi subcompartments quantitatively showed that Mnt2 and Mnt3 are more abundant in the early Golgi fraction than in the late Golgi fraction. Subcellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy showed that deletion of the SVP26 gene results in the accumulation of Mnt2 and Mnt3 in ER. Using an in vitro COPII vesicle formation assay, we further demonstrate that Svp26 facilitates incorporation of Mnt2 and Mnt3 into COPII vesicles. Finally, we showed that Mnt2 and Mnt3 were co-immunoprecipitated with Svp26 from digitonin-solubilized membranes. These results indicate that Svp26 functions as an ER exit adaptor protein of Mnt2 and Mnt3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2323/jgam.2018.09.001DOI Listing
September 2019

Complex formation of sphingomyelin synthase 1 with glucosylceramide synthase increases sphingomyelin and decreases glucosylceramide levels.

J Biol Chem 2018 11 21;293(45):17505-17522. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

From the Faculty of Pharma-Science, Teikyo University, Tokyo 173- 8605, Japan and

Sphingolipids, including sphingomyelin (SM) and glucosylceramide (GlcCer), are generated by the addition of a polar head group to ceramide (Cer). Sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) are key enzymes that catalyze the conversion of Cer to SM and GlcCer, respectively. GlcCer synthesis has been postulated to occur mainly in -Golgi, and SM synthesis is thought to occur in /-Golgi; however, SMS1 and GCS are known to partially co-localize in cisternae, especially in -Golgi. Here, we report that SMS1 and GCS can form a heteromeric complex, in which the N terminus of SMS1 and the C terminus of GCS are in close proximity. Deletion of the N-terminal sterile α-motif of SMS1 reduced the stability of the SMS1-GCS complex, resulting in a significant reduction in SM synthesis In contrast, chemical-induced heterodimerization augmented SMS1 activity, depending on an increase in the amount and stability of the complex. Fusion of the SMS1 N terminus to the GCS C terminus via linkers of different lengths increased SM synthesis and decreased GlcCer synthesis These results suggest that formation of the SMS1-GCS heteromeric complex increases SM synthesis and decreases GlcCer synthesis. Importantly, this regulation of relative Cer levels by the SMS1-GCS complex was confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of SMS1 or GCS combined with pharmacological inhibition of Cer transport protein in HEK293T cells. Our findings suggest that complex formation between SMS1 and GCS is part of a critical mechanism controlling the metabolic fate of Cer in the Golgi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.002048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231140PMC
November 2018

Phosphorylation of SNAP-23 at Ser95 causes a structural alteration and negatively regulates Fc receptor-mediated phagosome formation and maturation in macrophages.

Mol Biol Cell 2018 07 17;29(13):1753-1762. Epub 2018 May 17.

Division of Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503, Japan.

SNAP-23 is a plasma membrane-localized soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) involved in Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated phagocytosis. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying its function remains elusive. Using phosphorylation-specific antibodies, SNAP-23 was found to be phosphorylated at Ser95 in macrophages. To understand the role of this phosphorylation, we established macrophage lines overexpressing the nonphosphorylatable S95A or the phosphomimicking S95D mutation. The efficiency of phagosome formation and maturation was severely reduced in SNAP-23-S95D-overexpressing cells. To examine whether phosphorylation at Ser95 affected SNAP-23 structure, we constructed intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes of SNAP-23 designed to evaluate the approximation of the N termini of the two SNARE motifs. Interestingly, a high FRET efficiency was detected on the membrane when the S95D probe was used, indicating that phosphorylation at Ser95 caused a dynamic structural shift to the closed form. Coexpression of IκB kinase (IKK) 2 enhanced the FRET efficiency of the wild-type probe on the phagosome membrane. Furthermore, the enhanced phagosomal FRET signal in interferon-γ-activated macrophages was largely dependent on IKK2, and this kinase mediated a delay in phagosome-lysosome fusion. These results suggested that SNAP-23 phosphorylation at Ser95 played an important role in the regulation of SNARE-dependent membrane fusion during FcR-mediated phagocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E17-08-0523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080709PMC
July 2018

Yeast cells as an assay system for in vivo O-GlcNAc modification.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2017 May 2;1861(5 Pt A):1159-1167. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible protein post-translational modification, where O-GlcNAc moiety is attached to nucleocytoplasmic protein by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and removed by O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Although O-GlcNAc modification widely occurs in eukaryotic cells, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae notably lacks this protein modification and the genes for the GlcNAc transferase and hydrolase.

Methods: Human OGT isoforms and OGA were ectopically expressed in S. cerevisiae, and the effects of their expressions on yeast growth and O-GlcNAc modification levels were assessed.

Results: Expression of sOGT, in S. cerevisiae catalyzes the O-GlcNAc modification of proteins in vivo; conversely, the expression of OGA mediates the hydrolysis of these sugars. sOGT expression causes a severe growth defect in yeast cells, which is remediated by the co-expression of OGA. The direct analysis of yeast proteins demonstrates protein O-GlcNAcylation is dependent on sOGT expression; conversely, the hydrolysis of these sugar modifications is induced by co-expression of OGA. Protein O-GlcNAcylation and the growth defects of yeast cells are caused by the O-GlcNAc transferase activity because catalytically inactive sOGT does not exhibit toxicity in yeast cells. Expression of another OGT isoform, ncOGT, also results in a growth defect in yeast cells. However, its toxicity is largely attributed to the TPR domain rather than the O-GlcNAc transferase activity.

Conclusions: O-GlcNAc cycling can occur in yeast cells, and OGT and OGA activities can be monitored via yeast growth.

General Significance: Yeast cells may be used to assess OGT and OGA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.03.002DOI Listing
May 2017

Carboxyl-terminal Tail-mediated Homodimerizations of Sphingomyelin Synthases Are Responsible for Efficient Export from the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

J Biol Chem 2017 01 7;292(3):1122-1141. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

From the Faculty of Pharma Sciences, Teikyo University, Kaga 2-11-1, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan and

Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) is the key enzyme for cross-talk between bioactive sphingolipids and glycerolipids. In mammals, SMS consists of two isoforms: SMS1 is localized in the Golgi apparatus, whereas SMS2 is localized in both the Golgi and plasma membranes. SMS2 seems to exert cellular functions through protein-protein interactions; however, the existence and functions of quaternary structures of SMS1 and SMS2 remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that both SMS1 and SMS2 form homodimers. The SMSs have six membrane-spanning domains, and the N and C termini of both proteins face the cytosolic side of the Golgi apparatus. Chemical cross-linking and bimolecular fluorescence complementation revealed that the N- and/or C-terminal tails of the SMSs were in close proximity to those of the other SMS in the homodimer. Homodimer formation was significantly decreased by C-terminal truncations, SMS1-ΔC22 and SMS2-ΔC30, indicating that the C-terminal tails of the SMSs are primarily responsible for homodimer formation. Moreover, immunoprecipitation using deletion mutants revealed that the C-terminal tail of SMS2 mainly interacted with the C-terminal tail of its homodimer partner, whereas the C-terminal tail of SMS1 mainly interacted with a site other than the C-terminal tail of its homodimer partner. Interestingly, homodimer formation occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane before trafficking to the Golgi apparatus. Reduced homodimerization caused by C-terminal truncations of SMSs significantly reduced ER-to-Golgi transport. Our findings suggest that the C-terminal tails of SMSs are involved in homodimer formation, which is required for efficient transport from the ER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M116.746602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5247646PMC
January 2017

Characterization of Russell bodies accumulating mutant antithrombin derived from the endoplasmic reticulum.

Biol Pharm Bull 2015 14;38(6):852-61. Epub 2015 Mar 14.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) adjusts its size and architecture to adapt to change in the surrounding environment. Russell bodies (RBs) were originally described as dilated structures of the ER cisternae containing large amounts of mutant immunoglobulin. Similar structures are observed in a wide variety of mutant proteins accumulated in the ER. We previously prepared Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in which the expression of mutant antithrombin (AT) (C95R) was controlled with a Tet-On system and showed that RBs can be conditionally formed. However the precise architecture and intracellular behavior of RBs have been as yet only poorly characterized. To characterize the properties of RB, we prepared the same system using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused mutant and measured the dynamics and architecture of RBs. We observed the mobile nature of the molecule in the RB lumen and RBs were separated from the rest of the ER network by narrow tubes. Furthermore, we found that the RBs were not simply expanded ER membranes. The RB lumen is filled with misfolded proteins that are surrounded by ER membranes. In addition, RBs mostly maintain their structure during cell division, possess ribosomes on their membranes and synthesize AT(C95R)-GFP. Based on the characterization of the hydrodynamic radius of AT(C95R)-GFP and the effect of DP1, an ER-shaping protein, we propose that RBs are spontaneously formed as a result of the partitioning of the misfolded AT with the shaping protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b14-00773DOI Listing
February 2016

Structural change of N-glycan exposes hydrophobic surface of human transferrin.

Glycobiology 2014 Aug 28;24(8):693-702. Epub 2014 Apr 28.

Structural Glycobiology Team, Systems Glycobiology Research Group, RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center, RIKEN Global Research Cluster, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan

Transferrin is an iron-transport protein which possesses N-glycans at Asn432 and Asn630 in humans. Transferrin glycoforms Tf-1 and Tf-2, previously identified in human cerebrospinal fluid, are defined as the lower and upper bands in gel electrophoresis, respectively. Importantly, the Tf-2/Tf-1 ratio is raised in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and is useful as a clinical marker. In order to gain insight into the relationship between transferrin glycoform and biological function, we performed comparative characterization of Tf-1, Tf-2 and serum transferrin (sTf). Mass spectrometric analyses confirmed that Tf-2 is modified with disialylated biantennary glycans at both of the two N-glycosylation sites, which are similar to the N-glycans of sTf. On the other hand, Tf-1 is site-specifically modified: Asn630 has biantennary agalacto-complex-type glycan with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and core fucose while Asn432 is modified with complex/high mannose-type glycans and possibly single GlcNAc. Size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analysis revealed that the hydration volume of Tf-1 is slightly smaller than that of sTf. Our striking finding is that Tf-1 has an exposed hydrophobic surface as monitored by the fluorescence intensity and wavelength of a hydrophobic probe, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate, whereas Tf-2 does not. These results suggest that the different N-glycan structure of Tf-1 lowers the apparent hydration volume and reveals a patch of hydrophobic surface on transferrin which is otherwise covered with sialoglycan in sTf and Tf-2. The carbohydrate deficiency in certain pathological conditions may also expose hydrophobic surface which may modulate the function and/or stability of transferrin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwu033DOI Listing
August 2014

Stepwise assembly of fibrinogen is assisted by the endoplasmic reticulum lectin-chaperone system in HepG2 cells.

PLoS One 2013 10;8(9):e74580. Epub 2013 Sep 10.

Department of Cell Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan ; Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo, Japan.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays essential roles in protein folding and assembly of secretory proteins. ER-resident molecular chaperones and related enzymes assist in protein maturation by co-operated interactions and modifications. However, the folding/assembly of multimeric proteins is not well understood. Here, we show that the maturation of fibrinogen, a hexameric secretory protein (two trimers from α, β and γ subunits), occurs in a stepwise manner. The αγ complex, a precursor for the trimer, is retained in the ER by lectin-like chaperones, and the β subunit is incorporated into the αγ complex immediately after translation. ERp57, a protein disulfide isomerase homologue, is involved in the hexamer formation from two trimers. Our results indicate that the fibrinogen hexamer is formed sequentially, rather than simultaneously, using kinetic pause by lectin chaperones. This study provides a novel insight into the assembly of most abundant multi-subunit secretory proteins.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074580PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3769264PMC
June 2014

SNAP-23 regulates phagosome formation and maturation in macrophages.

Mol Biol Cell 2012 Dec 19;23(24):4849-63. Epub 2012 Oct 19.

Department of Cell Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.

Synaptosomal associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP-23), a plasma membrane-localized soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE), has been implicated in phagocytosis by macrophages. For elucidation of its precise role in this process, a macrophage line overexpressing monomeric Venus-tagged SNAP-23 was established. These cells showed enhanced Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Detailed analyses of each process of phagocytosis revealed a marked increase in the production of reactive oxygen species within phagosomes. Also, enhanced accumulation of a lysotropic dye, as well as augmented quenching of a pH-sensitive fluorophore were observed. Analyses of isolated phagosomes indicated the critical role of SNAP-23 in the functional recruitment of the NADPH oxidase complex and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase to phagosomes. The data from the overexpression experiments were confirmed by SNAP-23 knockdown, which demonstrated a significant delay in phagosome maturation and a reduction in uptake activity. Finally, for analyzing whether phagosomal SNAP-23 entails a structural change in the protein, an intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe was constructed, in which the distance within a TagGFP2-TagRFP was altered upon close approximation of the N-termini of its two SNARE motifs. FRET efficiency on phagosomes was markedly enhanced only when VAMP7, a lysosomal SNARE, was coexpressed. Taken together, our results strongly suggest the involvement of SNAP-23 in both phagosome formation and maturation in macrophages, presumably by mediating SNARE-based membrane traffic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E12-01-0069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521691PMC
December 2012

Development of cysteine-free fluorescent proteins for the oxidative environment.

PLoS One 2012 23;7(5):e37551. Epub 2012 May 23.

Department of Cell Science, Institutes for Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan.

Molecular imaging employing fluorescent proteins has been widely used to highlight specific reactions or processes in various fields of the life sciences. Despite extensive improvements of the fluorescent tag, this technology is still limited in the study of molecular events in the extracellular milieu. This is partly due to the presence of cysteine in the fluorescent proteins. These proteins almost cotranslationally form disulfide bonded oligomers when expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although single molecule photobleaching analysis showed that these oligomers were not fluorescent, the fluorescent monomer form often showed aberrant behavior in folding and motion, particularly when fused to cysteine-containing cargo. Therefore we investigated whether it was possible to eliminate the cysteine without losing the brightness. By site-saturated mutagenesis, we found that the cysteine residues in fluorescent proteins could be replaced with specific alternatives while still retaining their brightness. cf(cysteine-free)SGFP2 showed significantly reduced restriction of free diffusion in the ER and marked improvement of maturation when fused to the prion protein. We further applied this approach to TagRFP family proteins and found a set of mutations that obtains the same level of brightness as the cysteine-containing proteins. The approach used in this study to generate new cysteine-free fluorescent tags should expand the application of molecular imaging to the extracellular milieu and facilitate its usage in medicine and biotechnology.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037551PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3359384PMC
October 2012

Autofluorescence of the cells in human subretinal fluid.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Oct 31;52(11):8534-41. Epub 2011 Oct 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima City, Fukushima, Japan.

Purpose: The origin of autofluorescence in the subretinal space and the autofluorescence properties of the cells were investigated in surgically collected subretinal fluid.

Methods: Subretinal fluid was surgically collected from four eyes of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (three eyes) and Coats' disease (one eye). After cytocentrifuge preparation of the cells in the fluid and immunofluorescence staining, a cytologic examination was conducted by using confocal scanning laser microscopy. The autofluorescence of the cells was elucidated by measuring the fluorescence spectra with spectroscopy, to obtain different excitation laser light emission fingerprints.

Results: The cells from the subretinal fluid were classified into three types: CD68-negative cells containing numerous pigmented granules, CD68-positive cells containing few pigments, and CD68-negative cells with no pigmented granules. Autofluorescence was observed in the inclusions of the cells classified into the former two types. When the cells were excited by a 458- or 488-nm laser light, emission spectra in autofluorescence showed little difference between CD68-positive and -negative cells. Peak analysis confirmed that the two types of cells showed the same emission peaks within this range of excitation light.

Conclusions: Autofluorescent inclusions appeared in the CD68-positive and -negative cells in the subretinal fluid. The macrophages in the subretinal fluid possess autofluorescence that is spectroscopically similar to lipofuscin. Autofluorescence of macrophages can be attributed to degenerated outer segments and debris from apoptotic photoreceptors. Clinicians should consider migration of macrophages, in addition to retinal pigment epithelium, as the possible source when abnormal fundus autofluorescence is observed using an ordinary set of fluorescence filters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.11-8012DOI Listing
October 2011

Cell-cycle independent chromosome condensation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2009 Sep 7;73(9):1956-61. Epub 2009 Sep 7.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8510, Japan.

We exposed Schizosaccharomyces pombe to high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT) of 75 MPa at 28 degrees Celsius for 30 min and then observed that the DAPI-stained chromosomal DNA had shrunk compactly. We termed this phenomenon HPT-induced chromosome condensation (HPT-CC). HPT did not significantly decrease viability. The condensed state was released when HPT cells were cultured at 28 degrees Celsius for 30 min. The condensation was not caused by shrinking of the nuclear envelope, which was visualized by YFP-tagged importin alpha. HPT-CC was cell cycle independent, because it was observed in almost all randomly cultured cells. The condensin complex (Cut3, Cut14, and three other proteins) is responsible for cell cycle dependent CC. Studies with Cut3-YFP and ts mutants of Cut3 and Cut14 confirmed that HPT-CC was independent of condensin molecules. HPT-CC was also observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HPT-CC appears likely to be a temporal stress response to high hydrostatic pressure found at least in yeasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.90118DOI Listing
September 2009

Sec22b is a negative regulator of phagocytosis in macrophages.

Mol Biol Cell 2009 Oct 26;20(20):4435-43. Epub 2009 Aug 26.

Department of Cell Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is proposed to be a membrane donor for phagosome formation. In support of this, we have previously shown that the expression level of syntaxin 18, an ER-localized SNARE protein, correlates with phagocytosis activity. To obtain further insights into the involvement of the ER in phagocytosis we focused on Sec22b, another ER-localized SNARE protein that is also found on phagosomal membranes. In marked contrast to the effects of syntaxin 18, we report here that phagocytosis was nearly abolished in J774 macrophages stably expressing mVenus-tagged Sec22b, without affecting the cell surface expression of the Fc receptor or other membrane proteins related to phagocytosis. Conversely, the capacity of the parental J774 cells for phagocytosis was increased when endogenous Sec22b expression was suppressed. Domain analyses of Sec22b revealed that the R-SNARE motif, a selective domain for forming a SNARE complex with syntaxin18 and/or D12, was responsible for the inhibition of phagocytosis. These results strongly support the ER-mediated phagocytosis model and indicate that Sec22b is a negative regulator of phagocytosis in macrophages, most likely by regulating the level of free syntaxin 18 and/or D12 at the site of phagocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e09-03-0241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2762144PMC
October 2009

Ypt11 functions in bud-directed transport of the Golgi by linking Myo2 to the coatomer subunit Ret2.

Curr Biol 2008 Jul;18(13):987-91

Department of Biotechnology, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

A yeast class V myosin Myo2 transports the Golgi into the bud during its inheritance. However, the mechanism that links the Golgi to Myo2 is unknown. Here, we report that Ypt11, a Rab GTPase that reportedly interacts with Myo2, binds to Ret2, a subunit of the coatomer complex. When Ypt11 is overproduced, Ret2 and the Golgi markers, Och1 and Sft2, are accumulated in the growing bud and are lost in the mother cell. In a ret2 mutant that produces the Ret2 protein with reduced affinity to Ypt11, no such accumulation is observed upon overproduction of Ypt11. At a certain stage of budding, it is known that the late Golgi cisternae labeled with Sec7-GFP show polarized distribution in the bud. We find that this polarization of late Golgi cisternae is not observed in the ypt11Delta mutant. Indeed, analyses of Sec7-GFP dynamics with spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) reveals that Ypt11 is required for the vectorial actin-dependent movement of the late Golgi from the mother cell toward the emerging bud. These results indicate that the Ypt11 and Ret2 are components of a Myo2 receptor complex that functions during the Golgi inheritance into the growing bud.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.06.028DOI Listing
July 2008

Cessation of cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe during growth after release from high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2008 Jan 7;72(1):88-93. Epub 2008 Jan 7.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan.

On the basis of our previous study concerning the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT) on Escherichia coli FtsZ ring (bacterial cytoskeleton) formation, we aimed to determine the effect of HPT on the growth properties of a representative eukaryotic microbe, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in relation to the behavior of genuine cytoskeletons. Microtubules were visualized with GFP-linked alpha-tubulin. Actin-related cytoskeletons were fluorescently stained with rhodamine-phalloidin. We observed growth retardation of about 10 h in post growth after HPT (75 MPa, 30 min, 28 degrees C), which caused only a little loss of viable cells. In accordance with the period of growth retardation, cessation of cytokinesis and disappearance of the contractile ring (composed of actin, myosin II, and other proteins), directly participates in cytokinesis, continued for 18 h after HPT. On the other hand, the microtubules disappeared only for 6 h after HPT. Based on these observations, the contractile ring was the site most sensitive to HPT resulting in the cessation of cytokinesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.70451DOI Listing
January 2008

High-hydrostatic-pressure treatment impairs actin cables and budding in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

J Biosci Bioeng 2006 Jun;101(6):515-8

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8510, Japan.

We previously reported that the postgrowth of Escherichia coli K-12 after high-hydrostatic-pressure treatment (HPT) as moderate as 75 MPa for 30 min at 37 degrees C induced the formation of elongated cells due to an HPT-induced disorder in FtsZ ring formation, which is essential for cell division. Because an FtsZ ring is known as a bacterial cytoskeleton, we examined the effect of HPT on a eukaryotic cytoskeleton, such as actin cables (long bundles of actin filaments), of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that actin cables disappeared after HPT (100 MPa) and were not reorganized until 3.5 h of growth after HPT. As long as actin cables disappeared, budding did not start. We also demonstrated that the in vitro polymerization of actin monomers was highly sensitive to HPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1263/jbb.101.515DOI Listing
June 2006
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