Publications by authors named "Sehrazat Kavraal"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Enhanced analgesic cholinergic tone in the spinal cord in a mouse model of neuropathic pain.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Apr 18;155:105363. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Strasbourg, Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Intégratives, 67000 Strasbourg, France; University of Strasbourg Institute for Advanced Study (USIAS), 67000 Strasbourg, France. Electronic address:

Endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) is an important modulator of nociceptive sensory processing in the spinal cord. An increased level of spinal ACh induces analgesia both in humans and rodents while interfering with cholinergic signaling is allodynic, demonstrating that a basal tone of spinal ACh modulates nociceptive responses in naïve animals. The plasticity undergone by this cholinergic system in chronic pain situation is unknown, and the mere presence of this tone in neuropathic animals is controversial. We have addressed these issues in mice through behavioral experiments, histology, electrophysiology and molecular biology, in the cuff model of peripheral neuropathy. Our behavior experiments demonstrate the persistence, and even increased impact of the analgesic cholinergic tone acting through nicotinic receptors in cuff animals. The neuropathy does not affect the number or membrane properties of dorsal horn cholinergic neurons, nor specifically the frequency of their synaptic inputs. The alterations thus appear to be in the neurons receiving the cholinergic signaling, which is confirmed by the fact that subthreshold doses of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in sham animals become anti-allodynic in cuff mice and by the altered expression of the β2 nicotinic receptor subunit. Our results demonstrate that endogenous cholinergic signaling can be manipulated to relieve mechanical allodynia in animal models of peripheral neuropathy. Until now, AChE inhibitors have mainly been used in the clinics in situations of acute pain (parturition, post-operative). The fact that lower doses (thus with fewer side effects) could be efficient in chronic pain conditions opens new avenues for the treatment of neuropathic pain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Chronic pain continues to be the most common cause of disability that impairs the quality of life, accruing enormous and escalating socio-economic costs. A better understanding of the plasticity of spinal neuronal networks, crucially involved in nociceptive processing, could help designing new therapeutic avenues. We here demonstrate that chronic pain modifies the spinal nociceptive network in such a way that it becomes more sensitive to cholinergic modulations. The spinal cholinergic system is responsible for an analgesic tone that can be exacerbated by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, a property used in the clinic to relief acute pain (child birth, post-op). Our results suggest that lower doses of acetylcholinesterases, with even fewer side effects, could be efficient to relieve chronic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2021.105363DOI Listing
April 2021

Differential Effects of Pentoxifylline on Learning and Memory Impairment Induced by Hypoxic-ischemic Brain Injury in Rats.

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2019 Aug;17(3):388-399

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

Objective: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in the human perinatal period often leads to significant long-term neurobehavioral dysfunction in the cognitive and sensory-motor domains. Using a neonatal HI injury model (unilateral carotid ligation followed by hypoxia) in postnatal day seven rats, the present study investigated the long-term effects of HI and potential behavioral protective effect of pentoxifylline.

Methods: Seven-day-old rats underwent right carotid ligation, followed by hypoxia (FO = 0.08). Rats received pentoxifylline immediately after and again 2 hours after hypoxia (two doses, 60‒100 mg/kg/dose), or serum physiologic. Another set of seven-day-old rats was included to sham group exposed to surgical stress but not ligated. These rats were tested for spatial learning and memory on the simple place task in the Morris water maze from postnatal days 77 to 85.

Results: HI rats displayed significant tissue loss in the right hippocampus, as well as severe spatial memory deficits. Low-dose treatment with pentoxifylline resulted in significant protection against both HI-induced hippocampus tissue losses and spatial memory impairments. Beneficial effects are, however, negated if pentoxifylline is administered at high dose.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that unilateral HI brain injury in a neonatal rodent model is associated with cognitive deficits, and that low dose pentoxifylline treatment is protective against spatial memory impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.9758/cpn.2019.17.3.388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6705102PMC
August 2019

Effects of Chronic and Acute Lithium Treatment on the Long-term Potentiation and Spatial Memory in Adult Rats.

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2019 May;17(2):233-243

Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty of Erciyes University.

Objective: Although, accumulating evidence is delineating a neuroprotective and neurotrophic role for lithium (Li), inconsistent findings have also been reported in human studies especially. Moreover, the effects of Li infusion into the hippocampus are still unknown. The aims of this work were (a) to assess whether basal synaptic activity and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus are different in regard to intrahippocampal Li infusion; (b) to assess spatial learning and memory in rats chronically treated with LiCO in the Morris water maze.

Methods: Field potentials were recorded form the dentate gyrus, stimulating perforant pathways, in rats chronically (20 mg/kg for 40 days) or acutely treated with LiCO and their corresponding control rats. In addition, performance of rats in a Morris water maze was measured to link behaviour of rats to electrophysiological findings.

Results: LiCO infusion into the hippocampus resulted in enhanced LTP, especially in the late phases, but attenuated LTP was observed in rats chronically treated with Li as compared to controls. Li-treated rats equally performed a spatial learning task, but did spend less time in target quadrant than saline-treated rats in Morris water maze.

Conclusion: Despite most data suggest that Li always yields neuroprotective effects against neuropathological conditions; we concluded that a 40-day treatment of Li disrupts hippocampal synaptic plasticity underlying memory processes, and that these effects of prolonged treatment are not associated with its direct chemical effect, but are likely to be associated with the molecular actions of Li at genetic levels, because its short-term effect preserves synaptic plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.9758/cpn.2019.17.2.233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6478079PMC
May 2019

The effects of intra-hippocampal L-thyroxine infusion on long-term potentiation and long-term depression: A possible role for the αvβ3 integrin receptor.

J Neurosci Res 2017 08 10;95(8):1621-1632. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey.

Although the effects of long-term experimental dysthyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) have been documented, the relationship between LTP/LTD and acute administration of L-thyroxine (T4) has not been described. Here, we investigated the effects of intra-hippocampal administration of T4 on synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. After a 15-minute baseline recording, LTP and LTD were induced by application of high- and low-frequency stimulation protocols, respectively. Infusions of saline or T4 and tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a T4 analog that inhibits binding of iodothyronines to the integrin αvβ3 receptor, either alone or together, were made during the stimulation protocols. The averages of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) slopes and population spike (PS) amplitudes, between 55 to 60 minutes, were used as a measure of the LTP/LTD magnitude and were analyzed by two-way univariate ANOVA with T4 and tetrac as between-subjects factors. The input-output curves of the infusion groups were comparable to each other, as shown by the non significant interaction observed between stimulus intensity and infused drug. The magnitude of the LTP in T4-infused rats was significantly lower as compared to saline-infused rats. Both the PS amplitude and the EPSP slope were depressed more markedly with T4 infusion than with saline, tetrac, and T4 + tetrac infusion. Data of this study provide in vivo evidence that T4 can promote LTD over LTP via the integrin αvβ3 receptor, and that the effect of endogenous T4 on this receptor can be suppressed by tetrac in the hippocampus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23985DOI Listing
August 2017

Adult-onset hyperthyroidism impairs spatial learning: possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

Neuroreport 2016 08;27(11):802-8

aDepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine bDepartment of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary cDepartment of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri dDepartment of Genetics and Bioengineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul eMolecular Neurobiology Laboratory (AxanLab), Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli, Turkey.

Given evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is part of the nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones, we investigated the possible consequences of hyperthyroidism for the cognitive functioning of adult rats. Young adult rats were treated with L-thyroxine or saline. Twenty rats in each group were exposed to Morris water maze testing, measuring their performance in a hidden-platform spatial task. In a separate set of rats not exposed to Morris water maze testing (untrained rats), the expression and phosphorylated levels of p38-MAPK and of its two downstream effectors, Elk-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein, were evaluated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting. Rats with hyperthyroidism showed delayed acquisition of learning compared with their wild-type counterparts, as shown by increased escape latencies and distance moved on the last two trials of daily training in the water maze. The hyperthyroid rats, however, showed no difference during probe trials. Western blot analyses of the hippocampus showed that hyperthyroidism increased phosphorylated p38-MAPK levels in untrained rats. Although our study is correlative in nature and does not exclude the contribution of other molecular targets, our findings suggest that the observed impairments in acquisition during actual learning in rats with hyperthyroidism may result from the increased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000612DOI Listing
August 2016

Low-frequency stimulation induces a durable long-term depression in young adult hyperthyroid rats: the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein phosphatase 1.

Neuroreport 2016 06;27(9):640-6

aDepartment of Physiology bDepartment of Medical Biology, Medical Faculty of Erciyes University cDepartment of Physiology, Medical Faculty of Kars Kafkas University, Kayseri, Turkey.

Long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTD) are cellular mechanisms of learning and memory in the mammalian brain. We have previously shown that adult hyperthyroid rats showed a delay in the acquisition of a place learning task and attenuated long-term potentiation. However, changes in LTD in hyperthyroidism remain unclear. Rats were administered 0.2 mg/kg/day of L-thyroxine for 21 days starting at postnatal day 40 to induce hyperthyroidism. LTD was induced in the dentate gyrus using low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of the perforant pathway. The mRNA expressions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) were evaluated using a quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. In control rats, a standard LFS protocol induced a slight depression of the population spike (PS) amplitude during the induction phase of LTD (76±13% vs. baseline), but a small potentiation of the PS amplitude was observed in the early (107±18%) and late (111±20%) phases of LTD. Interestingly, in the hyperthyroid rats, the same LFS protocol induced a reliable LTD in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as evidenced by a marked depression in the PS amplitude during the induction (54±6% vs. baseline) and the early phases (56±8%) of LTD. Elevated mRNA levels of p38-MAPK and PP1 were observed in the hippocampus of the LFS-treated hyperthyroid rats compared with the hippocampus of the vehicle-treated hyperthyroid rats. No significant change in p38-MAPK or PP1 mRNA expression was observed in the euthyroid rats. The present study shows that a standard LFS protocol can induce a durable depression of synaptic strength and an upregulation of PP1 and p38-MAPK mRNA in hyperthyroid rats. We conclude that hyperthyroidism can induce molecular changes associated with degeneration of the hippocampus. The relationship between the levels of thyroid hormone and dementia requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000589DOI Listing
June 2016

Effects of selenium treatment on 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced impairment of long-term potentiation.

Neurosci Res 2016 Aug 15;109:70-6. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty of Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey. Electronic address:

The goal of this study was to evaluate whether sodium selenite could afford protection against the effects of hypothyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP), which is thought to be the cellular basis for learning and memory. Hypothyroidism was induced in young-adult rats by the administration of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in tap water for 21 days. Half of these hypothyroid and euthroid rats were given 10ppM selenium with their drinking water. Field potentials were recorded from the dentate gyrus in response to stimulation of the medial perforant pathway in vivo. PTU treatment resulted in a significant reduction in both free T3 and free T4 levels, whereas selenium administration to PTU-treated rats restored only the levels of free T3 to their control values. Thyroid hormone levels were not affected by selenium in euthyroid rats. PTU-treated rats exhibited an attenuation of population spike (PS) - LTP, but a comparable potentiation of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) was found among these rats. The administration of selenium to PTU-treated rats was partially able to attenuate impairment of LTP, but not of potentiation during the LTP induction protocol in hypothyroid rats. Interestingly, the hypothyroid rats that were supplemented with selenium had a lower EPSP potentiation during induction protocol than the control rats. The present study suggests a possible importance of T3 in Se-induced rescue of impaired PS-LTP in hypothyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2016.02.001DOI Listing
August 2016

Maternal intake of Omega-3 essential fatty acids improves long term potentiation in the dentate gyrus and Morris water maze performance in rats.

Brain Res 2012 Oct 8;1482:32-9. Epub 2012 Sep 8.

Department of Physiology, Erciyes University, School of Medicine, 38039-Kayseri, Turkey.

Omega-3 fatty acid deprivation during development reduces performance in learning tasks, and dietary DHA supplementation improves learning ability and enhances long term memory in both young and old animals. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of maternal intake of Omega-3 fatty acids on hippocampal function in their pups. Randomly some of the pregnant dams were supplemented with Omega-3 essential fatty acid, others with tap-water, during pregnancy and breast-feeding by gavage daily. Spatial learning and memory was tested in Morris water maze. Field potentials from the dentate gyrus were recorded in response to medial perforant pathway in urethane-anesthetized pups. Omega-3-treated rats found the platform less traveled and closer to platform than control animals. However the pups from both groups show the same performance in retrieval task. No differences were found between corresponding animal groups in the input-output curves of the field potential slopes, suggesting no effect of Omega-3 supplementation on basal synaptic efficacy. Potentiation of population spike amplitude was much higher in pups of Omega-3 treated dams than control. Up to now Omega 3 fatty acid has been shown to be beneficial on the synaptic plasticity only under some pathological conditions. For the first time, we showed improved dentate gyrus-LTP and enhanced Morris water maze performance in healthy pups from healthy dams treated with Omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and breast-feeding period. Molecular studies are needed to explain Omega-3 effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.09.002DOI Listing
October 2012