Publications by authors named "Seetharama D S Jois"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Structure, self-assembly, and dual role of a beta-defensin-like peptide from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle eggshell matrix.

J Am Chem Soc 2008 Apr 15;130(14):4660-8. Epub 2008 Mar 15.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 3 Science Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543.

Biomineral matrix formation and molecular recognition are two important processes associated with eggshell biomineralization. To understand these two processes, a major intracrystalline peptide, pelovaterin, was isolated from turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) eggshell and its tertiary and quaternary structures were established. The global fold of pelovaterin is similar to that of human beta-defensins but has a large hydrophobic core and a short hydrophilic N-terminal segment, which is not preserved in defensins. Pelovaterin exhibits strong antimicrobial activity against two pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris, and stabilizes a thin film of metastable vaterite. We show that pelovaterin self-aggregates in the form of micellar nanospheres and the aggregation in solution is entropy-driven. It is suggested that the micellar aggregation of pelovaterin is responsible for the induction and stabilization of the metastable phase by altering the interfacial energy. The results demonstrate the adaptability of an extracellular matrix protein to perform multiple tasks: polymorph discrimination and protection of the contents of the egg against bacterial invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja075659kDOI Listing
April 2008

Protein folding determinants: structural features determining alternative disulfide pairing in alpha- and chi/lambda-conotoxins.

Biochemistry 2007 Mar 22;46(11):3338-55. Epub 2007 Feb 22.

Protein Science Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Alpha-conotoxins isolated from Conus venoms contain 11-19 residues and preferentially fold into the globular conformation that possesses a specific disulfide pairing pattern (C1-3, C2-4). We and others isolated a new family of chi-conotoxins (also called lambda conotoxins) with the conserved cysteine framework of alpha-conotoxins but with alternative disulfide pairing (C1-4, C2-3) resulting in the ribbon conformation. In both families, disulfide pairing and hence folding are important for their biological potency. By comparing the structural differences, we identified potential structural determinants responsible for the folding tendencies of these conotoxins. We examined the role of conserved proline in the first intercysteine loop and the conserved C-terminal amide on folding patterns of synthetic analogues of ImI conotoxin by comparing the isoforms with the regiospecifically synthesized conformers. Deamidation at the C-terminus and substitution of proline in the first intercysteine loop switch the folding pattern from the globular form of alpha-conotoxins to the ribbon form of chi/lambda-conotoxins. The findings are corroborated by reciprocal folding of CMrVIA chi/lambda-conotoxins. Substitution of Lys-6 from the first intercysteine loop of CMrVIA conotoxin with proline, as well as the inclusion of an amidated C-terminal shifted the folding preference of CMrVIA conotoxin from its native ribbon conformation toward the globular conformation. Binding assays of ImI conotoxin analogues with Aplysia and Bulinus acetylcholine binding protein indicate that both these substitutions and their consequent conformational change substantially impact the binding affinity of ImI conotoxin. These results strongly indicate that the first intercysteine loop proline and C-terminal amidation act as conformational switches in alpha- and chi/lambda-conotoxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi061969oDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4778399PMC
March 2007

Targeting T-cell adhesion molecules for drug design.

Curr Pharm Des 2006 ;12(22):2797-812

Department of Pharmacy, Medicinal Chemistry Program, Office of Life Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543.

Adhesion molecules participate in many stages of immune response; they regulate leukocyte circulation, lymphoid cell homing to tissues and inflammatory sites, migration across endothelial cells and T-cell stimulation. During T-cell immune response, adhesion molecules form a specialized junction between T-cell and the antigen presenting cell. Thus, many researchers have focused their attention on targeting adhesion molecules for developing therapeutic agents. Most of these efforts are intended to develop drugs for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Therapeutic agents like efalizumab and alefacept have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on some of the basic aspects and importance of adhesion molecules, recent understanding of the structure of adhesion molecules, and the targeted therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161206777947696DOI Listing
September 2006

Solution structures of two structural isoforms of CMrVIA chi/lambda-conotoxin.

Biomacromolecules 2006 Aug;7(8):2337-46

Protein Science Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Block S3 #03-17 Singapore.

alpha-Conotoxins possess a conserved four-cysteine framework and disulfide linkages (C(1)(-)(3), C(2)(-)(4)) that fold toward the globular conformation with absolute fidelity. Despite the presence of a similar conserved set of cysteine framework, chi/lambda-conotoxins adopt an alternate disulfide-pairing (C(1)(-)(4), C(2)(-)(3)) and its consequent ribbon conformation, exhibiting distinct biological activities from alpha-conotoxins. chi/lambda-Conotoxin CMrVIA (VCCGYKLCHOC-COOH) isolated from the venom of Conus marmoreus natively exists in the ribbon conformation and induces seizures in mice at a potency that is of three orders higher than the non-native globular form. We have chemically synthesized two isoforms of CMrVIA conotoxin in the ribbon and globular conformation and determined their structures by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The ribbon (PDB ID 2B5P) and globular conformations (PBD ID 2B5Q) were calculated to have paired-wise backbone RMSDs of 0.48 +/- 0.1 and 0.58 +/- 0.1 A respectively. Unlike the native globular alpha-conotoxins, the globular canonical form of CMrVIA chi/lambda-conotoxin exhibited heterogeneity in its solution structure as noted by the presence of minor conformers and poorer RMSD of structure calculation. Paired-wise backbone comparison between the native ribbon and the non-native globular form of CMrVIA conotoxin revealed an RMSD of 4.73 A, emphasizing their distinct conformational differences. These structural data are essential for the understanding of the structure-function activity of chi/lambda-conotoxins, as well as unraveling the folding propensities of these short peptide toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm060269wDOI Listing
August 2006

Modeling of neuropeptide receptors Y1, Y4, Y5, and docking studies with neuropeptide antagonist.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2006 Apr;23(5):497-508

Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), receptors belong to the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. NPY mediates several physiological responses, such as blood pressure, food intake, sedation. These actions of NPY are mediated by six receptor subtypes denoted as Y1-Y5 and y6. Modeling of receptor subtypes and binding site identification is an important step in developing new therapeutic agents. We have attempted to model the three NPY receptor types, Y1, Y4, and Y5 using homology modeling and threading methods. The models are consistent with previously reported experimental evidence. To understand the interaction and selectivity of NPY analogues with different neuropeptide receptors, docking studies of two neuropeptide analogues (BVD10 and BVD15) with receptors Y1 and Y4 were carried out. Results of the docking studies indicated that the interaction of ligands BVD10 and BVD15 with Y1 and Y4 receptors are different. These results were evaluated for selectivity of peptide analogues BVD10 and BVD15 towards the receptors.
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April 2006

Effect of C-terminal amidation on folding and disulfide-pairing of alpha-conotoxin ImI.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2005 Oct;44(39):6333-7

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.200502300DOI Listing
October 2005

Mimicking the function of eggshell matrix proteins: the role of multiplets of charged amino acid residues and self-assembly of peptides in biomineralization.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2005 Aug;44(34):5476-9

Department of Chemistry and Singapore-MIT Alliance, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.200500261DOI Listing
August 2005

A novel, rapid and sensitive heterotypic cell adhesion assay for CD2-CD58 interaction, and its application for testing inhibitory peptides.

J Immunol Methods 2004 Aug;291(1-2):39-49

Department of Pharmacy, 18 Science Drive 4, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

The immunoglobulin CD2 is a cell adhesion molecule that mediates T-cell activation by binding to its receptor CD58 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Modulation or inhibition of this interaction has been shown to be therapeutically useful. E-rosetting assay is usually applied in the study of the modulation of CD2-CD58 interaction. In this study, we demonstrated a novel, rapid and sensitive heterotypic cell adhesion assay for CD2-CD58 interaction. The CD2 expression on the surface of Jurkat cells and the CD58 expression on the Caco-2 cells were confirmed by flow cytometry and ELISA studies, respectively. Then Jurkat cells were fluorescent-labeled with 2 microM of BCECF-AM for 45 min at 37 degrees C before adding to confluent Caco-2 monolayers cultured in 96-well culture dishes. After 30 min, non-adherent Jurkat cells were removed by washing with PBS, while the monolayer-associated Jurkat cells were lysed with 0.5 ml of 2% Triton X-100 in 0.1 M NaOH. Fluorescence (FL) was quantitated using a microplate fluorescence analyzer with BCECF's excitation maximum of 485 nm and emission maximum of 535 nm. This method was successfully applied for testing inhibitory peptides to CD2-CD58 interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2004.04.026DOI Listing
August 2004

Modeling of Neuropeptide Receptors Y1, Y4, Y5, and Docking Studies with Neuropeptide Antagonist Analogues: Implications for Selectivity.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2004 Aug;22(1):497-508

a Department of Pharmacy , National University of Singapore , Singapore , 117543.

Abstract Neuropeptide Y (NPY), receptors belong to the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. NPY mediates several physiological responses, such as blood pressure, food intake, sedation. These actions of NPY are mediated by six receptor subtypes denoted as Y(1)-Y(5) and y(6). Modeling of receptor subtypes and binding site identification is an important step in developing new therapeutic agents. We have attempted to model the three NPY receptor types, Y1, Y4, and Y5 using homology modeling and threading methods. The models are consistent with previously reported experimental evidence. To understand the interaction and selectivity of NPY analogues with different neuropeptide receptors, docking studies of two neuropeptide analogues (BVD10 and BVD15) with receptors Y1 and Y4 were carried out. Results of the docking studies indicated that the interaction of ligands BVD10 and BVD15 with Y1 and Y4 receptors are different. These results were evaluated for selectivity of peptide analogues BVD10 and BVD15 towards the receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2004.10506987DOI Listing
August 2004

Design, structure and biological activity of beta-turn peptides of CD2 protein for inhibition of T-cell adhesion.

Eur J Biochem 2004 Jul;271(14):2873-86

Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

The interaction between cell-adhesion molecules CD2 and CD58 is critical for an immune response. Modulation or inhibition of these interactions has been shown to be therapeutically useful. Synthetic 12-mer linear and cyclic peptides, and cyclic hexapeptides based on rat CD2 protein, were designed to modulate CD2-CD58 interaction. The synthetic peptides effectively blocked the interaction between CD2-CD58 proteins as demonstrated by antibody binding, E-rosetting and heterotypic adhesion assays. NMR and molecular modeling studies indicated that the synthetic cyclic peptides exhibit beta-turn structure in solution and closely mimic the beta-turn structure of the surface epitopes of the CD2 protein. Docking studies of CD2 peptides and CD58 protein revealed the possible binding sites of the cyclic peptides on CD58 protein. The designed cyclic peptides with beta-turn structure have the ability to modulate the CD2-CD58 interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04198.xDOI Listing
July 2004

Conformation of neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists: structural implications in receptor selectivity.

Peptides 2003 Jul;24(7):1035-43

Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Two NPY analogue peptides, BVD10 (Ile-Asn-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Arg-Leu-Arg-Tyr-OMe) and BVD15 (Ile-Asn-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Arg-Leu-Arg-Tyr-NH(2)) were characterized conformationally by NMR, CD and molecular dynamics simulations. The two peptides exhibit different secondary structure characteristics in trifluoroethanol. BVD10 exhibits a structure with two consecutive beta-turns at Asn2-Pro3-Ile4-Tyr5 and Ile4-Tyr5-Arg6-Leu7. BVD15 exhibits a helical type of structure along with a beta-turn at Asn2-Pro3-Ile4-Tyr5. Molecular modeling studies suggested that the C-terminus Tyr9 is oriented in different directions in the two peptides. The difference in the structures of peptides observed may contribute to the Y(1) selectivity of BVD10 relative to BVD15.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0196-9781(03)00183-9DOI Listing
July 2003

Solution structure of a peptide derived from the beta subunit of LFA-1.

Peptides 2003 Jun;24(6):827-35

Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Cell-adhesion molecules are critical for immune response. It is well known that the inhibition of adhesion is very effective in immunotherapy and that the peptides derived from leukocyte function associated antigen (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) modulate cell-adhesion interaction. The three-dimensional structure of a cyclic peptide, Cyclo(1,12)Pen(1)-Asp(2)-Leu(3)-Ser(4)-Tyr(5)-Ser(6)-Leu(7)-Asp(8)-Asp(9)-Leu(10)-Arg(11)-Cys(12) (cLBEL) derived from the beta subunit of LFA-1 which is known to modulate homotypic T-cell-adhesion process has been studied using NMR, CD and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The peptide exhibits two possible conformations in solution. Structure I has a conformation with two consecutive beta-turns involving residues Tyr(5)-Ser(6)-Leu(7)-Asp(8) and Asp(9)-Leu(10)-Arg(11)-Cys(12). Structure II has a beta-turn at Tyr(5)-Ser(6)-Leu(7)-Asp(8) and forms a beta-hairpin type of conformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0196-9781(03)00170-0DOI Listing
June 2003

Design of beta-turn based therapeutic agents.

Curr Pharm Des 2003 ;9(15):1209-24

Department of Pharmacy, 18 Science drive 4, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543.

Peptides and proteins are essential to many biological processes. The interaction between the peptide ligands and their receptor targets commonly involves beta-turn structures. Yet poor bioavailability and unfavorable pharmacokinetics significantly compromise the use of peptides as drugs. Thus, there has been a great deal of interest in the design of peptidomimetics (modified peptides) as therapeutic agents by mimicking beta-turn structures. This review highlights the importance of beta-turn in the design of various peptidomimetics for many diseases. This review also outlines several beta-turn mimicking strategies and its application in the design of potent peptide analogues. beta-turn mimetics often tend to be more rigid in positioning the critically important amino acid residues and thus optimize the surface conformation for productive interaction with the receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612033454900DOI Listing
July 2003

Characterization of the interaction of wheat HMGa with linear and four-way junction DNAs.

Biochemistry 2003 Jun;42(21):6596-607

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543.

Wheat HMGa protein is a typical member of the plant HMGA family. It has four AT hooks and a histone H1-like region. A panel of deletion mutants of HMGa was generated to study the role of different regions of HMGa in its binding to 4H (a synthetic DNA that mimics the in vivo structure of intermediates of homologous recombination and DNA repair) and linear DNAs. Although the histone H1-like region of HMGa does not bind to 4H or linear DNAs, it does enhance the binding. Mutants with any two adjacent AT hooks show specific binding to both 4H and linear P268 (and P31) with different binding affinities, which is partly due to the flanking regions between AT hooks. Conformational studies indicate that the alpha-helical content of HMGa increases significantly when it binds to 4H compared to that after binding to P31, linear DNA. In contrast, linear DNA, but not 4H, undergoes substantial conformational change when it binds to HMGa, indicating that linear DNA is relatively more flexible than 4H. A more significant difference in the affinities of binding of the mutants of HMGa to 4H was observed compared to their affinities of binding to linear DNA, P31. These differences could be due to the rigidity of the DNA and the characters of the AT hook regions in the mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi034280hDOI Listing
June 2003

A peptide derived from LFA-1 protein that modulates T-cell adhesion binds to soluble ICAM-1 protein.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2003 Apr;20(5):635-44

Department of Pharmacy, 18 Science Drive 4, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Leukocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) have been shown to be critical for adhesion process and immune response. Modulation or inhibition of the interaction between LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions can result in therapeutic effects. Our group and others have shown that peptides derived from ICAM-1 or LFA-1 inhibit adhesion in a homotypic T-cell adhesion assay. It is likely that the peptides derived from ICAM-1 bind to LFA-1 and peptides derived from LFA-1 bind to ICAM-1 and inhibit the adhesion interaction. However, there are no concrete experimental evidence to show that peptides bind to either LFA-1 or ICAM-1 and inhibit the adhesion. Using NMR, CD and docking studies we have shown that an LFA-1 derived peptide binds to soluble ICAM-1. Docking studies using "autodock" resulted in LFA-1 peptide interacting with the ICAM-1 protein near Glu34. The proposed model based on our experimental data indicated that the LFA-1 peptide interacts with the protein via three intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Hydrophobic interactions also play a role in stabilizing the complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2003.10506880DOI Listing
April 2003

Increasing paracellular porosity by E-cadherin peptides: discovery of bulge and groove regions in the EC1-domain of E-cadherin.

Pharm Res 2002 Aug;19(8):1170-9

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence 66047, USA.

Purpose: The objective of this work is to evaluate the ability of peptides derived from the bulge (HAV-peptides) and groove (ADT-peptides) regions of E-cadherin EC1-domain to increase the paracellular porosity of the intercellular junctions of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers.

Methods: Peptides were synthesized using a solid-phase method and were purified using semi-preparative HPLC. MDCK monolayers were used to evaluate the ability of cadherin peptides to modulate cadherin-cadherin interactions in the intercellular junctions. The increase in intercellular junction porosity was determined by the change in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values and the paracellular transport of 14C-mannitol.

Results: HAV- and ADT-peptides can lower the TEER value of MDCK cell monolayers and enhance the paracellular permeation of 14C-mannitol. HAV- and ADT-decapeptides can modulate the intercellular junctions when they are added from the basolateral side but not from the apical side; on the other hand. HAV- and ADT-hexapeptides increase the paracellular porosity of the monolayers when added from either side. Conjugation of HAV- and ADT-peptides using omega-aminocaproic acid can only work to modulate the paracellular porosity when ADT-peptide is at the N-terminus and HAV-peptide is at the C-terminus; because of its size, the conjugate can only modulate the intercellular junction when added from the basolateral side.

Conclusions: Peptides from the bulge and groove regions of the EC1 domain of E-cadherin can inhibit cadherin-cadherin interactions, resulting in the opening of the paracellular junctions. These peptides may be used to improve paracellular permeation of peptides and proteins. Furthermore, this work suggests that both groove and bulge regions of EC-domain are important for cadherin-cadherin interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1019850226631DOI Listing
August 2002

Structural and ICAM-1-docking properties of a cyclic peptide from the I-domain of LFA-1: an inhibitor of ICAM-1/LFA- 1-mediated T-cell adhesion.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2002 Apr;19(5):789-99

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Simons Research Laboratories, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047, U.S.A.

The purpose of this work was to study the conformation of cyclic peptide 1, cyclo(1,12)-Pen1-Ile2-Thr3-Asp4-Gly5-Glu6-Ala7- Thr8-Asp9-Ser10-Gly11-Cys12-OH, derived from the I-domain of the LFA-1 alpha-subunit. We found that cyclic peptide 1 can bind to the D1-domain of ICAM-1 and inhibit ICAM-1/LFA-1-mediated homotypic and heterotypic T-cell adhesion. To understand the bioactive conformation and binding requirements for cyclic peptide 1, its solution structure was studied using NMR, CD, and molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, possible binding properties between the cyclic peptide and the D1-domain of ICAM-1 were evaluated using docking experiments. This cyclic peptide has a stable betaII -turn at Asp4- Gly5-Glu6-Ala7 and a betaI-turn at Pen1-Ile2-Thr3-Asp4; a less stable betaV-turn is found at the C-terminal region. The beta-turn at Asp4- Gly5-Glu6-Ala7 was also found in the X-ray structure of the I-domain of LFA-1. Our CD studies showed that the peptide binds to calcium/magnesium and forms a 1:1 (peptide:calcium/magnesium) complex with low cation concentrations and multiple types of complexes with higher cation concentrations. Binding to divalent cations causes a conformational change in peptide 1; this is consistent with our previous study that binding of peptide 1 to ICAM-1 was influenced by divalent cations. Docking studies show the interaction between cyclic peptide 1 and the D1-domain of ICAM-1; it indicates that the Ile2-Thr3-Asp4-Gly4-Glu6-Ala7-Thr8 sequence interacts with the F and C strands of the D1-domain. Finally, these studies will help us design a new generation of selective peptides that may bind better to the D1-domain of ICAM-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2002.10506785DOI Listing
April 2002
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