Publications by authors named "Seema Akbar"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of co-administration of pharmacopoeia formulations and with CAT-I antitubercular drugs in rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

ICMR-National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objectives: Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem globally, despite incredible advancements in healthcare system. In system of medicine, (QTS) and (AHB) have been traditionally used for tuberculosis like conditions. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of co-administration of QTS and AHB with category I first line antitubercular drugs (CAT-I) on the indices of liver and kidney function in rats.

Methods: QTS and AHB were prepared individually and mixed to achieve final compound pharmacopoeia formulation (UPF). The human equivalent doses for rats were calculated and administered with and without CAT-I. The effects of the formulations on serum indices of kidney and liver function, hematological markers and plasma CAT-I drug levels were estimated at 14th, 60th & 180th days of treatment.

Results: The administration of UPF, CAT-I and UPF + CAT-I altered the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and haematological markers. These alterations were within permissible range and randomly distributed among groups during various time points. Administration of CAT-I alone resulted in moderate histopathological changes which were completely abrogated in CAT-I + UPF co-administered animals. The co-administration of UPF with CAT-I improved the plasma peak rifampicin (RIF) levels, without altering the liver and kidney functions.

Conclusions: The co-administration of UPF with ATT improved liver and kidney functions and increased the plasma levels of RIF. These beneficial findings provide a scope to evaluate the pharmacokinetic studies in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0262DOI Listing
May 2021

Subchronic oral toxicity study of Habb-e-Suranjan in albino Wistar rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2018 Mar 28;15(3). Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Drug Standardization Research Unit, Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2017-0144DOI Listing
March 2018

Chemical composition and pharmacological potential of aromatic water from Salix caprea inflorescence.

Chin J Integr Med 2017 Sep 29. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Department of chemistry, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, 190006, India.

Objective: To evaluate the chemical composition and pharmacological potential of hydro distillate from Salix caprea inflorescence.

Methods: Fresh flowers were subjected to conventional hydrodistillation. Antioxidant activity was assessed as free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) towards 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals. Anti inflammatory activity was examined by human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method. Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of hexane extract of aromatic water was performed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS).

Results: A total of 19 constituents representing (99.2%) of the aromatic water were identified; Hexahydrofarnesylacetone (38.3%), 2-butyl-octanol (24.0%), 2.hexyl-1-octanol (8.6%) were the main components. Results suggest that the hydro distillate possess significant antioxidant and anti-inflammtory properties.

Conclusions: The aromatic water's composition and its pharmacological evaluations has been reported in our results for this unique and endemic species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-017-2781-5DOI Listing
September 2017

Gentiana kurroo Royle attenuates the metabolic aberrations in diabetic rats; Swertiamarin, swertisin and lupeol being the possible bioactive principles.

J Complement Integr Med 2017 Apr 29;14(3). Epub 2017 Apr 29.

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Background Gentiana kuroo Royle is a medicinally important plant of north-western Himalayas used for various ailments. In the present study, the plant extracts were investigated for the antidiabetic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods The impact of the extracts on serum glucose levels of diabetic rats was compared with reference drug - glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Streptozotocin injection was used to induce diabetes in fasted rats. Various biochemical, physiological and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats were observed for assessing the antidiabetic activity. Results The serum glucose concentrations in diabetic rats were significantly lowered by the extracts (methanolic and hydroethanolic at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Several related biochemical parameters like creatinine, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase were likewise decreased by the concentrates. The extracts also showed reduction in feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The extracts were found to demonstrate regenerative/protective effect on β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The methanolic and hydroethanolic extracts also exhibited hypoglycaemic effect in normal glucose-fed rats (oral glucose tolerance tests). LC-MS characterization of this extract showed the presence of these compounds - Swertiamarin, swertisin, lupeol, etc. Conclusions The current study demonstrated the counter diabetic capability of G. kuroo Royle being powerful in hyperglycaemia and can viably ensure against other metabolic deviations created by diabetes in rats. The possible bioactive principles responsible for the antidiabetic activity of G. kurroo Royle are Swertiamarin, swertisin and lupeol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2017-0002DOI Listing
April 2017

Anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory studies on LC-MS characterised methanol extract of Gentiana kurroo Royle.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Jan 28;17(1):78. Epub 2017 Jan 28.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006, India.

Background: In ayurvedic traditional medicine Gentiana kurroo Royle (family; Gentianaceae) is used to treat several metabolic diseases. This plant is rich in various compounds belonging to flavonoids and glycosides. Till now little work has been carried out on immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential of this plant. This study confirms the presence of bioactive compounds and evaluates the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of this plant.

Methods: To carry out this work, the methanol extract was investigated in different doses using in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo study involved haemagglutination titre and DTH methods, and in vitro study was done using splenocyte proliferation assay and LPS stimulated macrophage culture. TNF-α, IL-6 and NO were assayed using ELISA kit methods, while NF-κB was evaluated by western blotting. LC-ESI-MS/MS was used for the characterization of the methanol extract.

Results: The results showed suppression of both humoral and cell mediated immunity in vivo. This effect was also observed by inhibition of B and T cell proliferation in splenocyte proliferation assay. TNF-α, IL-6 and NO concentrations were also less in extract treated macrophage cultures. The NF-κB expression was also lowered in treated macrophages as compared to untreated macrophages. All these observations were found to be dose dependent. LC-MS characterization of this extract showed the presence of known compounds which are glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids in nature.

Conclusion: The methanol extract of this plant was found to be rich in glycoside, alkaloid and flavonoid compounds. These compounds are probably responsible for the suppression of immune response and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract as such and identified bioactive compounds can be useful for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1593-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5273812PMC
January 2017

Safety Evaluation of Unani Formulation: Capsule Shaqeeqa in Albino Wistar Rats.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2016 31;2016:2683403. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190006, India.

Capsule Shaqeeqa, Unani formulation, is prescribed for the clinical treatment of diseases like sinusitis, headache, and migraine. The safety evaluation data of it is not available; in order to provide the safety data the present study was carried out. The study was carried out on four groups of rats (n = 5). Two groups (one male and one female group) as normal controls were orally given water while the other two groups were orally given daily doses of drug at the dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight for duration of 90 days. Physiological parameters like body weight, feed consumption, water consumption, and clinical signs were regularly monitored and recorded. Organs were collected, examined, and weighed and specimens were taken for histopathological studies. The results showed that the drug did not alter the physiological parameters. There was no mortality or any morbidity found in drug treated rats. There was no statistical significant change found in any haematological or biochemical parameter of rats orally fed with Shaqeeqa. A statistically insignificant association verified that haematological and biochemical parameters were rendered unaffected by the drug. Moreover histological investigations of essential key organs demonstrated that the drug did not prompt any histopathological change. These observations demonstrate the safety of Capsule Shaqeeqa at the studied dosage levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2683403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830740PMC
May 2016

Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective Potential and Chemical Profiling of Propolis Ethanolic Extract from Kashmir Himalaya Region Using UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS.

Biomed Res Int 2015 11;2015:393462. Epub 2015 Oct 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190006, India.

The aim of this study was to examine hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of propolis (KPEt) from Kashmir Himalaya against isoniazid and rifampicin (INH-RIF) induced liver damage in rats. Hepatic cellular injury was initiated by administration of INH-RIF combination (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for 14 days. We report the protective effects of KPEt against INH-RIF induced liver oxidative stress, inflammation, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Oral administration of KPEt at both doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) distinctly restricted all modulating oxidative liver injury markers and resulted in the attenuation of INH-RIF arbitrated damage. The free radical scavenging activity of KPEt was evaluated by DPPH, nitric oxide, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. The components present in KPEt identified by ultra high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector time of flight-mass spectroscopy (UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS) were found to be flavonoids and phenolic acids. The protective efficacy of KPEt is possibly because of free radical scavenging and antioxidant property resulting from the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/393462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4619790PMC
August 2016

Evaluation of Antiarthritic Potential of Methanolic Extract of Gentiana kurroo Royle.

Arthritis 2014 6;2014:810615. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Kashmir University Campus, Srinagar 190006, India.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder which involves the activation of immune system against the self-tissues. The main targets of this disease are the joints. Being systemic the development of this disease involves different mechanisms and thus the exact cause of this disease remains unknown. Although different drugs have been developed, none has been found to be the cure for this disease. In the current study the rat carrageenin paw was used as a model for acute inflammation and mycobacterium induced adjuvant arthritic model was used for exploring the antiarthritic potential of methanolic extract of Gentiana kurroo. In this study the different extracts tested showed less inhibition of acute inflammation than methanolic extract. The methanolic extract was further used in different doses and the anti-inflammatory efficacy was found to be dose dependent. The results obtained were significant with the control and the standard groups. In the arthritic model the methanolic extract showed decrease in the paw volume of arthritic animals and also in the arthritic symptoms. Again the results obtained were found to be significantly dose dependent. From the results obtained it can be concluded that this extract may serve as a source of drug against the rheumatoid arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/810615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241291PMC
November 2014

Antidiabetic activity of Artemisia amygdalina Decne in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Biomed Res Int 2014 21;2014:185676. Epub 2014 May 21.

Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006, India.

Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Artemisia amygdalina. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia amygdalina were tested for their antidiabetic potentials in diabetic rats. The effect of extracts was observed by checking the biochemical, physiological, and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats. The hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts each at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b. w significantly reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. The other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL), serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatise (ALP), were found to be reduced by the hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts. The extracts also showed reduction in the feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on β -cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The current study revealed the antidiabetic potential of Artemisia amygdalina being effective in hyperglycemia and that it can effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by diabetes in rats, which seems to validate its therapeutic traditional use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/185676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4055220PMC
February 2015

Phytochemical screening, physicochemical properties, acute toxicity testing and screening of hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of Eremurus himalaicus baker in normoglycaemic Wistar strain albino rats.

Biomed Res Int 2014 29;2014:867547. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190006, India.

In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001); this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05), while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/867547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020550PMC
January 2015

Scientific Validation of Gentiana kurroo Royle for Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Potential.

ISRN Inflamm 2014 23;2014:701765. Epub 2014 Feb 23.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006, India.

Gentiana kurroo Royle is a critically endangered medicinal plant species endemic to the northwestern Himalayas. This plant was studied for the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential. Carrageenan paw edema model was used to study the potential of the drug in inflammation in Wistar rats. SRBC specific haemagglutination titre and DTH assays were carried out in Balb/C mice for observing the effect of test drugs on immune system. The plant extracts were found to be active against inflammation. The methanolic fraction was observed to be the most effective in inhibition of paw edema with the inhibitory potential of 47.62%. In immunomodulation studies the plant extracts showed the immunosuppressant activity. Methanolic fraction was observed to have maximum potential for the suppression of both humoral (57.57% and 54.05%) and cell mediated immunity (65.27% and 75%). From these studies, it can be concluded that the extracts of plant are having anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant activity. Since in chronic inflammation like arthritis there is the involvement of immune system, this plant may serve as an alternative for the treatment of autoimmune diseases like arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/701765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3953469PMC
April 2014

Evaluation of Artemisia amygdalina D. for Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Potential.

ISRN Inflamm 2013 10;2013:483646. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, India.

Artemisia amygdalina D. is a critically endangered endemic medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. In the current study anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of the plant was carried out. Carrageenan paw edema model was used to study the potential of the drug in inflammation in Wistar rats. SRBC-specific haemagglutination titre and DTH assays were carried out in Balb/C mice for observing the effect of test drugs on immune system. The plant extracts used as test drugs showed to have anti-inflammatory potential. The methanolic fraction was observed to have the maximum effect on the inhibition of paw edema formation with the inhibitory potential of 42.26%, while in the immunomodulation studies the test drugs were found to have the immunosuppressant activity with methanolic fraction again showing the maximum potential for the suppression of both humoral (55.89% and 47.91%) and cell-mediated immunity (62.27% and 57.21%). The plant in total seems to have the anti-inflammatory potential. The suppression of immune system suggests some mechanistic way by which the inhibition of inflammation takes place. Since, in chronic inflammation like arthritis, there is the involvement of immune system, the plant in that way may serve as an alternative for the treatment of such autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/483646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3810318PMC
November 2013

Variation in bioactive principles of Artemisia amygdalina Decne. in wild and tissue culture regenerants.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2013 May;26(3):623-8

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina, a critically endangered and endemic plant of Kashmir and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan were screened for the amount of bioactive principles and in particular antimalarial compound artemesinin. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of terpenes, alkaloids, phenolics, tannins (polyphenolics), cardiac glycosides and steroids in wild (aerial, inflorescence) and tissue culture regenerants (in vitro grown plant, callus and green house acclimatized plants). HPLC of Artemisia amygdalina revealed the presence of artemesinin in petroleum ether extracts of wild aerial part, tissue culture raised plant and green house acclimatized plants. Acetonitrile and water in 70:30 ratios at flow rate of 1ml/min was standardised as mobile phase. Retention time for standard chromatogram was 6.7. Wild inflorescences and callus does not produce artemesinin. This is the first report of phytochemical screening and artemesinin estimation of wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina.
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May 2013

5, 6-Dihydropyranobenzopyrone: a previously undetermined antioxidant isolated from Polygonum amplexicaule.

Chin J Nat Med 2012 Jan;10(1):28-31

National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, United States.

Aim: To study the chemical constituents and their bioactivity of Polygonum amplexicaule.

Methods: The isolation of compounds was achieved by chromatographic techniques and structure of the isolates was established by UV, IR, HRESI-MS and NMR including 1D and 2D experiments.

Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of Polygonum amplexicaule led to the isolation of a hitherto unidentified compound, 5, 6-dihydropyranobenzopyrone (1) along with nine previously known compounds (2-10). Compounds 2-10 were identified as amplexicine (2), catechin (3), rutin (4), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5), chlorogenic acid (6), galloyl glucose (7), caffeic acid (8), gallic acid (9) and scopletin (10).

Conclusion: Compound 1 is new. Compounds 1-10 exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in a 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(12)60006-5DOI Listing
January 2012

9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanostane triterpene from Salix caprea L. (goat willow).

Nat Prod Res 2013 8;27(2):171-5. Epub 2012 Mar 8.

National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.

Chemical investigation of low polar solvent extract of Salix caprea through chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of new triterpene as 1α,3β,25-trihydroxy-9(11)-ene-16-one-9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanostane (1) along with fatty alcohols. The structure of compound 1 was established by IR, HRESI/MS and NMR including 1D and 2D experiments. The compound 1 showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2012.665912DOI Listing
June 2013

Acylated flavonol glycosides from Epimedium elatum, a plant endemic to the Western Himalayas.

Fitoterapia 2012 Jun 18;83(4):665-70. Epub 2012 Feb 18.

National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677, USA.

Herba Epimedii is a well-known Botanical preparation used over long time in traditional Chinese medicine. The extracts and chemical constituents from Epimedium species are aphrodisiac as well as to treat many ailments. Chemical investigation of lonely species growing in Kashmir Himalaya Epimedium elatum was undertaken to evaluate its chemical profile. Two unusual substituted acylated flavonol glycosides named Elatoside A (1) and Elatoside B (2) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of E. elatum along with 23 previously known ones (3-25). All isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial and PPAR-γ ligand binding activity, and some of them appeared to be modestly active.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2012.02.003DOI Listing
June 2012

Acylated flavonol glycoside from Platanus orientalis.

Fitoterapia 2012 Mar 9;83(2):281-5. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677, United States.

The ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of ethanolic extract of Platanus orientalis leaves led to the isolation of new acylated flavonol glycoside as 3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonol 3-[O-2-O-(2,4-Dihydroxy)-E-cinnamoyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, along with seven known compounds. All the compounds were characterized by NMR including 2D NMR techniques. The isolates were evaluated for NF-κB, nitric oxide (NO), aromatase and QR2 chemoprevention activities and some of them appeared to be modestly active.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2011.11.004DOI Listing
March 2012

Antioxidant potential in callus culture of Artemisia amygdalina Decne.

Nat Prod Res 2012 27;26(22):2103-6. Epub 2011 Sep 27.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

This study was conducted to analyse the free radical scavenging potential of callus obtained from nodal segments and leaf explants of Artemisia amygdalina Decne. The explants were inoculated on MS medium augmented with various concentrations of BAP, Kn, NAA and 2,4-D for callus induction. In this study, 12.42 g of callus developed from the leaf explant on MS (NAA 10 + BAP 7.5 µM) and 8.81 g of callus developed from nodal explant on NAA 2 µM+BAP 2 µM. Callus raised from both explants on all treatments seemed non-regenerative but BAP 2 µM produced 7.33 shoots and BAP 15 µM produced callus and 5 shoots per nodal segment. Callus was analysed for antioxidant activity via DPPH, riboflavin photoxidation and DNA damage assays. Methanol and aqueous extracts show more scavenging in DPPH, deoxyribose assay and in contrast, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts show higher activity in riboflavin photoxidation assay. Tocopherol, ascorbic acid and BHT were used as controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.617749DOI Listing
April 2013

Phytochemical screening of Prunella vulgaris l. - an important medicinal plant of Kashmir.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2010 Oct;23(4):399-402

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006, J&K, India.

Kashmiri medicinal plant (Prunella vulgaris) was analyzed for its chemical composition and amount of bioactive constituents. The results showed that the herb contains on an average alkaloid (1120 mg %), saponins (350 mg %), phenolics (55.785 mg %) and tannins (52.25 mg %). The medicinal plant contained carbohydrates (375 mg %), proteins (441.6 mg %) and lipids (2403.8 mg %). Role of these bioactive principles are discussed according to their folkloric use in Kashmir valley. Besides the herb is of great importance as far as its other clinical application are concerned. This quantitative estimation can be used for comparative evaluation of bioactive constituents with other populations of Prunella vulgaris present in different parts of the world and can be used for selection of superior quality of this herb to use in pharmaceutical industries.
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October 2010

Use of Strychnos nux-vomica (Azraqi) seeds in Unani system of medicine: role of detoxification.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2010 3;7(4):286-90. Epub 2010 Jul 3.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar (J&K) India.

Some plants used in Unani system of medicine are toxic, even deadly poisonous. The drugs having such plants as their components are detoxified before they are dispensed to the patients. One such drug, capsule Hudar, has Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Azraqi) seeds as one of its components and is very effectively used to elevate blood pressure. Ancient manuscripts describe many methods of its detoxification. It has been found that the detoxification processes studied reduce the strychnine content, as determined either by using uv-vis spectrophotometer or HPLC, present in Strychnos nux vomica seeds which is responsible for Strychnos nux vomica toxicity. The decrease in strychnine amount was best when the seeds were immersed for detoxification in excess of water for 5 days, in milk for 2 days followed by their boiling in milk. Strychnine in small amounts has been reported to give subjective feeling of stimulation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3005396PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v7i4.56689DOI Listing
September 2011

Humarain: a new dimeric gallic acid glycoside from Punica granatum L. bark.

Fitoterapia 2009 Jun 2;80(4):223-5. Epub 2009 Feb 2.

Natural Product Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, CSIR, Sanatnagar Srinagar 190 005, India.

A new dimeric gallic acid glycoside named Humarain (1) was isolated from stem bark of Punica granatum. The structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2009.01.013DOI Listing
June 2009