Publications by authors named "Sebastian Wasserstrom"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Peptide-coated polyurethane material reduces wound infection and inflammation.

Acta Biomater 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SE 22184, Sweden. Electronic address:

There is an urgent need for treatments that not only reduce bacterial infection that occurs during wounding but that also target the accompanying excessive inflammatory response. TCP-25, a thrombin-derived antibacterial peptide, scavenges toll-like receptor agonists such as endotoxins and lipoteichoic acid and prevents toll-like receptor-4 dimerization to reduce infection-related inflammation in vivo. Using a combination of biophysical, cellular, and microbiological assays followed by experimental studies in mouse and pig models, we show that TCP-25, when delivered from a polyurethane (PU) material, exerts anti-infective and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, TCP-25 killed the common wound pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Furthermore, after its release from the PU material, the peptide retained its capacity to induce its helical conformation upon endotoxin interaction, yielding reduced activation of NF-κB in THP-1 reporter cells, and diminished accumulation of inflammatory cells and subsequent release of IL-6 and TNF-α in subcutaneous implant models in vivo. Moreover, in a porcine partial thickness wound infection model, TCP-25 treated infection with S. aureus, and reduced the concomitant inflammatory response. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a combined antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect of TCP-25 delivered from PU in vitro, and in mouse and porcine in vivo models of localized infection-inflammation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Local wound infections may result in systemic complications and can be difficult to treat due to increasing antimicrobial resistance. Surgical site infections and biomaterial-related infections present a major challenge for hospitals. In recent years, various antimicrobial coatings have been developed for infection prevention and current concepts focus on various matrices with added anti-infective components, including various antibiotics and antiseptics. We have developed a dual action wound dressing concept where the host defense peptide TCP-25, when delivered from a PU material, targets both bacterial infection and the accompanying inflammation. TCP-25 PU showed efficacy in in vitro and experimental wound models in mouse and minipigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.04.045DOI Listing
May 2021

Crosstalk between Mast Cells and Lung Fibroblasts Is Modified by Alveolar Extracellular Matrix and Influences Epithelial Migration.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 6;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Unit of Lung Biology, Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Lund University, 221 84 Lund, Sweden.

Mast cells play an important role in asthma, however, the interactions between mast cells, fibroblasts and epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are less known. The objectives were to investigate the effect of mast cells on fibroblast activity and migration of epithelial cells. Lung fibroblasts from IPF patients and healthy individuals were co-cultured with LAD2 mast cells or stimulated with the proteases tryptase and chymase. Human lung fibroblasts and mast cells were cultured on cell culture plastic plates or decellularized human lung tissue (scaffolds) to create a more physiological milieu by providing an alveolar extracellular matrix. Released mediators were analyzed and evaluated for effects on epithelial cell migration. Tryptase increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release from fibroblasts, whereas co-culture with mast cells increased IL-6 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Culture in scaffolds increased the release of VEGF compared to culture on plastic. Migration of epithelial cells was reduced by IL-6, while HGF and conditioned media from scaffold cultures promoted migration. In conclusion, mast cells and tryptase increased fibroblast release of mediators that influenced epithelial migration. These data indicate a role of mast cells and tryptase in the interplay between fibroblasts, epithelial cells and the alveolar extracellular matrix in health and lung disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825515PMC
January 2021

Adipose cell size changes are associated with a drastic actin remodeling.

Sci Rep 2019 09 10;9(1):12941. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Lund University, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund, Sweden.

Adipose tissue plays a major role in regulating whole-body insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. To accommodate surplus energy, the tissue rapidly expands by increasing adipose cell size (hypertrophy) and cell number (hyperplasia). Previous studies have shown that enlarged, hypertrophic adipocytes are less responsive to insulin, and that adipocyte size could serve as a predictor for the development of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we demonstrate that changes in adipocyte size correlate with a drastic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Expansion of primary adipocytes following 2 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD)-feeding in C57BL6/J mice was associated with a drastic increase in filamentous (F)-actin as assessed by fluorescence microscopy, increased Rho-kinase activity, and changed expression of actin-regulating proteins, favoring actin polymerization. At the same time, increased cell size was associated with impaired insulin response, while the interaction between the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein IQGAP1 and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 remained intact. Reversed feeding from HFD to chow restored cell size, insulin response, expression of actin-regulatory proteins and decreased the amount of F-actin filaments. Together, we report a drastic cytoskeletal remodeling during adipocyte expansion, a process which could contribute to deteriorating adipocyte function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49418-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736966PMC
September 2019

Specific amino acid substitutions in β strand S2 of FtsZ cause spiraling septation and impair assembly cooperativity in Streptomyces spp.

Mol Microbiol 2019 07 17;112(1):184-198. Epub 2019 May 17.

Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 35, Lund, 223 62, Sweden.

Bacterial cell division is orchestrated by the Z ring, which is formed by single-stranded treadmilling protofilaments of FtsZ. In Streptomyces, during sporulation, multiple Z rings are assembled and lead to formation of septa that divide a filamentous hyphal cell into tens of prespore compartments. We describe here mutant alleles of ftsZ in Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces venezuelae that perturb cell division in such a way that constriction is initiated along irregular spiral-shaped paths rather than as regular septa perpendicular to the cell length axis. This conspicuous phenotype is caused by amino acid substitutions F37I and F37R in β strand S2 of FtsZ. The F37I mutation leads, instead of regular Z rings, to formation of relatively stable spiral-shaped FtsZ structures that are capable of initiating cell constriction. Further, we show that the F37 mutations affect the polymerization properties and impair the cooperativity of FtsZ assembly in vitro. The results suggest that specific residues in β strand S2 of FtsZ affect the conformational switch in FtsZ that underlies assembly cooperativity and enable treadmilling of protofilaments, and that these features are required for formation of regular Z rings. However, the data also indicate FtsZ-directed cell constriction is not dependent on assembly cooperativity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14262DOI Listing
July 2019

PNPLA3 variant M148 causes resistance to starvation-mediated lipid droplet autophagy in human hepatocytes.

J Cell Biochem 2019 01 1;120(1):343-356. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

The mechanism of how patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) variant M148 is associated with increased risk of development of hepatic steatosis is still debated. Here, we propose a novel role of PNPLA3 as a key player during autophagosome formation in the process of lipophagy. A human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2 cells, expressing recombinant I148 or 148M, was used to study lipophagy under energy deprived conditions, and lipid droplet morphology was investigated using florescence microscopy, image analysis and biochemical assays. Autophagic flux was studied using the golden-standard of LC3-II turnover in combination with the well characterized GFP-RFP-LC3 vector. To discriminate between, perturbed autophagic initiation and lysosome functionality, lysosomes were characterized by Lysotracker staining and LAMP1 protein levels as well as activity and activation of cathepsin B. For validation, human liver biopsies genotyped for I148 and 148M were analyzed for the presence of LC3-II and PNPLA3 on lipid droplets. We show that the M148-PNPLA3 variant is associated with lipid droplets that are resistant to starvation-mediated degradation. M148 expressing hepatocytes reveal decreased autophagic flux and reduced lipophagy. Both I148-PNPLA3 and M148-PNPLA3 colocalize and interact with LC3-II, but the M148-PNPLA3 variant has lower ability to bind LC3-II. Together, our data indicate that PNPLA3 might play an essential role in lipophagy in hepatocytes and furthermore that the M148-PNPLA3 variant appears to display a loss in this activity, leading to decreased lipophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27378DOI Listing
January 2019

Intact glucose uptake despite deteriorating signaling in adipocytes with high-fat feeding.

J Mol Endocrinol 2018 04 16;60(3):199-211. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Department of Experimental Medical ScienceLund University, Lund, Sweden

To capture immediate cellular changes during diet-induced expansion of adipocyte cell volume and number, we characterized mature adipocytes during a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) intervention. Male C57BL6/J mice were fed chow diet, and then switched to HFD for 2, 4, 6 or 14 days. Systemic glucose clearance was assessed by glucose tolerance test. Adipose tissue was dissected for RNA-seq and cell size distribution analysis using coulter counting. Insulin response in isolated adipocytes was monitored by glucose uptake assay and Western blotting, and confocal microscopy was used to assess autophagic activity. Switching to HFD was accompanied by an immediate adipocyte size expansion and onset of systemic insulin resistance already after two days, followed by recruitment of new adipocytes. Despite an initially increased non-stimulated and preserved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, we observed a decreased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and protein kinase B (PKB). After 14 days of HFD, both the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and glucose uptake was blunted. RNA-seq analysis of adipose tissue revealed transient changes in gene expression at day four, including highly significant upregulation of , previously demonstrated to be involved in autophagy. We confirmed increased autophagy, measured as an increased density of LC3-positive puncta and decreased p62 expression after 14 days of HFD. In conclusion, HFD rapidly induced systemic insulin resistance, whereas insulin-stimulated glucose uptake remained intact throughout 6 days of HFD feeding. We also identified autophagy as an early cellular process that potentially influences adipocyte function upon switching to HFD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JME-17-0195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459392PMC
April 2018

Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy to Study GLUT4 Trafficking.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1713:151-159

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC C11, Lund, 22 184, Sweden.

Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful method that allows examination of plasma membrane close events in real time. The last decade, the method has successfully been used to explore GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. Here, we describe the procedure for studying GLUT4 trafficking using TIRF microscopy in isolated primary adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7507-5_12DOI Listing
July 2018

Two dynamin-like proteins stabilize FtsZ rings during sporulation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 07 7;114(30):E6176-E6183. Epub 2017 Jul 7.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom;

During sporulation, the filamentous bacteria undergo a massive cell division event in which the synthesis of ladders of sporulation septa convert multigenomic hyphae into chains of unigenomic spores. This process requires cytokinetic Z-rings formed by the bacterial tubulin homolog FtsZ, and the stabilization of the newly formed Z-rings is crucial for completion of septum synthesis. Here we show that two dynamin-like proteins, DynA and DynB, play critical roles in this process. Dynamins are a family of large, multidomain GTPases involved in key cellular processes in eukaryotes, including vesicle trafficking and organelle division. Many bacterial genomes encode dynamin-like proteins, but the biological function of these proteins has remained largely enigmatic. Using a cell biological approach, we show that the two dynamins specifically localize to sporulation septa in an FtsZ-dependent manner. Moreover, dynamin mutants have a cell division defect due to the decreased stability of sporulation-specific Z-rings, as demonstrated by kymographs derived from time-lapse images of FtsZ ladder formation. This defect causes the premature disassembly of individual Z-rings, leading to the frequent abortion of septum synthesis, which in turn results in the production of long spore-like compartments with multiple chromosomes. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that the dynamins are part of the cell division machinery and that they mediate their effects on Z-ring stability during developmentally controlled cell division via a network of protein-protein interactions involving DynA, DynB, FtsZ, SepF, SepF2, and the FtsZ-positioning protein SsgB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704612114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5544309PMC
July 2017

Rosiglitazone drives cavin-2/SDPR expression in adipocytes in a CEBPα-dependent manner.

PLoS One 2017 9;12(3):e0173412. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Caveolae are abundant adipocyte surface domains involved in insulin signaling, membrane trafficking and lipid homeostasis. Transcriptional control mechanisms for caveolins and cavins, the building blocks of caveolae, are thus arguably important for adipocyte biology and studies in this area may give insight into insulin resistance and diabetes. Here we addressed the hypothesis that one of the less characterized caveolar components, cavin-2 (SDPR), is controlled by CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (CEBPα) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG). Using human mRNA expression data we found that SDPR correlated with PPARG in several tissues. This was also observed during differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes. Treatment of 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes with the PPARγ-activator Rosiglitazone increased SDPR and CEBPα expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Silencing of CEBPα antagonized these effects. Further, adenoviral expression of PPARγ/CEBPα or Rosiglitazone-treatment increased SDPR expression in primary rat adipocytes. The myocardin family coactivator MKL1 was recently shown to regulate SDPR expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. However, we found that actin depolymerization, known to inhibit MKL1 and MKL2, was without effect on SDPR mRNA levels in adipocytes, even though overexpression of MKL1 and MKL2 had the capacity to increase caveolins and cavins and to repress PPARγ/CEBPα. Altogether, this work demonstrates that CEBPα expression and PPARγ-activity promote SDPR transcription and further supports the emerging notion that PPARγ/CEBPα and MKL1/MKL2 are antagonistic in adipocytes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173412PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5344386PMC
August 2017

Perilipin 1 binds to aquaporin 7 in human adipocytes and controls its mobility via protein kinase A mediated phosphorylation.

Metabolism 2016 Dec 22;65(12):1731-1742. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC, 221 84, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulated glycerol metabolism contributes to the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Glycerol efflux from adipocytes is regulated by the aquaglyceroporin AQP7, which is translocated upon hormone stimulation. Here, we propose a molecular mechanism where the AQP7 mobility in adipocytes is dependent on perilipin 1 and protein kinase A. Biochemical analyses combined with ex vivo studies in human primary adipocytes, demonstrate that perilipin 1 binds to AQP7, and that catecholamine activated protein kinase A phosphorylates the N-terminus of AQP7, thereby reducing complex formation. Together, these findings are indicative of how glycerol release is controlled in adipocytes, and may pave the way for the future design of drugs against human metabolic pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2016.09.004DOI Listing
December 2016

Salt-inducible kinase 2 and -3 are downregulated in adipose tissue from obese or insulin-resistant individuals: implications for insulin signalling and glucose uptake in human adipocytes.

Diabetologia 2017 02 2;60(2):314-323. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Protein Phosphorylation Research Group, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC C11, Klinikgatan 28, 22242, Lund, Sweden.

Aims/hypothesis: Salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) are related to the metabolic regulator AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). SIK2 is abundant in adipose tissue. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of SIKs in relation to human obesity and insulin resistance, and to evaluate whether changes in the expression of SIKs might play a causal role in the development of disturbed glucose uptake in human adipocytes.

Methods: SIK mRNA and protein was determined in human adipose tissue or adipocytes, and correlated to clinical variables. SIK2 and SIK3 expression and phosphorylation were analysed in adipocytes treated with TNF-α. Glucose uptake, GLUT protein levels and localisation, phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and the SIK substrate histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) were analysed after the SIKs had been silenced using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or inhibited using a pan-SIK-inhibitor (HG-9-91-01).

Results: We demonstrate that SIK2 and SIK3 mRNA are downregulated in adipose tissue from obese individuals and that the expression is regulated by weight change. SIK2 is also negatively associated with in vivo insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), independently of BMI and age. Moreover, SIK2 protein levels and specific kinase activity display a negative correlation to BMI in human adipocytes. Furthermore, SIK2 and SIK3 are downregulated by TNF-α in adipocytes. Silencing or inhibiting SIK1-3 in adipocytes results in reduced phosphorylation of HDAC4 and PKB/Akt, less GLUT4 at the plasma membrane, and lower basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes.

Conclusion/interpretation: This is the first study to describe the expression and function of SIKs in human adipocytes. Our data suggest that SIKs might be protective in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, with implications for future treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-016-4141-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6518086PMC
February 2017

ApoA-I Milano stimulates lipolysis in adipose cells independently of cAMP/PKA activation.

J Lipid Res 2015 Dec 26;56(12):2248-59. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

Glucose Transport and Protein Trafficking, Lund University, 221 84 Lund, Sweden

ApoA-I, the main protein component of HDL, is suggested to be involved in metabolic homeostasis. We examined the effects of Milano, a naturally occurring ApoA-I variant, about which little mechanistic information is available. Remarkably, high-fat-fed mice treated with Milano displayed a rapid weight loss greater than ApoA-I WT treated mice, and a significantly reduced adipose tissue mass, without an inflammatory response. Further, lipolysis in adipose cells isolated from mice treated with either WT or Milano was increased. In primary rat adipose cells, Milano stimulated cholesterol efflux and increased glycerol release, independently of β-adrenergic stimulation and phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (Ser563) and perilipin (Ser522). Stimulation with Milano had a significantly greater effect on glycerol release compared with WT but similar effect on cholesterol efflux. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing of ABCA1 did not diminish Milano-stimulated lipolysis, although binding to the cell surface was decreased, as analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, a well-described cholesterol acceptor, dose-dependently stimulated lipolysis. Together, these results suggest that decreased fat mass and increased lipolysis following Milano treatment in vivo is partly explained by a novel mechanism at the adipose cell level comprising stimulation of lipolysis independently of the canonical cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M054767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4655981PMC
December 2015

SIK2 regulates CRTCs, HDAC4 and glucose uptake in adipocytes.

J Cell Sci 2015 Feb;128(3):472-86

Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) is an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) related kinase abundantly expressed in adipose tissue. Our aim was to identify molecular targets and functions of SIK2 in adipocytes, and to address the role of PKA-mediated phosphorylation of SIK2 on Ser358. Modulation of SIK2 in adipocytes resulted in altered phosphorylation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 2 (CRTC2), CRTC3 and class IIa histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Furthermore, CRTC2, CRTC3, HDAC4 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) interacted with SIK2, and the binding of CRTCs and PP2A to wild-type but not Ser358Ala SIK2, was reduced by cAMP elevation. Silencing of SIK2 resulted in reduced GLUT4 (also known as SLC2A4) protein levels, whereas cells treated with CRTC2 or HDAC4 siRNA displayed increased levels of GLUT4. Overexpression or pharmacological inhibition of SIK2 resulted in increased and decreased glucose uptake, respectively. We also describe a SIK2–CRTC2–HDAC4 pathway and its regulation in human adipocytes, strengthening the physiological relevance of our findings. Collectively, we demonstrate that SIK2 acts directly on CRTC2, CRTC3 and HDAC4, and that the cAMP–PKA pathway reduces the interaction of SIK2 with CRTCs and PP2A. Downstream, SIK2 increases GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.153932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4311129PMC
February 2015

Non-sporulating ftsZ mutants in Streptomyces coelicolor reveal amino acid residues critical for FtsZ polymerization dynamics.

Microbiology (Reading) 2013 May 8;159(Pt 5):890-901. Epub 2013 Mar 8.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

During sporulation of Streptomyces coelicolor, the cytokinetic protein FtsZ is assembled into dozens of regularly spaced Z rings, which orchestrate the division of aerial hyphae into spores. We have previously found that a missense allele of ftsZ, ftsZ17(Spo), primarily affects sporulation septation rather than formation of cross-walls in vegetative mycelium. To clarify what aspect of FtsZ function is compromised in such non-sporulating mutants, we here use a genetic strategy to identify new ftsZ(Spo) alleles and describe how some of the mutations affect the biochemical properties of FtsZ. We have established a system for purification of recombinant untagged S. coelicolor FtsZ, and shown that it assembles dynamically into single protofilaments, displays a critical concentration indicative of cooperative assembly and has a rate of GTP hydrolysis that is substantially higher than that of the closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ. Of the nine isolated ftsZ(Spo) mutations, four affect the interface between the two main subdomains of FtsZ that is implicated in the assembly-induced conformational changes thought to mediate the GTP/GDP-driven cooperative assembly of FtsZ. We find that all these four mutations affect the polymerization behaviour of FtsZ in vitro. In addition, at least one ftsZ(Spo) mutation at the longitudinal contact surface between subunits in protofilaments strongly affects formation of polymers in vitro. We conclude that the assembly of Z rings during sporulation of S. coelicolor is highly sensitive to disturbances of FtsZ polymerization and therefore constitutes an excellent system for analysis of the elusive properties of FtsZ that mediate its characteristic polymerization dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.066480-0DOI Listing
May 2013