Publications by authors named "Sebastian Sitko"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Five-Minute Power-Based Test to Predict Maximal Oxygen Consumption in Road Cycling.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Jul 5:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Purpose: To examine the ability of a multivariate model to predict maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) using performance data from a 5-minute maximal test (5MT).

Methods: Forty-six road cyclists (age 38 [9] y, height 177 [9] cm, weight 71.4 [8.6] kg, VO2max 61.13 [9.05] mL/kg/min) completed a graded exercise test to assess VO2max and power output. After a 72-hour rest, they performed a test that included a 5-minute maximal bout. Performance variables in each test were modeled in 2 independent equations, using Bayesian general linear regressions to predict VO2max. Stepwise selection was then used to identify the minimal subset of parameters with the best predictive power for each model.

Results: Five-minute relative power output was the best explanatory variable to predict VO2max in the model from the graded exercise test (R2 95% credibility interval, .81-.88) and when using data from the 5MT (R2 95% credibility interval, .61-.77). Accordingly, VO2max could be predicted with a 5MT using the equation VO2max = 16.6 + (8.87 × 5-min relative power output).

Conclusions: Road cycling VO2max can be predicted in cyclists through a single-variable equation that includes relative power obtained during a 5MT. Coaches, cyclists, and scientists may benefit from the reduction of laboratory assessments performed on athletes due to this finding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0923DOI Listing
July 2021

Characteristics of Pedaling Muscle Stiffness among Cyclists of Different Performance Levels.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jun 11;57(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences (FCSD), University of Zaragoza, 22002 Huesca, Spain.

The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of an incremental exercise test on muscle stiffness in the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius (GL) among road cyclists of three performance levels. The study group consisted of 35 cyclists grouped according to their performance level; elite ( = 10; professional license), sub-elite ( = 12; amateur license), and recreational ( = 13; cyclosportive license). Passive muscle stiffness was assessed using myometry before and after an incremental exercise test. : There was a significant correlation between time and category in the vastus lateralis with stiffness increases in the sub-elite ( = 0.001, Cohen's = 0.88) and elite groups ( = 0.003, Cohen's = 0.72), but not in the recreational group ( = 0.085). Stiffness increased over time in the knee extensors (RF, < 0.001; VL, < 0.001), but no changes were observed in the knee flexors (GL, = 0.63, BF, = 0.052). There were no baseline differences among the categories in any muscle. : Although the performance level affected VL stiffness after an incremental exercise test, no differences in passive stiffness were observed among the main muscles implicated in pedaling in a resting state. Future research should assess whether this marker could be used to differentiate cyclists of varying fitness levels and its potential applicability for the monitoring of training load.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57060606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230890PMC
June 2021

Functional Threshold Power as an Alternative to Lactate Thresholds in Road Cycling.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Physiatry and Nursery, Section of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain; and National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC), University of Lleida (UdL), Lleida, Spain.

Abstract: Sitko, S, Cirer-Sastre, R, Corbi, F, and López-Laval, I. Functional threshold power as an alternative to lactate thresholds in road cycling. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-This study assessed the relationship between functional threshold power (FTP) and 7 lactate landmarks (Dmax, modified Dmax, fixed blood lactate concentrations of 2 and 4 mmol·L-1, lactate increases of 1 and 2 mmol·L-1 above baseline, and lactate increases of 1.5 mmol·L-1 above the point of minimum ratio between lactate and work rate) in a sample of 46 road cyclists with a wide range of fitness levels (age 38 ± 9 years, height 177 ± 9 cm, body mass 71.4 ± 8.6 kg, body mass index 22.7 ± 2.2 kg·m-1, fat mass 7.8 ± 4%, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max = 61.1 ± 9.1 ml·min-1·kg-1). The cyclists performed a graded exercise test in which power outputs (POs) at the lactate landmarks were identified. Functional threshold power was established as 95% of the PO during a 20-minute test. Significance was set as p < 0.05. Statistical analyses revealed large to very large correlations between PO, relative PO (RPO), and cadence at FTP and lactate thresholds (LTs) established through Dmax, modified Dmax, and fixed lactate concentrations of 4 mmol·L-1 (r = 0.68-0.93). Significant differences (p < 0.001) were also observed for PO and RPO at FTP, fixed blood lactate concentrations of 2 mmol·L-1, and lactate increases of 1 mmol·L-1 above baseline. Therefore, although FTP estimated from a 20-minute test is strongly related to several lactate landmarks, caution is required when substituting this concept for LTs. This information will allow coaches, cyclists, and scientists to better choose assessments when attempting to estimate LT through power-based field testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000004070DOI Listing
June 2021

Relationship between functional threshold power, ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation point in road cycling.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Section of Physical Education and Sports, Department of Physiatry and Nursery, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain.

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between power output and relative power output at the functional threshold power, ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation point in road cyclists.

Methods: Forty-six road cyclists (age 38 ± 9 years; height 177 ± 9 cm; body mass 71.4 ± 8.6 kg; body mass index 22.7 ± 2.2 kg·m-1; fat mass 7.8 ± 4%, VO2max 61.1 ± 9.1 ml·min-1·kg-1) performed a graded exercise test in which power output and relative power output at the ventilatory landmarks were identified. Functional threshold power was established as 95% of the power output during a 20-minute test.

Results: Power output and relative power output at the functional threshold power were higher than at the ventilatory threshold (p < 0.001). There were very large to near perfect correlations for power output (95% CI for r from 0.71 to 0.9) and relative power output (95% CI for r from 0.79 to 0.93) at the functional threshold power and respiratory compensation point. Mean bias in power ouput and relative power output measured at RCP compared with FTP was not significant (mean bias 95% CI from -7 to 10 W and - 0.1 to 0.1 W/kg, respectively).

Conclusions: Power output and relative power output at the functional threshold power are higher than at the ventilatory threshold. Power output and relative power output at the functional threshold power and respiratory compensation point are strongly related, but caution is required when using both concepts indistinctly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12285-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body composition and performance in road cycling: a randomized, controlled trial.

Nutr Hosp 2020 Oct;37(5):1022-1027

Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte. Universidad de Zaragoza.

Introduction: Low-carbohydrate diets are frequently used to improve performance in endurance sports, often with contradictory results. This study aimed to assess whether a low-carbohydrate diet can outperform an isocaloric conventional diet for improving body composition and performance in a sample of twenty-six trained male road cyclists (previous experience in cyclosportive events, 7.6 ± 4.4 years; age, 26.9 ± 4.9 years; weekly training volume, 7.8 ± 2.9 hours; height, 176 ± 7 centimeters; body fat percentage, 9.7 ± 0.8 %; weight, 65.3 ± 2.3 kg). Detraining and pretreatment periods in which nutrition and training were standardized were followed by an eight-week long intervention in which cyclists consumed either a low-carbohydrate diet (15 % of calories from carbohydrates) or a conventional endurance sports diet while maintaining the same training volumes and intensities. Body composition was assessed through electrical impedance, and performance was evaluated through a twenty-minute time trial performed on a smart bike trainer. The results revealed an overall improvement over time in absolute and relative power, body mass, and body fat for both groups, whilst the improvement in absolute power was comparable. The improvements seen in relative power (p = 0.042), body mass (p = 0.006), and body fat (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the low-carbohydrate group. We concluded that eight weeks of a low-carbohydrate diet significantly reduced body weight and body fat percentage, and improved 20-minute relative power values in a sample of road cyclists when compared to an isocaloric conventional diet.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.03103DOI Listing
October 2020

Effects of a 75-km mountain ultra-marathon on heart rate variability in amateur runners.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Oct 18;60(10):1401-1407. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Physiatry and Nursing, Faculty of Health and Sport Science (FCSD), University of Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain.

Background: This study examined the effects of a mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) on the activity of the autonomous nervous system through heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring and determined whether this variable related to final performance.

Methods: Heart rate and HRV were measured in eight male amateur runners (aged 37-60 years). Measurements were recorded before and after the event, in resting conditions, as well as continuously throughout the whole MUM. In addition, percentage (%) of heart rate reserve (HRres) and partial and total times during the race were analyzed.

Results: Average heart rate (HRavg) measured at rest was increased after the event (+37%). Standard deviation of successive differences (SDSD) and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD) were reduced after the MUM (-56% and -59%, respectively). There was a positive relationship between the frequency-domain index normalized low frequency power (PLFn) measured at rest before the event and race time (0.79) while there was a negative relationship between race time and the difference in HRavg before and after the event. In the last half of the event, there was a high correlation (Spearman coefficient of correlation >0.9) between race time and the standard deviation of the NN intervals (SDNN) registered during the race.

Conclusions: Autonomous cardiac regulation can be related to the performance in a mountain ultra-marathon. HRV monitoring could represent a practical tool for the evaluation of the relationship between the autonomous nervous system activity and performance in a mountain ultra-marathon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10860-0DOI Listing
October 2020

Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on performance and body composition in trained cyclists.

Nutr Hosp 2019 Dec;36(6):1384-1388

Universidad de Zaragoza.

Introduction: Previous evidence suggests that low-carbohydrate diets may improve body composition and performance relative to body weight in endurance athletes. This has been the first study that has attempted to evaluate the utility of low-carbohydrate diets in a sample of eleven trained and experienced road cyclists who consumed 10% of their caloric intake in the form of carbohydrates during four weeks while maintaining a neutral energy balance (50 kcal/kg/day). Body composition was evaluated through an electrical impedance assessment before and after the intervention while maximal power output (5 and 20 min) was measured on a bike trainer by following a standardized protocol and in the same room conditions for all the participants. The study was performed during the preseason, when the subjects could abstain from performing high-intensity workouts. The participants, eleven men aged 31 ± 5 years, performed four weekly 150 min training sessions at submaximal intensities and received nutritional support from a certified sport nutritionist. The intervention resulted in reduced total weight (-2.51 kg) and body fat percentage (2.42%), and improved relative power (+0.2 w/kg for 20 min and +0.25 w/kg for 5 min) values while absolute power remained unchanged. The results suggest that low-carbohydrate diets could be used in order to induce changes in body composition and improve relative power during the preseason. However, future research with larger sample sizes and a control group is needed in order to validate the results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.02762DOI Listing
December 2019

Physiological demands and characteristics of the participants in a cycling sportive event.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Mar 28;60(3):367-373. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Laboratory of Analysis of Sports Performance, Sport Section, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Education, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Vitoria, Spain.

Background: Cycling sportives have become increasingly popular in the last years. With over 11,000 participants, the Quebrantahuesos (Qh), is one of the most prominent cycling events in Europe and its ever-growing competitive nature has increased the physiological demands required to obtain a great result. The objectives of the current study were to determine the relationship between the power profile and the result in the event as well as to describe the physiological differences among subgroups of participants according to their result.

Methods: Ninety-one male cyclists took part in the study. Data regarding weight, height, experience and training volume were collected before the event. The raw data from the power meter used by the participants during the event's four climbs was sent to the researchers as an Excel file. Participants were then divided in three different groups according to their performance. One-way analysis of variance was performed to assess differences between groups. Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was used to assess for associations among performance and/or anthropometric data.

Results: Group differences were found in body weight (P<0.001), body mass index (P<0.001), training volume (P<0.001) and previous participations in the event (P<0.001). A very high negative correlation between relative power during the climbs and the final time was also observed (r>-0.92; P<0.001).

Conclusions: Better performances were associated to lower body weight and body mass index and higher training volume, relative power and experience. The current study provides data that suggest that as long as the average relative power is sustained, the pacing strategy throughout the different climbs does not affect the race outcome. This information could be used by cyclists and coaches when preparing the pacing strategy for the event.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.10196-XDOI Listing
March 2020

Effects of high altitude mountaineering on body composition: a systematic review.

Nutr Hosp 2019 Oct;36(5):1189-1195

Universidad de Zaragoza.

Introduction: High altitude mountaineering is characterized by high energetic requirements due to the environment in which the activity is developed: negative energy balance, extreme cold, high altitude and the assumption of potential risks can be found during the practice of this sport. High altitude mountaineering, as a result of the previous factors, induces changes in body composition which have never been studied previously in a systematic review. A search within four different databases (PubMed, SportDiscus, Scopus and Medline) was performed using the thesaurus terms "Mountaineering" and "Body composition". A second search was performed using the following terms "Altitude" and "Body composition". The selection criteria included studies with healthy adults which evaluated the effects of at least 14 days of uninterrupted stays at altitudes above 4,000 m. The studies included in the review assessed body composition through different methods such as anthropometry, bioimpedance, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, hydrostatic weighing and air displacement plethysmography. The search was performed up to and including December 1st 2018. Eleven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies reported weight loss, of which five reported significant reductions in lean mass and six reported reductions in fat mass. Also, three studies reported reductions in both fat mass and lean mass. Current evidence is limited to observational studies with important confounding factors affecting the final conclusions. Longitudinal studies with a better methodological design and control groups are needed in order to verify these results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.02582DOI Listing
October 2019

Relationship Between Bench Press Strength and Punch Performance in Male Professional Boxers.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Feb;34(2):308-312

Faculty of Education and Sport Science UPV/EHU, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Spain.

López-Laval, I, Sitko, S, Muñiz-Pardos, B, Cirer-Sastre, R, and Calleja-González, J. Relationship between bench press strength and punch performance in male professional boxers. J Strength Cond Res 34(2): 308-312, 2020-This study investigated the relationship between punching performance and the velocity at which different loads were lifted during the bench press (BP) exercise in 12 professional boxers (age = 22.6 ± 4 years; height = 177.7 ± 5 cm; body mass 70.6 ± 6.43 kg; years of boxing experience = 6.5 ± 3.5 years; weight class = from light to super welterweight). To determine the maximal punching velocity (PVmax) during both rear arm (RA) and lead arm (LA) punching, an accelerometer (Crossbow; Willow Technologies, Sussex, United Kingdom) was placed inside the boxing glove while executing 3 jabs at a maximal velocity with each arm. Upper-body strength was assessed through the direct 1-repetition maximum (1RM) BP test, and the maximum velocity at different percentages of 1RM was obtained with a linear encoder. The main finding was that RA PVmax was correlated with the BP velocity at all submaximal intensities (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, LA PVmax did not correlate with BP velocity at any intensity. When the correlated BP submaximal intensities were introduced in linear regression models, the velocity at 80% 1RM was the only predictor of RA PVmax (r = 0.75; p < 0.01) in professional boxers. Additional body mass adjustment to the regression model significantly affected the predictive value (r = 0.65; p < 0.005). Results encourage coaches and trainers to use BP exercise with high loads (i.e., 80% of 1RM) because this could be a reliable predictor of performance during the specific boxing action. Future research is needed to determine exercises and intensities that could explain LA PVmax because significant associations were not found.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003362DOI Listing
February 2020
-->