Publications by authors named "Sean R Williamson"

170 Publications

Merlin immunohistochemistry is useful in diagnosis of tumours within the spectrum of biphasic hyalinizing psammomatous renal cell carcinoma.

Histopathology 2022 Jul 30. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Aims: Biphasic hyalinizing psammomatous (BHP) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a newly described emerging entity within the spectrum of papillary RCC in the WHO 2022 classification. Molecular analyses have discovered that BHP RCC consistently harbour somatic mutations in the neurofibromin 2 (NF2) gene. The NF2 gene product, merlin, is known to primarily function as a tumour suppressor. Merlin protein loss correlates closely with the presence of NF2 mutations in benign and malignant tumours arising in different sites. In the present study we explored the role of merlin immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tumours within the spectrum of BHP RCC to determine the diagnostic utility of this marker.

Materials And Methods: We performed merlin IHC in 13 BHP RCC, 18 papillary RCC, 10 TFE3-translocation RCC, 15 TFEB-altered RCC (including 13 TFEB-rearranged and 2 TFEB-amplified), and 10 mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinomas of unknown mutational status.

Results: Unequivocal loss of merlin expression in >90% of the tumour cells was observed in 12/13 BHP-RCC (92%), with the remaining tumour demonstrating weak focal cytoplasmic expression in ~10% of the tumour. In contrast, merlin was diffusely or multifocally expressed in all papillary RCC, TFE3-translocation RCC, and TFEB-altered RCC, as well as in 70% of mucinous tubular and spindle carcinomas.

Conclusions: In this study, merlin IHC was ~92% sensitive and ~94% specific for BHP RCC. These data suggest that merlin IHC is a reliable surrogate marker for the presence of underlying NF2 gene inactivation, being diagnostically useful to identify BHP RCC.

Conclusions: In this study, merlin IHC was ~92% sensitive and ~94% specific for BHP RCC. These data suggest that merlin IHC is a reliable surrogate marker for the presence of underlying NF2 gene inactivation, being diagnostically useful to identify BHP RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14731DOI Listing
July 2022

Reporting Trends, Practices, and Resource Utilization in Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Prostate Gland: A Survey among Thirty-Nine Genitourinary Pathologists.

Int J Surg Pathol 2022 Aug 9:10668969221116629. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Pathology, 30127North Bengal Medical College, Siliguri, India.

Neuroendocrine differentiation in the prostate gland ranges from clinically insignificant neuroendocrine differentiation detected with markers in an otherwise conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma to a lethal high-grade small/large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The concept of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma has gained considerable importance due to its prognostic and therapeutic ramifications and pathologists play a pivotal role in its recognition. However, its awareness, reporting, and resource utilization practice patterns among pathologists are largely unknown. Representative examples of different spectrums of neuroendocrine differentiation along with a detailed questionnaire were shared among 39 urologic pathologists using the survey monkey software. Participants were specifically questioned about the use and awareness of the 2016 WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors of the prostate, understanding of the clinical significance of each entity, and use of different immunohistochemical (IHC) markers. De-identified respondent data were analyzed. A vast majority (90%) of the participants utilize IHC markers to confirm the diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. A majority (87%) of the respondents were in agreement regarding the utilization of type of IHC markers for small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma for which 85% of the pathologists agreed that determination of the site of origin of a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma is not critical, as these are treated similarly. In the setting of mixed carcinomas, 62% of respondents indicated that they provide quantification and grading of the acinar component. There were varied responses regarding the prognostic implication of focal neuroendocrine cells in an otherwise conventional acinar adenocarcinoma and for Paneth cell-like differentiation. The classification of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was highly varied, with only 38% agreement in the illustrated case. Finally, despite the recommendation not to perform neuroendocrine markers in the absence of morphologic evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation, 62% would routinely utilize IHC in the work-up of a Gleason score 5 + 5 = 10 acinar adenocarcinoma and its differentiation from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. There is a disparity in the practice utilization patterns among the urologic pathologists with regard to diagnosing high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma and in understanding the clinical significance of focal neuroendocrine cells in an otherwise conventional acinar adenocarcinoma and Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation. There seems to have a trend towards overutilization of IHC to determine neuroendocrine differentiation in the absence of neuroendocrine features on morphology. The survey results suggest a need for further refinement and development of standardized guidelines for the classification and reporting of neuroendocrine differentiation in the prostate gland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10668969221116629DOI Listing
August 2022

Clinicopathologic Spectrum of Secondary Solid Tumors of the Prostate of Nonurothelial Origin: Multi-institutional Evaluation of 85 Cases.

Am J Surg Pathol 2022 Sep 13;46(9):1269-1276. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Secondary involvement of the prostate by urothelial or hematolymphoid neoplasms is relatively common and well-described. In contrast, less is known about the clinicopathologic spectrum of secondary solid tumors of the prostate of nonurothelial origin. This study evaluated a series of secondary nonurothelial solid tumors of the prostate diagnosed at 21 institutions. Eighty-five patients with a median age at diagnosis of 64 years were included. Sixty-two patients had clinically manifest disease (62/85, 73%), 10 were diagnosed incidentally (10/85, 12%), and 13 (13/85, 15%) had no detailed clinical data available about symptomatology at presentation. Among patients with clinically manifest disease, the most common symptoms and signs were lower urinary tract symptoms (either obstructive of irritative; 36/62, 58%), abdominal or pelvic pain or discomfort (16/62, 26%), and hematuria (12/62, 19%). Metastasis and direct invasion occurred at roughly similar frequencies (47% vs. 42%) in this series, and in 11% of the cases, the mechanism of spread to the prostate was unclear/uncertain. Overall, among tumors with confirmed sites of origin, the most common primary sites were gastrointestinal tract (53/85, 62%), lung (9/85, 11%), skin (6/85, 7%), and testis (4/85, 5%). Among metastases, the most common tumor types were lung carcinomas (9/40, 23%), colorectal adenocarcinomas (7/40, 18%), melanoma (6/40, 15%), and germ cell tumors (6/40, 15%). This study demonstrated that secondary involvement of the prostate by solid tumors of nonurothelial origin is commonly symptomatic and that the most frequent sites of origin are the gastrointestinal tract, lung, skin, and testis. These findings are worth considering when lesions with unusual cytomorphology and/or architecture are encountered in prostate specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001907DOI Listing
September 2022

Prostatic malakoplakia: clinicopathological assessment of a multi-institutional series of 49 patients.

Histopathology 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine of The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Prostatic malakoplakia (MP) is rare, with only case reports and small series (< five patients) available in the literature. In this study we analysed an international multi-institutional series of 49 patients with prostatic MP to more clearly define its clinicopathological features. The median age was 67 years and the median serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 7.5 ng/ml. MP was clinically manifest in most cases (28 of 45 patients with data available, 62%). Of 43 patients with detailed clinical history available, 21 (49%) had concurrent or metachronous malignancies (including prostate cancer). Diabetes or insulin resistance was present in 11 patients (26%). Additionally, three patients had a history of solid organ transplantation and one had HIV. Of note, six of 34 patients (18%) without concurrent prostate cancer had an abnormal digital rectal examination and/or lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with prostate imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS) scores 4-5. The initial diagnosis was made on core biopsies (25 of 49, 51%), transurethal resection specimens (12 of 49, 24%), radical prostatectomies (10 of 49, 20%), Holmium-laser enucleation (one of 49, 2%) and cystoprostatectomy (one of 49, 2%). Tissue involvement was more commonly diffuse or multifocal (40 of 49, 82%). Von Kossa and periodic acid-Schiff stains were positive in 35 of 38 (92%) and 26 of 27 lesions (96%), respectively. Of note, two cases were received in consultation by the authors with a preliminary diagnosis of mesenchymal tumour/tumour of the specialised prostatic stroma. The present study suggests that prostatic MP is often associated with clinical findings that may mimic those of prostate cancer in a subset of patients. Moreover, MP may be found incidentally in patients with concurrent prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14729DOI Listing
July 2022

Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with Immunotherapy Effect Mimicking Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis.

Int J Surg Pathol 2022 May 16:10668969221101873. Epub 2022 May 16.

2559MetroHealth Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Renal cell carcinoma is now increasingly treated with checkpoint inhibitor therapy, predominantly in the metastatic setting or occasionally in the adjuvant setting; however, there is little published histopathology data demonstrating the post-therapy features of renal cell carcinoma tumor tissue. We report a middle-aged man, who was undergoing treatment with pembrolizumab for locally recurrent cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and was incidentally found to have a renal mass. Radical nephrectomy demonstrated a 5.0 cm renal mass with extensive xanthogranulomatous features, mimicking xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. However, rare clusters of cells demonstrated gland-like lumina, clear cytoplasm, and slightly increased atypia, suggesting scant residual renal cell carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated focal positivity for pan-keratin and keratin 8/18, EMA, PAX8, CD10, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), supporting a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with extensive treatment response, to the point that it mimicked xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. This report demonstrates the histologic features of post-immunotherapy renal cell carcinoma, aiding pathologists in recognition of this phenomenon, which may be misdiagnosed as an inflammatory process, if immunotherapy was performed for other reasons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10668969221101873DOI Listing
May 2022

The Histologic Diversity of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma With Emphasis on Challenges Encountered in Daily Practice.

Adv Anat Pathol 2022 Jul 26;29(4):194-207. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital in Plzen, Charles University in Prague, Plzen, Czech Republic.

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is the third most common renal cell carcinoma in adults. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview highlighting the broad morphologic spectrum of ChRCC, and offer a practical approach for handling cases in daily practice. For the purpose of this review, we classify ChRCC subtypes as (1) classic, (2) eosinophilic, (3) sarcomatoid, and (4) other rare patterns. The concept of eosinophilic ChRCC has significantly evolved, yet it still is one of the major diagnostic challenges pathologists face in routine practice due to its morphologic overlap with renal oncocytoma. Rare patterns of ChRCC have been described over the last few decades, showing a wide histologic spectrum including those with adenomatoid microcystic pigmented, multicystic, neuroendocrine, small cell, and papillary features. ChRCC represents a heterogenous group of neoplasms, demonstrating varied but unique morphologic and genetic profiles. Although the field of ChRCC knowledge is still evolving, rare patterns can present diagnostic challenges if they are not known to pathologists and/or clinicians. Proper and generous tumor sampling along with careful histologic examination allow for recognition of these rare morphologies. The role of routine molecular testing appears to be limited. From a clinical management standpoint, the rare patterns of ChRCC seem to have no definite clinical implications at present and likely can be managed similarly to usual ChRCC. Finally, we will discuss distinctive novel/emerging renal neoplasms previously considered under the spectrum of ChRCC, low-grade oncocytic renal tumor and eosinophilic vacuolated tumor, with regard to their current significance and implications for future classification strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000349DOI Listing
July 2022

Granulomas associated with renal neoplasms: A multi-institutional clinicopathological study of 111 cases.

Histopathology 2022 May 29;80(6):922-927. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims: Formal depiction of granulomatous inflammation associated with renal neoplasms has mainly consisted of case reports. Herein, we investigate the clinicopathological features and potential significance of granulomas associated with renal tumours from a large multi-institutional cohort.

Methods And Results: One hundred and eleven study cases were collected from 22 institutions, including 57 partial nephrectomies and 54 radical nephrectomies. Patient ages ranged from 27 to 85 years (average = 60.1 years; male = 61%). Renal neoplasms included clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC; 86%), papillary RCC (8%), chromophobe RCC (3%), clear cell papillary RCC (1%), mixed epithelial stromal tumour (1%) and oncocytoma (1%). Granulomas were peritumoral in 36%, intratumoral in 24% and both in 40% of cases. Total granuloma count per case ranged from one to 300 (median = 15) with sizes ranging from 0.15 to 15 mm (mean = 1.9 mm). Necrotising granulomas were seen in 14% of cases. Histochemical stains for organisms were performed on 45% of cases (all negative). Sixteen cases (14%) had a prior biopsy/procedure performed, and eight patients had neoadjuvant immunotherapy or chemotherapy. Eleven patients (10%) had a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis, including five in whom sarcoidosis was diagnosed after nephrectomy.

Conclusion: Based on this largest case-series to date, peri-/intratumoral granulomas associated with renal neoplasms may be more common than initially perceived. The extent of granulomatous inflammation can vary widely and may or may not have necrosis with possible aetiologies, including prior procedure or immunotherapy/chemotherapy. Although a clinical association with sarcoidosis is infrequent it can still occur, and the presence of granulomas warrants mention in pathology reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14633DOI Listing
May 2022

The pathological and molecular genetic landscape of the hereditary renal cancer predisposition syndromes.

Histopathology 2022 Jul 11;81(1):15-31. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

It is estimated that 5-8% of renal tumours are hereditary in nature, with many inherited as autosomal-dominant. These tumours carry a unique spectrum of pathological and molecular alterations, the knowledge of which has expanded in recent years. Due to this knowledge, many advances in the treatment of these tumours have been achieved. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the genetic renal neoplasia syndromes, clinical and pathological presentations, molecular pathogenesis, advances in therapeutic implications and targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14641DOI Listing
July 2022

Race Differences in Telomere Length in Benign Prostate Biopsies and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2022 05;31(5):991-998

Department of Environmental Heath Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Background: Telomere shortening is linked to aging and may be associated with increased risk for cancer. Most cancer studies have used telomere length in leukocytes rather than in the target tissue of cancer origin.

Methods: A case-control study of 524 case-control pairs with a benign prostate biopsy nested within a historical cohort of 10,478 men was conducted to determine whether premalignant prostate telomere length (assessed using a modified qRT-PCR) is associated with prostate cancer risk.

Results: Telomere lengths in benign prostate biopsies of cases versus controls were similar (1.46 ± 0.38 vs. 1.45 ± 0.42; P = 0.49). African American (AA) men had significantly shorter telomeres compared with White men (1.51 ± 0.38 vs. 1.63 ± 0.39; P < 0.0001). In race-stratified analyses, increasing telomere length was more strongly associated with prostate cancer risk in White men, wherein those with telomere length in the highest quartile had 1.9-fold greater adjusted risk of prostate cancer compared with men with prostate telomere lengths in the lowest quartile [OR = 1.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-3.36]. Men in the highest telomere length quartile also had a greater risk of aggressive prostate cancer compared with men with telomere lengths in the lowest quartile (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.25-6.19).

Conclusions: White men have longer telomeres in benign prostate tissue compared with AA men, and those with the longest telomeres may be at increased risk for prostate cancer, particularly the more aggressive form of the disease.

Impact: Race-specific telomere length measures may be an early biomarker of aggressive prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-1221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9081233PMC
May 2022

Recurrent KRAS mutations are early events in the development of papillary renal neoplasm with reverse polarity.

Mod Pathol 2022 Feb 12. Epub 2022 Feb 12.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

We evaluated the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of mostly incidentally detected, small, papillary renal neoplasms with reverse polarity (PRNRP). The cohort comprised 50 PRNRP from 46 patients, divided into 2 groups. The clinically undetected (<5 mm) neoplasms (n = 34; 68%) had a median size of 1.1 mm (range 0.2-4.3 mm; mean 1.4 mm), and the clinically detected (≥5 mm) neoplasms (n = 16; 32%) which had a median size of 13 mm (range 9-30 mm; mean 16 mm). Neoplasms were positive for GATA3 (n = 47; 100%) and L1CAM (n = 34/38; 89%) and were negative for vimentin (n = 0/44; 0%) and, to a lesser extent, AMACR [(n = 12/46; 26%; weak = 9, weak/moderate = 3)]. KRAS mutations were found in 44% (n = 15/34) of the clinically undetected PRNRP and 88% of the clinically detected PRNRP (n = 14/16). The two clinically detected PRNRP with wild-type KRAS gene were markedly cystic and contained microscopic intracystic tumors. In the clinically undetected PRNRP, the detected KRAS mutations rate was higher in those measuring ≥1 mm vs <1 mm [n = 14/19 (74%) vs n = 1/15 (7%)]. Overall, the KRAS mutations were present in exon 2-codon 12: c.35 G > T (n = 21), c.34 G > T (n = 3), c.35 G > A (n = 2), c.34 G > C (n = 2) resulting in p.Gly12Val, p. Gly12Asp, p.Gly12Cys and p.Gly12Arg, respectively. One PRNRP had a G12A/V/D complex mutation. Twenty-six PRNRP were concurrently present with other tumors of different histologic subtypes in the ipsilateral kidney; molecular testing of 8 of the latter showed wild-type KRAS gene despite the presence of KRAS mutations in 5 concurrent PRNRP. On follow up, no adverse pathologic events were seen (range 1-160 months; mean 44 months). In conclusion, the presence of KRAS mutations in small, clinically undetected PRNRP provides a unique finding to this entity and supports its being an early event in the development of these neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-022-01018-6DOI Listing
February 2022

Expanding the clinicopathological spectrum of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma with a focus on variant morphologies: a study of 62 new tumors in 59 patients.

Mod Pathol 2022 06 23;35(6):836-849. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Most succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) demonstrate stereotypical morphology characterized by bland eosinophilic cells with frequent intracytoplasmic inclusions. However, variant morphologic features have been increasingly recognized. We therefore sought to investigate the incidence and characteristics of SDH-deficient RCC with variant morphologies. We studied a multi-institutional cohort of 62 new SDH-deficient RCCs from 59 patients. The median age at presentation was 39 years (range 19-80), with a slight male predominance (M:F = 1.6:1). A relevant family history was reported in 9 patients (15%). Multifocal or bilateral tumors were identified radiologically in 5 patients (8%). Typical morphology was present at least focally in 59 tumors (95%). Variant morphologies were seen in 13 (21%) and included high-grade nuclear features and various combinations of papillary, solid, and tubular architecture. Necrosis was present in 13 tumors, 7 of which showed variant morphology. All 62 tumors demonstrated loss of SDHB expression by immunohistochemistry. None showed loss of SDHA expression. Germline SDH mutations were reported in all 18 patients for whom the results of testing were known. Among patients for whom follow-up data was available, metastatic disease was reported in 9 cases, 8 of whom had necrosis and/or variant morphology in their primary tumor. Three patients died of disease. In conclusion, variant morphologies and high-grade nuclear features occur in a subset of SDH-deficient RCCs and are associated with more aggressive behavior. We therefore recommend grading all SDH-deficient RCCs and emphasize the need for a low threshold for performing SDHB immunohistochemistry in any difficult to classify renal tumor, particularly if occurring at a younger age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00998-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Mutation Profile Variability in the Primary Tumor and Multiple Pulmonary Metastases of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. A Review of the Literature and Analysis of Four Metastatic Cases.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Nov 24;13(23). Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen and University Hospital Pilsen, Charles University, 305 99 Pilsen, Czech Republic.

(1) Background: There are limited data concerning inter-tumoral and inter-metastatic heterogeneity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The aim of our study was to review published data and to examine mutation profile variability in primary and multiple pulmonary metastases (PMs) in our cohort of four patients with metastatic CCRCC. (2) Methods: Four patients were enrolled in this study. The clinical characteristics, types of surgeries, histopathologic results, immunohistochemical and genetic evaluations of corresponding primary tumor and PMs, and follow-up data were recorded. (3) Results: In our series, the most commonly mutated genes were those in the canonically dysregulated VHL pathway, which were detected in both primary tumors and corresponding metastasis. There were genetic profile differences between primary and metastatic tumors, as well as among particular metastases in one patient. (4) Conclusions: CCRCC shows heterogeneity between the primary tumor and its metastasis. Such mutational changes may be responsible for suboptimal treatment outcomes in targeted therapy settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8656868PMC
November 2021

Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma With Microcystic Architecture Is Strongly Associated With Extrarenal Invasion and Metastatic Disease.

Am J Surg Pathol 2022 03;46(3):392-403

Department of Pathology, Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is well-recognized as a morphologically and molecularly heterogenous group of kidney tumors with variable clinical behavior. Our goal was to analyze a unique histologic pattern of PRCC we have observed in routine practice to evaluate for potential clinical significance or distinct molecular signature. We identified 42 cases of PRCC showing a morphologically distinct architecture characterized by numerous epithelial-lined cysts containing the papillary tumor (herein called "microcysts"), which are typically separated by fibrous stroma. Of the initial 42 case test set with microcystic features, 23 (55%) were stage pT3a or higher. Most tumors had strong and diffuse cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for CK7 (93%, 37/40) and AMACR (100%, 40/40). Fumarate hydratase staining was retained in all cases tested (39/39). We performed next-generation sequencing on 15 of these cases with available tissue and identified chromosomal alterations commonly reported in historically "type 1" PRCC, notably multiple chromosomal gains, particularly of chromosomes 7 and 17, and MET alterations. However, alterations in pathways associated with more aggressive behavior (including SETD2, CDKN2A, and members of the NRF pathway) were also identified in 6 of 15 cases tested (40%). Given this molecular and immunophenotypic data, we subsequently reviewed an additional group of 60 consecutive pT2b-pT3 PRCCs to allow for comparisons between cases with and without microcysts, to assess for potential associations with other recently described histologic patterns (ie, "unfavorable architecture": micropapillary, solid, and hobnail), and to assess interobserver reproducibility for diagnosing architectural patterns and grade. Of the total combined 102 PRCCs, 67 (66%) had microcystic architecture within the intrarenal component but were commonly admixed with other patterns (39% had micropapillary, 31% solid, and 31% hobnail). Twenty-seven cases (26%) had metastatic disease, and 24 of these 27 (89%) had microcystic architecture in the intrarenal tumor. Within the pT3 subset, 21 of 22 cases with metastases (95%) had extrarenal invasion as either individual microcysts in renal sinus fat or aggregates of microcysts bulging beyond the confines of the capsule. Backward elimination and stepwise regression methods to detect features significantly associated with adverse outcome identified solid architecture (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.3; confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-18.8; P=0.001), hobnail architecture (HR: 5.3; CI: 1.7-16.7; P=0.004), and microcystic architecture at the tumor-stromal interface (HR: 4.2; CI: 1.1-16.7; P=0.036) as strongest. Of architectural patterns and grade, the microcystic pattern had a substantial interobserver agreement (κ score=0.795) that was highest among the 6 observers. In summary, PRCCs with microcystic architecture represents a subset of historically "type 1" PRCC with a predilection for morphologically distinctive extrarenal involvement and metastatic disease. Microcysts co-vary with other "unfavorable" architectural patterns also associated with higher risk for aggressive disease (ie, micropapillary, hobnail, and solid), but microcysts were more common and have superior interobserver reproducibility. These findings suggest that microcystic PRCC should be recognized as a potentially aggressive histologic pattern of growth in PRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001802DOI Listing
March 2022

Nodular Maturation of the Testis: A Non-neoplastic Lesion of Boys That May Present as a Mass on Clinical and Ultrasound Examination.

Am J Surg Pathol 2022 02;46(2):220-225

Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

We have encountered a lesion of the pediatric testis, termed "nodular maturation," that clinically mimics a testicular neoplasm causing ultrasound abnormalities that may lead to surgical excision. To our knowledge, it has only been described anecdotally in textbooks without a series or description in the literature. We, therefore, report 8 cases in pediatric patients emphasizing the clinical presentation, ultrasound findings, histologic features, and clinical follow-up information. Patients ranged in age from 5 to 11 years (mean: 7.9 y). Precocious puberty was identified in 1 patient as isolated penile enlargement without other signs; another had a history of McCune-Albright syndrome, but did not have signs of precocious puberty; others had no clinical manifestations. All patients had testicular abnormalities on ultrasound; 6 had a discrete lesion and 2 showed diffuse testicular enlargement. In the 6 cases with available data, mean size of the lesion on ultrasound was 0.9 cm (range: 0.4 to 1.7 cm). In the 3 cases for which macroscopic descriptions were available, no gross abnormalities were noted in the testicular parenchyma, despite the ultrasound findings. Histologically, nodular maturation occurred as a zone of more mature testicular parenchyma having larger, lumen-bearing seminiferous tubules that contrasted with the smaller, immature cords of the remaining parenchyma. The mature tubules showed germ cell maturation (to the level of late spermatids/spermatozoa in 6 cases), mature Sertoli cells, and, in 4 cases, admixed nodules of mature Leydig cells. Of the 6 patients with available follow-up information, none developed a testicular neoplasm. Given its ability to cause a lesion on ultrasound leading to surgical intervention, pathologists, radiologists, and urologists should be aware of nodular maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001775DOI Listing
February 2022

Immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of renal epithelial neoplasms.

Semin Diagn Pathol 2022 Jan 12;39(1):1-16. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA. Electronic address:

Despite the increasing number of newly identified renal neoplasms, the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can usually be reached with careful histologic examination and a limited immunohistochemical (IHC) panel. Clear cell, papillary, chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma account for more than 90% of renal neoplasia in adults, and sophisticated ancillary tools are usually unnecessary. Renal tumors with entity-defining genetic alterations may ultimately require molecular confirmation via cytogenetics or sequencing technologies, such as RCC with TFE3, TFEB, or ALK gene rearrangements, or TFEB amplified RCC. In fumarate hydratase-deficient and succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, highly specific IHC markers can strongly suggest the diagnosis. In the metastatic setting, PAX8 and carbonic anhydrase 9 are among the most helpful markers for confirming RCC and clear cell type, respectively; however, caution should be exercised in the absence of a current or historical renal mass. In diagnostically challenging cases, such as renal eosinophilic tumors with low-grade nuclear features, or infiltrative high-grade tumors, careful examination coupled with a judicious panel of IHC markers usually resolves the diagnosis. This review offers concise algorithms for diagnosis of kidney neoplasia with the latest recognized, provisional, and emerging entities to daily pathology practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2021.11.001DOI Listing
January 2022

Oncocytic renal neoplasms with diffuse keratin 7 immunohistochemistry harbor frequent alterations in the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

Mod Pathol 2022 03 20;35(3):361-375. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Low-grade oncocytic tumor (LOT) has been recently proposed as a unique renal tumor. However, we have encountered tumors with more oncocytoma-like morphology that show diffuse keratin 7 reactivity, which we sought to characterize molecularly. Eighteen tumors with a diffuse keratin 7 positive and KIT negative pattern were identified from 184 with predominantly oncocytoma-like histology. These tumors were subjected to detailed immunohistochemical evaluation and 14 were evaluated using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform for 324 cancer-associated genes. Patients' ages ranged from 39 to 80 (median = 59.5 years) with a male to female ratio of 1.25:1. Morphology was predominantly oncocytoma-like with discrete nests, compared to the solid and edematous patterns described in LOT. Other than positive keratin 7 and negative KIT, the tumor cells were positive for PAX8, E-cadherin, AE1/AE3, Ber-EP4, AMACR, CD10, and MOC31, and were negative for other studied markers. FH and INI1 were normal. Eleven of 14 harbored genomic abnormalities, likely sporadic, primarily involving the MTOR pathway (73%). Overall, the alterations included MTOR activating mutation (n = 1), TSC1 inactivating mutation (n = 1), TSC2 mutation (p.X534 splice site, n = 1), STK11 (a negative regulator of the MTOR pathway) mutation (n = 1), both STK11 and TSC1 mutations (n = 1), biallelic loss of PTEN and TSC1 deletion (n = 1), and MET amplification and TSC1 inactivating mutation (n = 1). Amplification of FGFR3 was identified in one additional tumor. Other alterations included FOXP1 loss (n = 1), NF2 E427 homozygous loss (n = 1), and PI3KCA activating mutation (n = 1). At a median follow-up of 68 months (2-147 months) for 15 patients, all were alive without disease. Oncocytic renal tumors with diffuse keratin 7 labeling show frequent alterations in the TSC/MTOR pathway, despite more oncocytoma-like morphology than initially described in LOT, likely expanding the morphologic spectrum of the latter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00969-6DOI Listing
March 2022

: What's Next?

Int J Surg Pathol 2022 02 11;30(1):4-5. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

The Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10668969211057262DOI Listing
February 2022

Diagnosis of "cribriform" prostatic adenocarcinoma: an interobserver reproducibility study among urologic pathologists with recommendations.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(8):3990-4001. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Pathology, Tufts Medical Center Boston, MA, USA.

Accurate diagnosis of cribriform Gleason pattern 4 (CrP4) prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) is important due to its independent association with adverse clinical outcomes and as a growing body of evidence suggests that it impacts clinical decision making in PCa management. To identify reproducible features for diagnosis of CrP4, we assessed interobserver agreement among 27 experienced urologic pathologists of 60 digital images from 44 radical prostatectomies (RP) that represented a broad spectrum of potential CrP4. The following morphologic features were correlated with the consensus diagnosis (defined as 75% agreement) for each image: partial vs. transluminal glandular bridging, intraglandular stroma, <12 vs. ≥12 lumina, well vs. poorly formed lumina, mucin (mucinous fibroplasia, extravasation, or extracellular pool), size (compared to benign glands and number of lumina), number of attachments with gland border by tumor cells forming a "glomeruloid-like" pattern, a clear luminal space along the periphery of gland occupying <50% of glandular circumference, central nerve, dense (cell mass occupying >50% of luminal space) vs. loose, and regular vs. irregular contour. Interobserver reproducibility for the overall diagnostic agreement was fair (k=0.40). Large CrP4 had better agreement (k=0.49) compared to small CrP4 (k=0.40). Transluminal bridging, dense cellular proliferation, a clear luminal space along the periphery of gland occupying <50% of gland circumference, lack of intraglandular mucin, and lack of contact between the majority of intraglandular cells with stroma were significantly associated with consensus for CrP4. In contrast, partial bridging, majority of intraglandular cells in contact with stroma, mucinous fibroplasia, only one attachment to the gland border by tumor cells forming a "glomeruloid-like" pattern, and a clear luminal space along the periphery of gland accounting for >50% of the glandular circumference were associated with consensus against CrP4. In summary, we identified reproducible morphological features for and against CrP4 diagnosis, which could be used to refine and standardize the diagnostic criteria for CrP4.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414383PMC
August 2021

Eosinophilic vacuolated tumor (EVT) of kidney demonstrates sporadic TSC/MTOR mutations: next-generation sequencing multi-institutional study of 19 cases.

Mod Pathol 2022 03 14;35(3):344-351. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

A distinct renal tumor has recently been described as "high-grade oncocytic renal tumor" and "sporadic renal cell carcinoma with eosinophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm". The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) consensus proposed a unifying name "eosinophilic vacuolated tumor" (EVT) for this emerging entity. In this multi-institutional study, we evaluated 19 EVTs, particularly their molecular features and mutation profile, using next-generation sequencing. All cases were sporadic and none of the patients had a tuberous sclerosis complex. There were 8 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 47 years (median 50; range 15-72 years). Average tumor size was 4.3 cm (median 3.8 cm; range 1.5-11.5 cm). All patients with available follow-up data (18/19) were alive and without evidence of disease recurrence or progression during the follow-up, ranging from 12 to 198 months (mean 56.3, median 41.5 months). The tumors were well circumscribed, but lacked a well-formed capsule, had nested to solid growth, focal tubular architecture, and showed ubiquitous, large intracytoplasmic vacuoles, round to oval nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, cathepsin K, CD117, CD10, and antimitochondrial antigen were expressed in all cases. Other positive stains included: PAX8, AE1/AE3 and CK18. CK7 was typically restricted only to rare scattered cells. Vimentin, HMB45, melan-A, and TFE3 were negative in all cases. All tumors showed retained SDHB. All cases (19/19) showed non-overlapping mutations of the mTOR pathway genes: TSC1 (4), TSC2 (7), and MTOR (8); one case with MTOR mutation showed a coexistent RICTOR missense mutation. Low mutational rates were found in all samples (ranged from 0 to 6 mutations/Mbp). Microsatellite instability and copy number variations were not found in any of the 17 analyzable cases. EVT represents an emerging renal entity that shows a characteristic and readily identifiable morphology, consistent immunohistochemical profile, indolent behavior, and mutations in either TSC1, TSC2, or MTOR genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00923-6DOI Listing
March 2022

Renal Oncocytoma With Both Lymphovascular Invasion and Prominent Intracytoplasmic Vacuole-Like Spaces: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Int J Surg Pathol 2022 May 7;30(3):300-306. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

21798Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Here we report a case of renal oncocytoma in a 68 year-old male. The diagnosis was initially made on a needle biopsy 6 years prior to the partial nephrectomy. The case is unique that in addition to the gross and microscopic features commonly seen in renal oncocytomas, both lymphovascular invasion and prominent intracytoplasmic vacuole-like spaces are also present in this tumor. Although vascular invasion is increasingly recognized as compatible with renal oncocytoma, intracytoplasmic vacuoles are a rare and unusual finding that may lead to diagnostic difficulty. The diagnosis of renal oncocytoma was confirmed after immunohistochemistry was performed to argue against succinate dehydrogenase deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and chromophobe RCC. This case highlights the importance for practicing pathologists to recognize the rare co-occurrence of lymphovascular invasion and large intracytoplasmic vacuole-like spaces in renal oncocytoma. Other differential diagnoses may include emerging renal tumor entities, such as the recently-proposed eosinophilic vacuolated tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10668969211041592DOI Listing
May 2022

A multi-center retrospective cohort study defines the spectrum of kidney pathology in Coronavirus 2019 Disease (COVID-19).

Kidney Int 2021 12 3;100(6):1303-1315. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Renal Associates of West Michigan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA.

Kidney failure is common in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. In an international collaboration, 284 kidney biopsies were evaluated to improve understanding of kidney disease in COVID-19. Diagnoses were compared to five years of 63,575 native biopsies prior to the pandemic and 13,955 allograft biopsies to identify diseases that have increased in patients with COVID-19. Genotyping for APOL1 G1 and G2 alleles was performed in 107 African American and Hispanic patients. Immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 was utilized to assess direct viral infection in 273 cases along with clinical information at the time of biopsy. The leading indication for native biopsy was acute kidney injury (45.4%), followed by proteinuria with or without concurrent acute kidney injury (42.6%). There were more African American patients (44.6%) than patients of other ethnicities. The most common diagnosis in native biopsies was collapsing glomerulopathy (25.8%), which was associated with high-risk APOL1 genotypes in 91.7% of cases. Compared to the five-year biopsy database, the frequency of myoglobin cast nephropathy and proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits was also increased in patients with COVID-19 (3.3% and 1.7%, respectively), while there was a reduced frequency of chronic conditions (including diabetes mellitus, IgA nephropathy, and arterionephrosclerosis) as the primary diagnosis. In transplants, the leading indication was acute kidney injury (86.4%), for which rejection was the predominant diagnosis (61.4%). Direct SARS-CoV-2 viral infection was not identified. Thus, our multi-center large case series identified kidney diseases that disproportionately affect patients with COVID-19 and demonstrated a high frequency of APOL1 high-risk genotypes within this group, with no evidence of direct viral infection within the kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2021.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328528PMC
December 2021

Racial differences in the systemic inflammatory response to prostate cancer.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(7):e0252951. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, United States of America.

Systemic inflammation may increase risk for prostate cancer progression, but the role it plays in prostate cancer susceptibility is unknown. From a cohort of over 10,000 men who had either a prostate biopsy or transurethral resection that yielded a benign finding, we analyzed 517 incident prostate cancer cases identified during follow-up and 373 controls with one or more white blood cell tests during a follow-up period between one and 18 years. Multilevel, multivariable longitudinal models were fit to two measures of systemic inflammation, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), to determine NLR and MLR trajectories associated with increased risk for prostate cancer. For both measures, we found no significant differences in the trajectories by case/control status, however in modeling NLR trajectories there was a significant interaction between race (white or Black and case-control status. In race specific models, NLR and MLR values were consistently higher over time among white controls than white cases while case-control differences in NLR and MLR trajectories were not apparent among Black men. When cases were classified as aggressive as compared to non-aggressive, the case-control differences in NLR and MLR values over time among white men were most apparent for non-aggressive cases. For NLR among white men, significant case-control differences were observed for the entire duration of observation for men who had inflammation in their initial prostate specimen. It is possible that, among white men, monitoring of NLR and MLR trajectories after an initial negative biopsy may be useful in monitoring prostate cancer risk.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252951PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270440PMC
October 2021

Immunohistochemical Characterization of 120 Testicular Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors With an Emphasis on the Diagnostic Utility of SOX9, FOXL2, and SF-1.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 10;45(10):1303-1313

Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs) account for the second most common category of testicular neoplasms and include several entities that may show overlapping morphologies and present diagnostic challenges. We analyzed a cohort of 120 testicular SCSTs and investigated the diagnostic utility of SRY-box transcription factor 9 (SOX9), forkhead box protein L2 (FOXL2), and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) immunohistochemical stains. The results were compared with the more commonly used SCST markers, inhibin α, calretinin, and Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1). SF-1 was overall the most sensitive stain (91%), followed by inhibin α (70%), calretinin (52%), FOXL2 (50%), SOX9 (47%), and WT1 (37%), but sensitivities varied by tumor type. SOX9 and calretinin were more commonly positive in sex cord elements versus stromal elements (62% vs. 27% and 47% vs. 9%, respectively), whereas FOXL2 was more commonly positive in stromal elements versus sex cord elements (100% vs. 55%) when excluding Leydig cell tumors from the stromal category. Although no individual stain was diagnostically specific, some immunophenotypic patterns were noted that may help in the subclassification of SCSTs. We conclude that SOX9, FOXL2, and SF-1 are useful immunohistochemical stains for confirming sex cord-stromal differentiation in testicular tumors and provide increased sensitivity as well as additional diagnostic information, especially when combined with the more commonly used inhibin α, calretinin, and WT1 immunostains. Although morphology is paramount for subclassification of SCSTs, knowledge of certain immunohistochemical patterns may be helpful for diagnostically challenging cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001704DOI Listing
October 2021

Reappraisal of HER2 Amplification in High-Grade Urothelial Carcinoma Based on 2018 ASCO/CAP Clinical Practice Guidelines.

Am J Clin Pathol 2021 Nov;156(6):1130-1141

Department of Pathology, Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Objectives: To examine and compare human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification status in high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUCa), using both 2013 and 2018 HER2 reporting guidelines for breast carcinoma from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP).

Methods: HER2 status by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay in 78 cases of HGUCa was compared using 2013 and 2018 HER2 reporting guidelines.

Results: HER2 amplification was observed in 22 (28.2%) of 78 tumors, of which 17 were in group 1, 1 in group 2, and 2 each in groups 3 and 4 (FISH assay, 2018). The remaining 14 HER2-amplified tumors (FISH assay, 2013) became negative, falling into group 2 (FISH assay, 2018) and were either negative or equivocal on immunohistochemistry (IHC, 2018). All FISH-negative tumors (n = 37) using 2013 criteria remained negative (group 5, 2018). FISH-equivocal tumors (2013) were further categorized into HER2 amplified (n = 1) and HER2 negative (n = 4) (2018). Overall, 20 (25.6%) tumors had discordant HER2 FISH results (2018 vs 2013).

Conclusions: Implementing 2018 guidelines, HER2 amplification decreased from 36 to 22 cases. The group with a HER2/CEP17 ratio of 2 or more and average HER2 copy number less than 4 (group 2) were predominantly negative by IHC, suggesting a biologically distinct group of HGUCa that is different from HER2-amplified tumors, which may not respond to HER2-targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqab083DOI Listing
November 2021

EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion renal cell carcinoma: a recurrent gene fusion characterizing thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma.

Mod Pathol 2021 10 7;34(10):1921-1934. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon kidney tumor with no distinct molecular alteration described to date. This cohort of eight women with mean and median ages of 45 and 46 years, respectively (range 19-65 years), had unencapsulated, well-circumscribed tumors composed of tightly packed anastomosing follicle-like cysts filled with eosinophilic colloid-like material and lined by cuboidal cells with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, oval to elongated nuclei with perpendicular arrangement toward the lumens, and prominent nuclear overlapping. The stroma between these was minimal with the exception of two tumors. Calcifications and necrosis were absent. Immunohistochemically, the tumors were positive for KRT19 (7/7), PAX8 (5/5), cyclin D1 (6/6), KRT7 (5/7), and AMACR (1/5; focal, weak), and were negative for WT1, TTF1 (transcription termination factor-1), and thyroglobulin. In three of three tumors tested molecularly, EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion was identified by RNA sequencing and confirmed by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Over a follow-up period of 1-7 years, no evidence of recurrence or metastasis has been detected. The EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion has been recognized as a recurrent alteration in a subset of round to spindle cell sarcomas with EWSR1-non-ETS fusions (EWSR1-PATZ1 sarcoma) and in several central nervous system tumors. The finding of an EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion in all three of the thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinomas for which sufficient tissue was available for genomic profiling provides the first distinct molecular abnormality in thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinomas, supporting its designation as a distinct diagnostic entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00833-7DOI Listing
October 2021

Prognostic significance of histomorphologic features of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy: A single center study.

Urol Oncol 2021 12 10;39(12):829.e1-829.e8. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI. Electronic address:

Objective: We assessed the prognostic value of histomorphologic features of lymph node (LN) metastases in patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effect of the features of LN metastasis on the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) in 280 LN-positive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2006 to 2018. LN specific parameters recorded included number of metastatic LNs, size of the largest metastatic focus, Gleason Grade (GG) of the metastatic focus, and extranodal extension (ENE).

Results: A solitary positive LN was found in 166/280 (59%), 95/280 (34%) patients had 2-4 positive LNs, and 19/280 (7%) had 5 or more positive LNs. The size of the largest metastatic focus > 2 mm (macrometastasis) in 154/261 (59%). GG of the metastatic focus was as follows: GG 1-2: 29/224 (13%); GG 3: 27/224 (12%); and GG 4-5: 168/224 (75%). ENE was identified in 99/244 (41%). We found the number of LNs positive (2-4 vs. 1 Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.5; P = 0.04) and GG of the metastatic focus (GG 4&5 vs. 1-3 HR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.14-3.2; P= 0.014) to be independent predictors of the risk of BCR after surgery on multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Our study showed the number of LNs positive and GG of the LN metastatic focus to be significant independent predictors of BCR after radical prostatectomy. We recommend reporting histomorphologic parameters of LN metastasis as they may help in defining BCR risk categorization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.03.018DOI Listing
December 2021

New developments in existing WHO entities and evolving molecular concepts: The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) update on renal neoplasia.

Mod Pathol 2021 07 4;34(7):1392-1424. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) reviewed recent advances in renal neoplasia, particularly post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, to provide an update on existing entities, including diagnostic criteria, molecular correlates, and updated nomenclature. Key prognostic features for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain WHO/ISUP grade, AJCC/pTNM stage, coagulative necrosis, and rhabdoid and sarcomatoid differentiation. Accrual of subclonal genetic alterations in clear cell RCC including SETD2, PBRM1, BAP1, loss of chromosome 14q and 9p are associated with variable prognosis, patterns of metastasis, and vulnerability to therapies. Recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines increasingly adopt immunotherapeutic agents in advanced RCC, including RCC with rhabdoid and sarcomatoid changes. Papillary RCC subtyping is no longer recommended, as WHO/ISUP grade and tumor architecture better predict outcome. New papillary RCC variants/patterns include biphasic, solid, Warthin-like, and papillary renal neoplasm with reverse polarity. For tumors with 'borderline' features between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC, a term "oncocytic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, not further classified" is proposed. Clear cell papillary RCC may warrant reclassification as a tumor of low malignant potential. Tubulocystic RCC should only be diagnosed when morphologically pure. MiTF family translocation RCCs exhibit varied morphologic patterns and fusion partners. TFEB-amplified RCC occurs in older patients and is associated with more aggressive behavior. Acquired cystic disease (ACD) RCC-like cysts are likely precursors of ACD-RCC. The diagnosis of renal medullary carcinoma requires a negative SMARCB1 (INI-1) expression and sickle cell trait/disease. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) can be distinguished from papillary RCC with overlapping morphology by losses of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22. MTSCC with adverse histologic features shows frequent CDKN2A/2B (9p) deletions. BRAF mutations unify the metanephric family of tumors. The term "fumarate hydratase deficient RCC" ("FH-deficient RCC") is preferred over "hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome-associated RCC". A low threshold for FH, 2SC, and SDHB immunohistochemistry is recommended in difficult to classify RCCs, particularly those with eosinophilic morphology, occurring in younger patients. Current evidence does not support existence of a unique tumor subtype occurring after chemotherapy/radiation in early childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00779-wDOI Listing
July 2021
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