Publications by authors named "Sean P Ryan"

55 Publications

Intraoperative Fracture of a Dual Modular Delta Ceramic Femoral Head During Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 08 16;11(3). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Case: A 39-year-old man with cerebral palsy and hip dysplasia status post right Chiari osteotomy presented with right hip osteoarthritis in consultation for total hip arthroplasty (THA). During THA, a Delta ceramic head was misaligned on the taper, but this was obscured by an overlying dual modular polyethylene shell. When we attempted to tap the head onto the taper, fracture occurred requiring revision to a cobalt-chromium head due to slight taper damage.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of intraoperative fracture of a BIOLOX Delta dual modular head.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.21.00215DOI Listing
August 2021

Revision Total Joint Arthroplasty: Final Stop Tertiary Referral Center.

Orthopedics 2021 Jul-Aug;44(4):e477-e481. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

High complication rates associated with revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) may unequally burden tertiary referral centers, which manage medically complex patients. The authors aimed to quantify TKA and THA referral patterns at a tertiary referral center based on travel distance and patient comorbidities. All patients who underwent primary or revision TKA or THA at the investigating institution from 2012 to 2016 were identified. Travel distance was calculated using each patient's home address and stratified into less than 25 miles, 25 to 74 miles, and 75 miles or more. Age, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and postoperative clinical data were identified. Patients were analyzed based on procedure performed and travel distance. A total of 4245 procedures were included for analysis (1754 primary TKAs, 432 revision TKAs, 1503 primary THAs, and 556 revision THAs). Patients living 75 miles or more away had significantly higher odds of undergoing revision arthroplasty compared with patients living within 25 miles (knee: odds ratio [OR], 2.43; hip: OR, 2.61; <.001). Charlson Comorbidity Index did not increase with travel distance. Patients traveling 75 miles or more were more likely to have periprosthetic fracture (OR, 3.91; =.011) and less likely to have dislocation (OR, 0.54; =.026) as the surgical indication for revision. Patients referred to a tertiary center were more likely to necessitate revision total joint arthroplasty but did not differ in comorbidity profile compared with local patients. Periprosthetic fracture, a particularly high-risk surgical indication, was overrepresented among referral patients. These data suggest that factors such as underlying diagnosis, but not preoperative medical comorbidities, may influence referral patterns. [. 2021;44(4):e477-e481.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20210618-03DOI Listing
July 2021

Is there a problem with modular dual mobility acetabular components in revision total hip arthroplasty at mid-term follow-up?

Bone Joint J 2021 Jul;103-B(7 Supple B):66-72

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: Modular dual mobility (MDM) acetabular components are often used with the aim of reducing the risk of dislocation in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). There is, however, little information in the literature about its use in this context. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the outcomes in a cohort of patients in whom MDM components were used at revision THA, with a mean follow-up of more than five years.

Methods: Using the database of a single academic centre, 126 revision THAs in 117 patients using a single design of an MDM acetabular component were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 94 revision THAs in 88 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.5 years were included in the study. Survivorship was analyzed with the endpoints of dislocation, reoperation for dislocation, acetabular revision for aseptic loosening, and acetabular revision for any reason. The secondary endpoints were surgical complications and the radiological outcome.

Results: The overall rate of dislocation was 11%, with a six-year survival of 91%. Reoperation for dislocation was performed in seven patients (7%), with a six-year survival of 94%. The dislocations were early (at a mean of 33 days) in six patients, and late (at a mean of 4.3 years) in four patients. There were three intraprosthetic dissociations. An outer head diameter of ≥ 48 mm was associated with a lower risk of dislocation (p = 0.013). Lumbrosacral fusion was associated with increased dislocation (p = 0.004). Four revision THAs (4%) were further revised for aseptic acetabular loosening, and severe bone loss (Paprosky III) at the time of the initial revision was significantly associated with further revision for aseptic acetabular loosening (p = 0.008). Fourteen acetabular components (15%) were re-revised for infection, and a pre-revision diagnosis of reimplantation after periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) was associated with subsequent PJI (p < 0.001). Two THAs had visible metallic changes on the backside of the cobalt chromium liner.

Conclusion: When using this MDM component in revision THA, at a mean follow-up of 5.5 years, there was a higher rate of dislocation (11%) than previously reported. The size of the outer bearing was related to the risk of dislocation. There was a low rate of aseptic acetabular loosening. Longer follow-up of this MDM component and evaluation of other designs are warranted. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(7 Supple B):66-72.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B7.BJJ-2020-2015.R1DOI Listing
July 2021

Mid-term results of tibial cones : reasonable survivorship but increased failure in those with significant bone loss and prior infection.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6 Supple A):158-164

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: Tibial cones are often utilized in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with metaphyseal defects. Because there are few studies evaluating mid-term outcomes with a sufficient cohort, the purpose of this study was to evaluate tibial cone survival and complications in revision TKAs with tibial cones at minimum follow-up of five years.

Methods: A retrospective review was completed from September 2006 to March 2015, evaluating 67 revision TKAs (64 patients) that received one specific porous tibial cone during revision TKA. The final cohort was composed of 62 knees (59 patients) with five years of clinical follow-up or reoperation. The mean clinical follow-up of the TKAs with minimum five-year clinical follow-up was 7.6 years (5.0 to 13.3). Survivorship analysis was performed with the endpoints of tibial cone revision for aseptic loosening, tibial cone revision for any reason, and reoperation. We also evaluated periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), risk factors for failure, and performed a radiological review.

Results: The rate of cone revision for aseptic loosening was 6.5%, with an eight-year survival of 95%. Significant bone loss (Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute grade 3) was associated with cone revision for aseptic loosening (p = 0.002). The rate of cone revision for any reason was 17.7%, with an eight-year survival of 84%. Sixteen percent of knees developed PJI following revision. A pre-revision diagnosis of reimplantation as part of a two-stage exchange protocol for infection was associated with both PJI (p < 0.001) and tibial cone revision (p = 0.001).

Conclusion: Mid-term results of tibial cones showed a survivorship free of cone revision for aseptic loosening of 95%. Patients with significant bone loss were more likely to have re-revision for tibial cone failure. Infection was common, and patients receiving cones at reimplantation were more likely to develop PJI and undergo cone revision. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6 Supple A):158-164.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-1934.R1DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy of common antiseptic solutions against clinically relevant microorganisms in biofilm.

Bone Joint J 2021 May;103-B(5):908-915

Department of Orthopaedics, Duke University Hospital, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are among the most devastating complications after joint arthroplasty. There is limited evidence on the efficacy of different antiseptic solutions on reducing biofilm burden. The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of different antiseptic solutions against clinically relevant microorganisms in biofilm.

Methods: We conducted an in vitro study examining the efficacy of several antiseptic solutions against clinically relevant microorganisms. We tested antiseptic irrigants against nascent (four-hour) and mature (three-day) single-species biofilm created in vitro using a drip-flow reactor model.

Results: With regard to irrigant efficacy against biofilms, Povidone-iodine treatment resulted in greater reductions in nascent MRSA biofilms (logarithmic reduction (LR) = 3.12; p < 0.001) compared to other solutions. Bactisure treatment had the greatest reduction of mature biofilms (LR = 1.94; p = 0.032) and a larger reduction than Vashe or Irrisept for mature biofilms (LR = 2.12; p = 0.025). Pooled data for all biofilms tested resulted in Bactisure and Povidone-iodine with significantly greater reductions compared to Vashe, Prontosan, and Irrisept solutions (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Treatment failure in PJI is often due to failure to clear the biofilm; antiseptics are often used as an adjunct to biofilm clearance. We tested irrigants against clinically relevant microorganisms in biofilm in vitro and showed significant differences in efficacy among the different solutions. Further clinical outcome data is necessary to determine whether these solutions can impact PJI outcome in vivo. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(5):908-915.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B5.BJJ-2020-1245.R2DOI Listing
May 2021

Incidence and Risk Factors for Flap Coverage After Total Ankle Arthroplasty.

Foot Ankle Int 2021 Jun 1;42(6):744-749. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Wound complications following total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) can have a significant impact on patient morbidity, particularly when they require flap coverage. We sought to determine the risk factors associated with the need for flap coverage after TAA and hypothesized that medical and operative risk factors such as diabetes and additional procedures would be associated with the need for flap coverage after TAA.

Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective review of TAAs from April 2007 to February 2019. Patient demographics and medical comorbidities were collected, in addition to other procedures performed at the time of TAA. Patients were stratified by the need for flap coverage, and unadjusted inferential statistics were performed to evaluate the risk factors associated with subsequent need for flap coverage.

Results: Among 2065 patients undergoing TAA, 28 (1.4%) patients required flap coverage after the index arthroplasty. Patients requiring flap coverage were older ( = .045), had higher Charlson comorbidity indices ( = .017), and had higher rates of diabetes and pulmonary disease ( = .038). Patients requiring flap coverage also had higher rates of additional procedures ( = .043, = .007). The most common flap was a radial forearm free flap, which was performed in 14 (50%) patients. Twenty-one patients (75%) requiring flap coverage had a stable, plantigrade foot at median 1.5-year follow-up.

Conclusion: Patient and operative risk factors, including advanced age, increased comorbidity burden, diabetes, pulmonary disease, and increased number of simultaneous procedures, were significantly associated with need for subsequent flap coverage. This should be considered as the indications for TAA expand.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective, prognostic cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100720982901DOI Listing
June 2021

Body Mass Index, American Society of Anesthesiologists Score, and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index Predict Cost and Delay of Care During Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 05 15;36(5):1621-1625. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Background: Body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index are measures that are utilized to predict perioperative outcomes, though little is known about their comparative predictive effects. We analyzed the effects of these indices on costs, operating room (OR) time, and length of stay (LOS) with the hypothesis that they would have a differential influence on each outcome variable.

Methods: A retrospective review of the institutional database was completed on primary TKA patients from 2015 to 2018. Univariable and multivariable models were constructed to evaluate the strength of BMI, ASA, and Elixhauser comorbidities for predicting changes to total hospital and surgical costs, OR time, and LOS.

Results: In total, 1313 patients were included. ASA score was independently predictive of all outcome variables (OR time, LOS, total hospital and surgical costs). BMI, however, was associated with intraoperative resource utilization through time and cost, but only remained predictive of OR time in an adjusted model. Total Elixhauser comorbidities were independently predictive of LOS and total hospital cost incurred outside of the operative theater, though they were not predictive of intraoperative resource consumption.

Conclusion: Although ASA, BMI, and Elixhauser comorbidities have the potential to impact outcomes and cost, there are important differences in their predictive nature. Although BMI is independently predictive of intraoperative resource utilization, other measures like Elixhauser and ASA score were more indicative of cost outside of the OR and LOS. These data highlight the differing impact of BMI, ASA, and patient comorbidities in impacting cost and time consumption throughout perioperative care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.12.016DOI Listing
May 2021

Cost of Aseptic Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty at a Tertiary Medical Center.

J Arthroplasty 2021 05 17;36(5):1729-1733. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) involves varying levels of case complexity and costs depending on the following: (1) number of components revised, (2) duration of operating room time, and (3) length of hospital stay. However, the cost associated with different types of aseptic TKA revisions, based on number and type of components revised, is not well described. We sought to determine differences in cost associated with different revision types, and to correlate this with average national hospital and surgeon reimbursement based on current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of aseptic revision TKAs performed at a single tertiary referral center from 2015 to 2018. Patient demographic data, operating room time, and direct surgery and total hospital costs obtained from an internal accounting database (Enterprise Performance Systems, Inc) were collected. Patients were stratified by the components revised (polyethylene liner only, tibia only, femur only, or both femur and tibia). We hypothesized that direct surgery and total hospital costs would increase as case complexity increased from poly exchange to single-component revisions and both-component revisions.

Results: In total, 106 patients were included (19 poly exchanges, 10 tibia-only revisions, 13 femur-only revisions, and 64 both-component revisions). Operating room time was significantly lower for poly exchange than all other groups (P < .001). Direct surgery and total hospital costs were significantly lower for poly exchange than all other groups (P < .001), and were significantly lower for tibia-only and femur-only revisions compared to both-component revisions (P < .001). Average national surgeon reimbursement by Medicare decreased as a percentage of direct surgery cost as case complexity increased from poly exchange to tibia-only, femur-only, and both-component revisions. Total hospital cost per average Diagnosis Related Group weight was lowest for single-component revisions and highest for both-component revision.

Conclusion: There are significant differences in cost associated with aseptic TKA revisions based on number and type of components revised. These differences may not be accurately reflected in reimbursement, and often represent a burden to those who treat complex revisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.11.028DOI Listing
May 2021

Next-generation sequencing not superior to culture in periprosthetic joint infection diagnosis.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jan;103-B(1):26-31

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: Use of molecular sequencing methods in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis and organism identification have gained popularity. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a potentially powerful tool that is now commercially available. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of NGS, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), conventional culture, the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, and the recently proposed criteria by Parvizi et al in the diagnosis of PJI.

Methods: In this retrospective study, aspirates or tissue samples were collected in 30 revision and 86 primary arthroplasties for routine diagnostic investigation for PJI and sent to the laboratory for NGS and PCR. Concordance along with statistical differences between diagnostic studies were calculated.

Results: Using the MSIS criteria to diagnose PJI as the reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 60.9% and 89.9%, respectively, while culture resulted in sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 95.3%. PCR had a low sensitivity of 18.4%. There was no significant difference based on sample collection method (tissue swab or synovial fluid) (p = 0.760). There were 11 samples that were culture-positive and NGS-negative, of which eight met MSIS criteria for diagnosing infection.

Conclusion: In our series, NGS did not provide superior sensitivity or specificity results compared to culture. PCR has little utility as a standalone test for PJI diagnosis with a sensitivity of only 18.4%. Currently, several laboratory tests for PJI diagnosis should be obtained along with the overall clinical picture to help guide decision-making for PJI treatment. Cite this article: 2021;103-B(1):26-31.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B1.BJJ-2020-0017.R3DOI Listing
January 2021

A Preoperative Risk Prediction Tool for Discharge to a Skilled Nursing or Rehabilitation Facility After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 04 16;36(4):1212-1219. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Discharge to rehabilitation or a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after total joint arthroplasty remains a primary driver of cost excess for bundled payments. An accurate preoperative risk prediction tool would help providers and health systems identify and modulate perioperative care for higher risk individuals and serve as a vital tool in preoperative clinic as part of shared decision-making regarding the risks/benefits of surgery.

Methods: A total of 10,155 primary total knee (5,570, 55%) and hip (4,585, 45%) arthroplasties performed between June 2013 and January 2018 at a single institution were reviewed. The predictive ability of 45 variables for discharge location (SNF/rehab vs home) was tested, including preoperative sociodemographic factors, intraoperative metrics, postoperative labs, as well as 30 Elixhauser comorbidities. Parameters surviving selection were included in a multivariable logistic regression model, which was calibrated using 20,000 bootstrapped samples.

Results: A total of 1786 (17.6%) cases were discharged to a SNF/rehab, and a multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated excellent predictive accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.824) despite requiring only 9 preoperative variables: age, partner status, the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, body mass index, gender, neurologic disease, electrolyte disorder, paralysis, and pulmonary circulation disorder. Notably, this model was independent of surgery (knee vs hip). Internal validation showed no loss of accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.8216, mean squared error: 0.0004) after bias correction for overfitting, and the model was incorporated into a readily available, online prediction tool for easy clinical use.

Conclusion: This convenient, interactive tool for estimating likelihood of discharge to a SNF/rehab achieves excellent accuracy using exclusively preoperative factors. These should form the basis for improved reimbursement legislation adjusting for patient risk, ensuring no disparities in access arise for vulnerable populations.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.10.038DOI Listing
April 2021

All-Polyethylene Tibia: An Opportunity for Value-Based Care in Bundled Reimbursement Initiatives.

Orthopedics 2021 Jan 3;44(1):e114-e118. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Surgeons play a critical role in making cost-effective decisions that maintain high-quality patient outcomes, which is the current focus of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. All-polyethylene tibial (APT) components often cost less during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The authors sought to determine the relative cost savings of APT, as well as their effect on 90-day quality outcome metrics. This was a retrospective review of primary TKAs performed at a single tertiary referral center participating in the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model, by 2 surgeons, from 2015 to 2017. Patient demographic data and direct hospital costs were collected, and patients were stratified by APTs vs metal-backed components. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed for all outcome metrics. A total of 188 primary TKAs were included (92 APT, 96 metal-backed). Patients receiving APT components were older (P<.001) and had a lower body mass index (P<.001), but there was no difference in sex or American Society of Anesthesiologists score between groups. Operative time was significantly less (mean, 13 minutes) and direct surgery costs were significantly lower for APTs (P<.001). A multivariable regression model for surgical costs demonstrated significant savings (P<.001), and total hospital cost demonstrated a 6.2% average savings with APT. There was no difference in 90-day emergency department visits or re-admissions. This study demonstrates that the use of an APT is able to significantly affect not only the surgical cost but also the total hospital admission cost while maintaining equivalent 90-day outcome metrics. Strategies like this should be considered in appropriately selected patients as the incidence of TKA continues to expand. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(1):e114-e118.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20201009-01DOI Listing
January 2021

Commercially Available Polymerase Chain Reaction Has Minimal Utility in the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

Orthopedics 2020 Nov 1;43(6):333-338. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

The use of genetic sequencing modalities in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and the identification of organisms has gained popularity recently. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers timely results for common organisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of broad-range PCR, conventional culture, the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, and the recently proposed criteria by Parvizi et al in the diagnosis of PJI. In this retrospective study, aspirate or tissue samples were collected in 104 revision and 86 primary arthroplasties for routine diagnostic workup for PJI and sent to the laboratory for PCR. Concordance along with statistical differences between diagnostic studies were calculated using chi-square test for categorical data. On comparison with the MSIS criteria, concordance was significantly lower for PCR at 64.7% compared with 86.3% for culture (P<.001). There was no significant difference based on diagnosis of prior infection (P=.706) or sample collection method (tissue swab or synovial fluid) (P=.316). Of the 87 patients who met MSIS criteria, only 20 (23.0%) PCR samples had an organism identified. In this series, PCR had little utility as a stand-alone test for the diagnosis of PJI, with a sensitivity of only 23.0% when using MSIS criteria as the gold standard. Polymerase chain reaction also appears to be significantly less accurate than culture in the diagnosis of PJI. Currently, several laboratory tests used for either criteria for PJI diagnosis should be obtained along with the overall clinical picture to help guide decision-making for PJI treatment. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(6):333-338.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200923-01DOI Listing
November 2020

Treatment Outcomes in Spinal Metastatic Disease With Indeterminate Stability.

Global Spine J 2020 Sep 25:2192568220956605. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

22957Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between different treatment modalities for metastatic disease with indeterminate instability (Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score [SINS] 7-12).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed neurologically intact patients treated for spinal metastatic disease with a SINS of 7 to 12. The cohort was stratified by treatment approach: external beam radiation therapy alone (EBRT), surgery + EBRT (S+E), and cement augmentation + EBRT (K+E). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess differences in length of survival (LOS) and ability to ambulate at time of death. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess adjusted LOS and ability to ambulate at time of death.

Results: The cohort included 211 patients, S+E (n = 57), EBRT (n = 128), and K+E (n = 27). In the S+E group, the median LOS was 430 days, which was statistically longer than the median LOS for the EBRT group (121 days) and the K+E group (169 days). In the S+E group, 52 patients (91.2%) and in the K+E group 24 patients (92.3%) retained the ability to ambulate at their time of death compared to 99 patients (77.3%) of the EBRT patients ( = .01). The overall rate of revision treatment at the spinal level initially treated was 17.5%, S+E (15.8%), EBRT (20.3%), and K+E (7.7%).

Conclusions: The length of survival, ability to maintain ambulatory ability, and revision treatment rates were all improved following surgical management and radiation therapy compared to radiation therapy alone. The authors' conclusion from these results are that patients with indeterminate spinal instability should be discussed in a multidisciplinary setting for the need of spinal stabilization in addition to radiation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220956605DOI Listing
September 2020

Patient Risk Profile for Unplanned 90-Day Emergency Department Visits Differs Between Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

Orthopedics 2020 Sep;43(5):295-302

Numerous studies have explored 90-day readmissions following total joint arthroplasty; however, there is a paucity of literature concerning 90-day emergency department (ED) visits. The authors aimed to characterize the risk factors for ED presentations and to determine the primary reasons for return, hypothesizing that certain medical comorbidities would account for resource utilization. The institutional database was queried for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients were stratified based on return visits to the ED within 90 days postoperatively. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the factors most predictive of ED return for each THA and TKA. A total of 10,479 procedures resulted in 1234 90-day ED visits made by 937 patients. Significant predictors of 90-day ED return after THA included black race, age older than 80 years, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, metastatic disease, peripheral vascular disease, alcoholism, drug use, depression, and discharge to a skilled nursing facility. In contrast, only black race, liver insufficiency, cancer, and pulmonary hypertension were predictive of ED return following TKA. The primary risk factors for ED return differ for THA and TKA, and this is not currently reflected in the medical severity diagnosis-related group system. Specifically, black patients with multiple comorbidities are at high risk for unplanned ED visits following THA. This should be considered in patient counseling and outreach programs when attempting to mitigate the postoperative risks and to decrease 90-day resource utilization in this patient population. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(5):295-302.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200818-02DOI Listing
September 2020

Transfer: A Review for Biology and the Life Sciences.

CBE Life Sci Educ 2020 09;19(3):es9

Biology Department, St. Bonaventure University, St. Bonaventure, NY 14778.

Transfer of knowledge from one context to another is one of the paramount goals of education. Educators want their students to transfer what they are learning from one topic to the next, between courses, and into the "real world." However, it is also notoriously difficult to get students to successfully transfer concepts. This issue is of particular concern in biology and the life sciences, for which transfer of concepts between disciplines is especially critical to understanding. Students not only struggle to transfer concepts like energy from chemistry to biology but also struggle to transfer concepts like chromosome structures in cell division within biology courses. This paper reviews the current research and understanding of transfer from cognitive psychology. We discuss how learner abilities, taught material, and lesson characteristics affect transfer and provide best practices for biology and life sciences education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.19-11-0227DOI Listing
September 2020

A Case Complexity Modifier Is Warranted for Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 01 31;36(1):37-41. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Background: The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services is faced with a challenge of decreasing the cost of care for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) but must make efforts to prevent patient selection bias in the process. Currently, no appropriate modifier codes exist for primary TKA based on case complexity. We sought to determine differences in perioperative parameters for patients with complex primary TKA with the hypothesis that they would require increased cost of care, prolonged care times, and have worse postoperative outcome metrics.

Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective review from 2015 to 2018 of all primary TKAs. Patient demographics, medial proximal tibial angle (mPTA), lateral distal femoral angle (lDFA), flexion contracture, cost of care, and early postoperative outcomes were collected. Complex patients were defined as those requiring stems or augments, and multivariable logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching were performed to evaluate perioperative outcomes.

Results: About 1043 primary TKAs were studied, and 84 patients (8.3%) were deemed complex. For this cohort, surgery duration was greater (P < .001), cost of care higher (P < .001), and patients had a greater likelihood for 90-day hospital return. Deviation of mPTA and lDFA was significantly greater preoperatively before and after propensity score matching. Cut point analysis demonstrated that preoperative mPTA <83 or >91, lDFA <84 or >90, flexion contracture >10, and body mass index >35.7 were associated with complex procedures.

Conclusion: Complex primary TKA may be identifiable preoperatively and those cases associated with prolonged operative time, excess hospital cost of care, and increased 90-day hospital returns. This should be considered in future reimbursement models to prevent patient selection bias, and a complexity modifier is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.07.066DOI Listing
January 2021

Intraoperative Fire Risk: Evaluating the 3-Minute Wait After Chlorhexidine-Alcohol Antiseptic Scrub.

J Orthop Trauma 2021 01;35(1):e31-e33

Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Objective: We sought to determine the flammability of the skin at different time intervals after chlorhexidine-alcohol antiseptic scrub application, to provide evidence for hospital protocols recommending a 3-minute drying time.

Methods: Swine feet, which contain the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone, were used for an experimental cohort. The skin was prepped with chlorhexidine-alcohol solution. Attempted ignition with an open flame was then performed in the presence of visible pooling, as well as at time points 0, 30, 60, and 90 seconds after application, in addition to when the skin appeared visibly dry. Six samples were used for each time point tested.

Results: At time 0 seconds and with gross pooling, ignition was achieved with all samples tested. However, at 30 seconds, only 2 of 6 samples were ignited (which appeared wet). No samples after 60 or 90 seconds were flammable. Samples appeared dry after an average of 40.5 seconds and were not able to ignite.

Conclusions: Although our findings do support that a chlorhexidine-alcohol antiseptic scrub is a potentially flammable surgical prep solution, we found little support for a 3-minute time cutoff. More importantly, the presence of pooling and persistently wet appearing prep is a more important fire risk than the time elapsed after prep application. Caution should be used when working with any flammable solution, and efforts to minimize chemical burns and combustion should be sought based on evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000001885DOI Listing
January 2021

Arthroplasty Surgeons Do Not Improve Acute Outcomes for Patients With Hip Fracture Relative to Other Subspecialists.

Orthopedics 2020 Sep 7;43(5):e442-e446. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

As bundled reimbursement models continue to evolve, there is a continued effort to increase the value of care for patients undergoing arthroplasty. The authors sought to evaluate the effect of surgeon specialization (arthroplasty vs non-arthroplasty) on acute outcomes for patients with hip fracture who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA), in an effort to determine whether the value of care can be improved by surgeons specializing in these procedures. They performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients who had hip fracture and were treated with THA between June 2013 and February 2018 at 2 academic institutions that were involved in bundled reimbursement initiatives. Patients were stratified based on the subspecialty training of the operative surgeon (fellowship-trained adult reconstruction vs other orthopedic sub-specialty), and 90-day readmissions, length of stay, and discharge disposition were compared between groups. A total of 291 patients were included in the final cohort, with 120 (41.2%) undergoing surgery performed by a fellowship-trained adult reconstruction surgeon. No significant difference was found in age, sex, race, or American Society of Anesthesiologists score between the 2 groups. In addition, no significant difference was found in length of stay, discharge to a facility, or 90-day readmissions on univariable or multivariable analysis when adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score. This study showed that the acute outcomes used to assess the value of care for patients undergoing THA were not significantly different when the surgery was performed by an adult reconstruction specialist compared with other orthopedic surgeons at 2 high-volume academic centers with perioperative care pathways. Alternative modalities to significantly improve acute postoperative outcomes in a bundled reimbursement model must be investigated. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(5):e442-e446.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200619-11DOI Listing
September 2020

Same-day Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty Did Not Increase 90-day Hospital Returns.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2020 Jan-Apr;28(2):2309499020918170

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC, USA.

Purpose: Bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be performed in patients with bilateral knee arthritis. Outside of nationwide database studies, which have limitations, few studies have compared outcomes for same-day versus staged TKA. We sought to compare patient outcomes at a single tertiary referral center.

Methods: The institutional database was queried from March 2014 to December 2017 for primary TKA. Patients undergoing bilateral procedures were stratified by same-day versus staged; length of stay (LOS), disposition, 90-day emergency department (ED) visits, and 90-day readmissions were examined through univariable and multivariable analyses.

Results: A total of 676 patients were evaluated (113 same-day and 563 staged bilateral TKA patients) with mean age 66.0 (8.5) at first surgery and 292.1 (241.6) days between staged procedures. Same-day bilateral TKA patients were younger ( < 0.001), had lower body mass index (BMI) ( = 0.010), and had lower American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores ( = 0.030). They were more likely to have a prolonged LOS ( < 0.001) and be discharged to skilled nursing facility or rehab facility ( < 0.001). Total LOS for separate hospitalizations in staged procedures was greater than LOS for same-day bilateral TKAs ( < 0.001). There was no difference in 90-day ED visits ( = 0.623) or readmission ( = 0.286). In a multivariable model controlling for age, BMI, and ASA score, same-day bilateral TKA was not significantly associated with ED visits or readmissions.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing same-day bilateral TKAs were more likely to be discharged to post-acute care facilities, however they did not have increased 90-day readmissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2309499020918170DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of Patent Foramen Ovale on Total Knee Arthroplasty Cerebrovascular Accident Perioperative Management.

Orthopedics 2020 May 20;43(3):e151-e158. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke are major complications following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and potentially are associated with a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Although this association has been shown in other surgical disciplines, it has not been demonstrated in patients undergoing TKA. This study was undertaken to determine whether patients with a PFO would have a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) following TKA. The Humana national database was used to identify TKA patients who were stratified by the presence of a PFO from 2007 to 2016. Ninety-day follow-up was used for the primary outcome of CVA. Potential confounding comorbidities also were investigated, including age, sex, anticoagulation, insurance type, arrhythmia, valvular disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Of 153,245 TKAs, a total of 2272 patients had strokes; 479 of these patients had a PFO. On multivariable analysis, PFO remained an independent predictor of CVA postoperatively (odds ratio, 3.824; 95% confidence interval, 2.614-5.406; P<.0001). Other significant comorbidities associated with CVA included arrhythmia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary valve disease. Importantly, low-molecular weight heparin or factor Xa inhibitor administration postoperatively had a negative correlation with stroke (odds ratio, 0.762; 95% confidence interval, 0.663-0.871; P=.0001 and odds ratio, 0.749; 95% confidence interval, 0.628-0.885; P=.0009, respectively). The findings of the multivariable analysis indicate PFO is associated with early postoperative CVA within 90 days following TKA. If known preoperatively, appropriate referral should be made to a cardiologist for PFO management and anticoagulation to reduce the overall risk of stroke. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(3):e151-e158.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200213-06DOI Listing
May 2020

Total Hip Arthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fracture: The Economic Implications of Orthopedic Subspecialty Training.

J Arthroplasty 2020 06 29;35(6S):S101-S106. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

Background: Hip fractures have significant economic implications as a result of their associated direct and indirect medical costs. Under alternative payment models, it has become increasingly important for institutions to find avenues by which costs could be reduced while maintaining outcomes in these cases.

Methods: A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of Medicare patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) for femoral neck fracture was conducted to assess the impact of fellowship training in adult reconstruction (AR) on the total costs of the 90-day episode of care. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts according to fellowship training status of the operating surgeon: (1) AR-trained and (2) other fellowship training (non-AR). The primary outcome was the total cost of the 90-day episode of care converted to a percentage of the bundled payment target price.

Results: A total of 291 patients who underwent THA for the treatment of a femoral neck fracture were included. The average total cost percentage of the 90-day episode of care was significantly lower for the AR cohort 70.9% (±36.6%) than the non-AR cohort 82.6% (±36.1%) (P < .01). After controlling for baseline demographics in the multivariable logistic regression, the care episodes in which the operating surgeons were AR fellowship-trained were still found to be significantly lower, at a rate of 0.87 times the costs of the non-AR surgeons (95% confidence interval 0.78-0.97, P = .011). In addition, the non-AR cohort exceeded the bundle target price more frequently than the AR cohort, 49 (28.7%) vs 16 (13.3%) (P = .02).

Conclusion: In an era of bundled payments, ascertaining factors that may increase the value of care while decreasing the cost is paramount for institutions and policymakers alike. The results presented in this study suggest that in the femoral neck fracture population, surgeons trained in AR achieve lower total costs for the THA episode of care. Furthermore, non-AR fellowship-trained surgeons exceeded the bundled payment target more frequently than the AR surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.01.047DOI Listing
June 2020

Response to Letter to the Editor on "The Role of Malnutrition in Ninety-Day Outcomes After Total Joint Arthroplasty".

J Arthroplasty 2020 03 22;35(3):901-902. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Duke Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

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March 2020

Extended Oral Antibiotics and Infection Prophylaxis after a Primary or Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Knee Surg 2020 Feb 3;33(2):111-118. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

One of the most common reasons for failure of primary total knee arthroplasty and need for revision surgery is periprosthetic infection. Antibiotics are one of the mainstays of treatment to address prosthetic joint infections, but the route of administration and timing of delivery to optimize patient outcomes are debated. This article reviews the use and attributes of commonly used oral antibiotics, especially extended or long-term utilization, as prophylaxis and treatment for prosthetic joint infections in a primary or revision total knee arthroplasty, which include debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention, one-stage and two-stage exchange arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3400755DOI Listing
February 2020

Perioperative Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Transfusion in Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Dec 22;34(12):2898-2902. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown in both orthopedic and general surgery literature to be associated with an increased risk of blood loss, and this is thought to occur via diminished platelet serotonin reuptake and subsequent decline in platelet aggregation potential. In this study, we aim at quantifying the effect of treatment with SSRIs on blood loss and transfusion rates following total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: THA (4485) and TKA (5584) cases from January 2013 to December 2017 at the investigating institution were queried and analyzed separately from an institutional database. Patients were stratified by utilization of an SSRI at the time of surgery. Patient demographics, baseline coagulopathy, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin, transfusion, and length of stay were obtained to compare the 2 cohorts.

Results: The transfusion rate for SSRI users was 3.9% in the TKA group and 8.5% in the THA group. After controlling for age, gender, body mass index, presence of coagulopathy, procedure (THA vs TKA), and SSRI status, SSRI utilization was significantly associated with increased blood loss (P < .004), and logistic regression controlling for the same variables showed SSRI utilization to be predictive of transfusion (odds ratio, 1.476; P < .001).

Conclusion: SSRI utilization was associated with increased perioperative blood loss and predictive of transfusion risk, particularly with THA. This represents an important factor that may be modified in the setting of total joint arthroplasty but further work will be necessary to study potential alternative medications for depression in the perioperative phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.04.057DOI Listing
December 2019

Tranexamic acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid in total joint arthroplasty? A randomized controlled trial.

Bone Joint J 2019 Sep;101-B(9):1093-1099

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: Antifibrinolytic agents, including tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), have been shown to be safe and effective for decreasing perioperative blood loss and transfusion following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there are few prospective studies that directly compare these agents. The purpose of this study was to compare the benefits of intraoperative intravenous TXA with EACA.

Patients And Methods: A total of 235 patients (90 THA and 145 TKA) were enrolled in this prospective, randomized controlled trial at a single tertiary-care referral centre. In the THA cohort, 53.3% of the patients were female with a median age of 59.8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 53.3 to 68.1). In the TKA cohort, 63.4% of the patients were female with a median age of 65.1 years (IQR 59.4 to 69.5). Patients received either TXA (n = 119) or EACA (n = 116) in two doses intraoperatively. The primary outcome measures included change in haemoglobin level and blood volume, postoperative drainage, and rate of transfusion. Secondary outcome measures included postoperative complications, cost, and length of stay (LOS).

Results: TKA patients who received EACA had greater drainage (median 320 ml (IQR 185 to 420) 158 ml (IQR 110 to 238); p < 0.001), increased loss of blood volume (891 ml (IQR 612 to 1203) 661 ml (IQR 514 to 980); p = 0.014), and increased haemoglobin change from the preoperative level (2.1 ml (IQR 1.7 to 2.8) 1.9 ml (IQR 1.2 to 2.4); p = 0.016) compared with patients who received TXA. For the THA cohort, no statistically significant differences were observed in any haematological outcome measure. One patient in the EACA group required transfusion. No patient in the TXA group required transfusion. There were no statistically significant differences in number or type of postoperative complications or LOS for either THA or TKA patients regardless of whether they received TXA or EACA.

Conclusion: For hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, EACA is associated with increased perioperative blood loss compared with TXA. However, there is no significant difference in transfusion rate. While further prospective studies are needed to compare the efficacy of each agent, we currently recommend orthopaedic surgeons to select their antifibrinolytic based on cost and regional availability. Cite this article: 2019;101-B:1093-1099.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.101B9.BJJ-2018-1096.R1DOI Listing
September 2019

Undersedation During Total Hip Arthroplasty Reduction Results in Worse Patient Outcomes.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Dec 19;34(12):3061-3064. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) dislocation is a common reason for presentation to the emergency department (ED) postoperatively. Prior literature has shown that propofol conscious sedation provides the fewest complications and the shortest time to reduction. However, we are aware of no prior reports exploring sedative dosing regimens. We hypothesized that "undersedated" patients would have worse outcomes compared to appropriately sedated patients based on dose.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of isolated propofol conscious sedation performed in the ED for closed reduction of THA dislocations from 2013 to 2019. Prior authors have used at least 0.5 mg/kg/dose for sedation with propofol. Therefore, to allow a 10% rounding error, a dose of less than 0.45 mg/kg/dose was considered undersedated. Demographic information was collected and outcomes including sedation time, number of doses, complications, and successful reductions were analyzed in univariable and multivariable analyses.

Results: A total of 79 THAs were included for analysis with mean age 65.5 (16.2) years and weight 84.1 (21.3) kg. Thirty-seven (46.8%) patients had undergone revision surgery and 44 (55.7%) previously had a dislocation. A total of 39 patients were undersedated. There was no significant difference in demographics or arthroplasty-specific variables between undersedated and "protocol" sedation patients. In multivariable analysis, undersedated patients had significantly longer sedation time (P = .020), more re-doses (by mean 3 doses; P < .001), and greater total dose (P = .002). These patients were also more likely to have failed ED closed reduction (10.3% vs 0.0%; P = .038). One complication of a skin tear from countertraction was observed in an undersedated patient.

Conclusion: Historically, conscious sedation for THA dislocations has been the responsibility of the emergency room clinician. In consideration of our outcomes, we advocate for a multidisciplinary team to create a sedation protocol, emphasizing the need to maintain a dosing regimen of 0.5 mg/kg/dose to improve the care of THA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.07.020DOI Listing
December 2019

The Role of Malnutrition in Ninety-Day Outcomes After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 11 6;34(11):2594-2600. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Research has linked malnutrition to more complications in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients. The role of preoperative albumin in predicting length of stay (LOS) and 90-day outcomes remains understudied. Often, an albumin cut-off ≤3.5 g/dL is used as proxy for malnutrition, although this value remains understudied. This preoperative level may be missing some patients at risk for adverse events post TJA.

Methods: TJA patients at a single institution from 2013 to 2018 were reviewed for preoperative albumin level. In total, 4047 cases (total knee arthroplasty: 2058; total hip arthroplasty: 1989) had available data, including 90-day readmissions, 90-day emergency department (ED) visits, and postoperative LOS.

Results: About 5.6% experienced a readmission and 9.6% had at least one ED visit within 90 days. Overall prevalence of malnutrition was 3.6%, and this cohort experienced a longer average LOS (3.5 vs 2.2 days, P < .0001) and was more likely to experience a readmission (16% vs 5%, P < .0001) or ED visit (18% vs 9%, P = .0005). Additionally, albumin ≤3.5 g/dL was correlated with more frequent discharge to skilled nursing facility/rehab (30.8% vs 14.7%, P < .0001), increased risk for 90-day readmission with univariable (odds ratio [OR] 1.79, P < .0001) and multivariable logistic regression (OR 1.55, P < .0001), and increased risk for 90-day ED visits with univariable (OR 1.62, P < .0001) and multivariable regression (OR 1.35, P < .0001). The optimal albumin cut-off was 3.94 g/dL in a univariable model for 90-day readmission.

Conclusion: Screening for malnutrition may serve a role in preoperative evaluation. An albumin cutoff value of 3.5 g/dL may miss some at-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.05.060DOI Listing
November 2019

Predicting Success of Two-Stage Exchange for Prosthetic Joint Infection Using C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio.

Adv Orthop 2019 2;2019:6521941. Epub 2019 May 2.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Two-stage exchange is most commonly used for treatment of prosthetic joint infections (PJI) but, this may fail to eradicate infections. C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) has been used to predict survival and operative success in other surgical subspecialties and so, we assess the association between CAR and reimplantation success during two-stage revision for PJI defined by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society following a primary total hip (THA) or knee (TKA) arthroplasty. From January, 2005 to December, 2015, two institutional databases were queried and patient demographics, antibiotic duration, C-reactive protein, and albumin were collected prior to reimplantation. Two-stage revisions were considered successful if patients were off of antibiotics and did not require a repeat surgery. CAR was available for 79 patients (34 hips and 46 knees) with 61 successful two-stage revisions and 18 failures. The average CAR for patients with successful reimplantation was 1.2 (0.2, 3.0) compared to 1.0 (0.4, 3.2) for treatment failure. However, this was not statistically significant (p=0.766). Therefore, CAR is not applicable in predicting the prognosis of two-stage revisions for PJI in total arthroplasty but other preoperative inflammatory-based prognostic scores should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6521941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6521566PMC
May 2019

No Changes in Patient Selection and Value-Based Metrics for Total Hip Arthroplasty After Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Bundle Implementation at a Single Center.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Aug 15;34(8):1581-1584. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Background: Alternative payment models for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were initiated by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services to decrease overall healthcare cost. The associated shift of financial risk to participating institutions may negatively influence patient selection to avoid high cost of care ("cherry picking," "lemon dropping"). This study evaluated the impact of the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model on patient selection, care delivery, and hospital costs at a single care center.

Methods: Patients undergoing a primary THA from 2015-2017 were stratified by insurance type (Medicare and commercial insurance) and whether care was provided before (pre-CJR) or after (post-CJR) CJR bundle implementation. Patient age, gender, and body mass index, Elixhauser comorbidities and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, were analyzed. Delivery of care variables including surgery duration, discharge disposition, length of stay, and direct hospital costs were compared pre- and post-CJR.

Results: A total of 751 THA patients (273 Medicare and 478 commercial Insurance) were evaluated pre-CJR (29%) and post-CJR (71%). Patient demographics were similar (age, gender, BMI); however, commercially insured patients had less comorbidities pre-CJR (P = .033). Medicare patient post-CJR length of stay (P = .010) was reduced with a trend toward discharge to home (P = .019). Surgical time, operating room service time, 90-day readmissions and direct hospital costs were similar pre- and post-CJR.

Conclusion: There was no differential patient selection after CJR bundle implementation and value-based metrics (surgical time, operating room service time) were not affected. Patients were discharged sooner and more often to home. However, overall direct hospital expenses remained unchanged revealing that any cost savings were for insurance providers, not participating hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.05.016DOI Listing
August 2019

Patients at Risk for Exceeding CJR Cost Targets After Total Ankle Arthroplasty.

Foot Ankle Int 2019 Sep 7;40(9):1025-1031. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: The Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model includes total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), under which a target reimbursement is established. Whether this reimbursement is sufficient to cover average cost remains unknown. We hypothesized that a substantial number of TAAs still exceed cost targets, and that risk factors associated with exceeding the target cost could be identified preoperatively.

Methods: Two hundred two primary TAAs performed at a single tertiary referral center under the CJR model from June 2013 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, outcomes, and costs were extracted from the electronic medical record using a validated structured query language (SQL) algorithm. A comparison cohort of 2084 CJR total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) cases performed during the same period was also reviewed.

Results: Twenty TAAs (10%) exceeded the target cost of care, significantly fewer than CJR THAs/TKAs (29%) performed during the same period ( < .0001). These patients did not differ significantly in age, sex, body mass index, number of Elixhauser comorbidities, or the American Society of Anesthesiologists score. The average cost for these patients was $17 338 higher than those who did not exceed the target cost, and they were less likely to be married or have a partner (45% vs 79%, = .001). Non-Caucasian status also reached significance ( < .0001). Those exceeding the target cost had a significantly longer length of stay (2.6 vs 1.5 days, < .0001) and were more likely to be discharged to either skilled nursing or a rehabilitation facility (60% vs 1%, < .0001).

Conclusion: Even high-volume TAA centers still exceed target costs in up to 10% of cases, with length of stay, discharge location, and readmissions driving many of these events. Potential risk factors for excess cost include marital/partner status and non-Caucasian ethnicity, but further work is needed to clarify their effects and whether other risk factors exist.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100719853494DOI Listing
September 2019
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