Publications by authors named "Sean M Devlin"

115 Publications

The Simplified Comorbidity Index (SCI) - a new tool for prediction of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HCT.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States.

Individual comorbidities have distinct contributions to non-relapse mortality (NRM) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We studied the impact of comorbidities both individually and in combination in a single-center cohort of 573 adult patients who underwent CD34-selected allo-HCT following myeloablative conditioning. Pulmonary disease, moderate to severe hepatic comorbidity, cardiac disease of any type, and renal dysfunction were associated with increased NRM in multivariable Cox regression models. A Simplified Comorbidity Index (SCI) composed of the four comorbidities predictive of NRM, as well as age > 60 years, stratified patients into five groups with a stepwise increase in NRM. NRM rates ranged from 11.4% to 49.9% by stratum, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.84, 2.59, 3.57, and 5.38. The SCI was also applicable in an external cohort of 230 patients who underwent allo-HCT with unmanipulated grafts following intermediate-intensity conditioning. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the SCI for 1-year NRM was 70.3 and 72.0 over the development and external-validation cohorts, respectively; corresponding AUCs of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) were 61.7 and 65.7. In summary, a small set of comorbidities, aggregated into the Simplified Comorbidity Index, are highly predictive of NRM. The new index stratifies patients into distinct risk groups, was validated in an external cohort, and provides higher discrimination than the HCT-CI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004319DOI Listing
September 2021

Modified EASIX predicts severe cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity after chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

Blood Adv 2021 09;5(17):3397-3406

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Patients who develop chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell-related severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) exhibit hemodynamic instability and endothelial activation. The EASIX (Endothelial Activation and Stress Index) score (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH; U/L] × creatinine [mg/dL]/platelets [PLTs; 109 cells/L]) is a marker of endothelial damage that correlates with outcomes in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Elevated LDH and low PLTs have been associated with severe CRS and ICANS, as has C-reactive protein (CRP), while increased creatinine is seen only in a minority of advanced severe CRS cases. We hypothesized that EASIX and 2 new modified EASIX formulas (simplified EASIX, which excludes creatinine, and modified EASIX [m-EASIX], which replaces creatinine with CRP [mg/dL]), calculated peri-CAR T-cell infusion, would be associated with development of severe (grade ≥ 3) CRS and ICANS. We included 118 adults, 53 with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with 1928z CAR T cells (NCT01044069) and 65 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel or tisagenlecleucel. The 3 formulas showed similar predictive power for severe CRS and ICANS. However, low PLTs and high CRP values were the only variables individually correlated with these toxicities. Moreover, only m-EASIX was a significant predictor of disease response. m-EASIX could discriminate patients who subsequently developed severe CRS preceding the onset of severe symptoms (area under the curve [AUC] at lymphodepletion, 80.4%; at day -1, 73.0%; and at day +1, 75.4%). At day +3, it also had high discriminatory ability for severe ICANS (AUC, 73%). We propose m-EASIX as a clinical tool to potentially guide individualized management of patients at higher risk for severe CAR T-cell-related toxicities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8525234PMC
September 2021

Reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter's transformation.

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(14):2879-2889

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may potentially cure patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Richter's transformation (CLL-RT) or CLL without RT, but the impact of novel agents on HSCT is unclear. CLL-RT patients have a grave prognosis, and their outcomes after HSCT are uncertain. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all 58 CLL patients, including 23 CLL-RT patients, who underwent reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) HSCT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) between September 2006 and April 2017. With a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 24-147 months), 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-56%), and overall survival (OS) was 58% (95% CI, 48%-74%). The 1-year graft-versus-host disease/relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 38% (95% CI, 25%-50%). Patients with CLL-RT and CLL patients without RT had comparable outcomes. In both cohorts, treatment-sensitive response and ≤3 previous lines of therapy produced superior PFS and OS. Outcomes were agnostic to adverse cytogenetic and molecular features. Novel agents did not have a negative impact on HSCT outcomes. Total body irradiation (TBI)-containing RIC yielded inferior PFS, OS, and GRFS. CLL-RT patients older than age 55 years who had an HSCT Comorbidity Index score of ≥2 demonstrated inferior OS. This study, which is the largest series of RIC-HSCT for patients with CLL-RT, provides evidence supporting RIC-HSCT in early remission courses for patients with CLL-RT and poor-risk CLL patients. TBI-containing RIC should be considered with caution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341347PMC
July 2021

Fractionated Infusion of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Neutrophil Recovery or Survival in Allograft Recipients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 10 30;27(10):852.e1-852.e9. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Adult Blood and Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers a potentially curative therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies; however, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) remains a concern. Strategies to improve neutrophil recovery and immune reconstitution are needed to decrease NRM. Murine models of allogeneic HCT suggest that fractionated hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) infusion may improve engraftment through improved access of HPCs to a viable hematopoietic niche. The primary objective of the present study was to determine the impact of fractionated infusion versus unfractionated (bulk) infusion of HPCs on the time to achieve neutrophil engraftment. Secondary objectives included the effect of fractionated versus bulk infusion of HPCs on platelet engraftment, immune reconstitution, the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade II-IV, NRM, and overall survival (OS). In this randomized phase 2 study, patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic HCT were randomized to receive HPC infusion as a bulk (bulk arm) or in fractions (fractionated arm): 4 × 10 CD34 cells/kg recipient weight infused on day 0, with the remaining HPCs CD34 cell-selected then infused in equally distributed aliquots on days 2, 4, and 6 post-HCT. Randomization was stratified by type of transplant, unmodified (i.e. T cell-replete graft) versus CD34 cell-selected (T cell-depleted graft). Patients whose donor failed to collect at least 7 × 10 CD34 cells/kg of recipient weight received bulk HPC infusions regardless of randomization, for safety. These patients continued the HCT process on study but were replaced until each arm reached the prespecified accrual target. Per protocol, these patients were not included in this modified intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 116 patients were enrolled. Donors of 42 patients failed to mobilize the minimum CD34 cell dose (7 × 10 cells/kg recipient weight) and were excluded from the analysis. The 74 evaluable patients included 38 randomized to the bulk arm and 36 randomized to the fractionated arm. All patients engrafted. The median time to an absolute neutrophil count of ≥0.5 × 10/L was 11 days on both arms. The day +180 median CD4 cell count was 179 cells/µL in the bulk arm and 111 cells/µL in the fractionated arm (P = .779). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD on post-transplant day +100 was 32% in the bulk arm and 17% in the fractionated arm (P = .131). Two patients in the bulk arm, but none in the fractionated arm, experienced grade III-IV GVHD. The 4-year OS was 60% in the bulk arm and 62% in the fractionated arm (P = .414), whereas the 4-year cumulative incidences of NRM and relapse were similar in the 2 arms. Fractionated infusion of HPCs in allogeneic HCT recipients did not impact neutrophil or CD4 cell recovery, NRM, relapse, or OS when compared with bulk HPC infusion. We also observed that with current mobilization techniques, it was unlikely that more than 60% of healthy donors would be able to collect >7 × 10 CD34 cells/kg recipient weight for adult recipients. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478895PMC
October 2021

Toxicities of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in older patients with lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 06;5(12):2608-2618

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

High-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation is an effective consolidation therapy in lymphoma; however, its use in elderly patients has been limited because of concerns for greater toxicity in this group. We investigated the toxicities of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) in 346 patients in 2 age groups: 279 patients aged 60 to 69 years and 67 patients aged ≥70 years. The majority developed severe toxicities; the most common were febrile neutropenia, gastrointestinal, infections, and cardiovascular. Older patients were at higher risk for grade ≥3 cardiovascular toxicities (hazard ratio [HR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25-5.00; P < .001) and skin toxicities (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.08-5.54, P = .032). In the older group, nonrelapse mortality at 100 days and at 2 years was 2.99% (95% CI, 0.55-9.32) and 6.2% (95% CI, 1.97-13.95), respectively, vs 1.79% (95% CI, 0.68-3.92) and 2.91% (95% CI, 1.37-5.42), respectively, in the younger group. When adjusting for the number of grade ≥3 toxicities within the first 100 days, older patients had a 1.71-fold (95% CI, 1.08-2.71) increased risk for progression or death relative to younger patients. Although BEAM followed by AHCT is effective, it is associated with significant organ toxicities, especially in patients aged ≥70 years. Interventions to mitigate toxicities while maintaining efficacy are much needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270665PMC
June 2021

Relapse after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome and the Importance of Second Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09 24;27(9):771.e1-771.e10. Epub 2021 May 24.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York; Cellular Therapeutics Center, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) generally have poor overall survival (OS). Interventions that result in improved OS after relapse are not well established. The efficacy of second cellular therapy and specific indications are matters of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate factors associated with postrelapse survival and the efficacy of a second course of cellular therapy. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with AML and MDS who underwent a first allo-HCT between 2010 and 2017 at our center but subsequently relapsed. One hundred and four patients with AML and 44 patients with MDS were included (total n = 148). Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood stem cell grafts were either unmodified or T cell-depleted (TCD) by CD34 selection ex vivo. Forty-five patients (30.4%) received a second cellular therapy after relapse, either a second allo-HCT (n = 28; 18.9%) or donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) (n = 17; 11.5%). The median age at transplantation was 60 years (range, 24 to 78 years). The median time to relapse (TTR) after transplantation was 6.5 months (range, 1 to 60.9 months), and the ensuing median OS was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8 to 8.9 months). In univariable analysis, longer TTR, relapse type (measurable residual disease versus morphologic), relapse occurring in the most recent years, and receipt of cellular therapy after relapse were associated with better outcomes, whereas adverse cytogenetics and/or abnormality of TP53, as well as NPM1 mutation in patients with AML, were associated with adverse outcomes. Relapse type, year of relapse, and a variable resulting from the combination of TTR and receipt of second cellular therapy remained significantly associated with postrelapse survival in multivariable analysis. In a separate multivariable model, adjusted only for TTR, relapse type, and receipt of second cellular therapy, an adverse effect of NPM1 mutation on survival was confirmed. We could not show an effect of post-transplantation maintenance on survival after relapse. In both univariable and multivariable analysis, we found a positive association for second cellular therapy with survival after relapse in patients who relapsed early (<6 months) after allo-HCT and a similar trend in patients who relapsed late (>12 months) after transplantation. Two-year OS after a second cellular therapy was 44.9% (95% CI, 28.5% to 61.4%), and it was significantly better in patients with <5% BM blasts before cell infusion. We could not show different effects on survival after second cellular therapy for DLI versus second allo-HCT in univariable analysis. Survival after relapse is improving over time, but this remains a challenging event, especially for patients who relapse early after transplantation. We found that a second cellular therapy could offer a benefit even in these cases. Nonetheless, more research is needed to clarify the most appropriate treatment choices after relapse. These are probably driven by underlying genetic and immunologic conditions, which should be the focus of future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Oral Proteasome Inhibitor Ixazomib for Switch-Maintenance Prophylaxis of Recurrent or Late Acute and Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Day 100 in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Medicine, Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication in the first year after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Recipients of reduced-intensity (RI) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based GVHD prophylaxis frequently develop GVHD in the context of immunosuppression taper. Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor with a wide safety profile that has demonstrated immunomodulatory properties, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and anti-tumor activity. We hypothesized that switch-maintenance GVHD prophylaxis using ixazomib would facilitate CNI taper without increased GVHD frequency and severity while maintaining graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect and an acceptable safety profile. We conducted an open-label, prospective, single-center pilot study in patients with hematologic malignancies who received an RI or NMA conditioning and CNI-based GVHD prophylaxis that were within day 100 to 150 after HCT (n = 18). Patients were treated with ixazomib once weekly on a 28-day cycle (3 weeks on, 1 week off). Treatment was safe; most adverse events were grade 1 or 2, with cytopenia and elevation in transaminases the most common. Five patients were removed from the study because of toxicity or side effects. Only 5 of 18 patients developed GVHD during the study, and its severity was driven by acute manifestations while chronic involvement was mild. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute and chronic GVHD at 1-year after HCT was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13-55). No patients died during the study, and only 1 had malignant relapse. An additional patient relapsed after completion of the study but within 1 year after HCT. The probability of progression-free survival and GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (composite endpoint) at 1 year were 89% (95% CI, 75-100) and 78% (95% CI, 61-100), respectively. Immune reconstitution analysis showed a rapid and sustained recovery in T-cell subpopulations and B cell reconstitution, and vaccine response in a subset of patients demonstrated continuing or de novo positive protective antibody titers. This study demonstrated low incidence of recurrent and late acute and chronic GVHD within 1 year after HCT possible associated with switch-maintenance GVHD prophylaxis using ixazomib. This approach allowed for CNI taper while preserving GVT effect, without aggravating GVHD. Our findings support further development of this approach and provide a proof-of-concept for switch-maintenance GVHD prophylaxis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.008DOI Listing
May 2021

Universal Engraftment after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Using Cryopreserved CD34-Selected Grafts.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 13;27(8):697.e1-697.e5. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine, Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, most centers performing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have switched to the use of cryopreserved grafts. Previous investigators have suggested that cryopreserved allografts may heighten risk of nonengraftment. To date, no study has investigated the effect of cryopreservation of CD34-selected hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34 HPCs) used as the sole graft source. In this study, we sought to evaluate outcomes after unrelated donor or matched sibling allo-HCT with cryopreserved CD34 HPCs. This was a single-center analysis of adult patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent allo-HCT with cryopreserved CD34-selected allo-HCT grafts between January 2010 and June 2017. All patients received ablative conditioning and antirejection prophylaxis with rabbit antithymocyte globulin. G-CSF-mobilized leukapheresis products underwent CD34 selection using the CliniMACS Reagent System. Cells were then cryopreserved in DMSO (final concentration 7.5%) to -90 °C using a controlled-rate freezing system before being transferred to vapor-phase liquid nitrogen storage. In internal validation, this method has shown 92% mean CD34 cell viability and 99.7% mean CD34 cell recovery. Engraftment was defined as the first of 3 consecutive days of an absolute neutrophil count of ≥0.5. Platelet recovery was recorded as the first of 7 consecutive days with a platelet count ≥20 K/μL without transfusion. Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS), and cumulative incidence functions were used to estimate rates of relapse, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A total of 64 patients received a cryopreserved CD34-selected graft. The median CD34 cell count before cryopreservation was 6.6 × 10/kg (range, 1.4 to 16.1 × 10/kg), and the median CD3 cell count was 2.0 × 10/kg (range, 0 to 21.1 × 10/kg). All patients were engrafted, at a median of 11 days post-HCT (range, 8 to 14 days). One patient had poor graft function in the setting of cytomegalovirus viremia, necessitating a CD34-selected boost on day +57. The median time to platelet recovery was 16 days (range, 13 to 99 days). The estimated 2-year OS was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58% to 83%) with cryopreserved grafts versus 62% (95% CI, 57% to 67%) with fresh grafts (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.35; P = .5). The estimated 2-year RFS in the 2 groups was 59% (95% CI, 48% to 74%) versus 56% (95% CI, 51% to 61%; HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.51; P > .9). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 29% (95% CI, 17% to 41%) versus 23% (95% CI, 19% to 27%; P = .16), and the cumulative incidence of NRM at 2 years was 17% (95% CI, 9% to 28%) versus 23% (95% CI, 19% to 28%; P = .24). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD by day +100 was 16% with cryopreserved grafts (95% CI, 8% to 26%) and 16% (95% CI, 13% to 20%; P = .97) with fresh grafts. Moderate to severe chronic GVHD by day +365 occurred in only 1 recipient of a cryopreserved graft (2%). Our data show that in patients with hematologic malignancies who received cryopreserved allogeneic CD34 HPCs, engraftment, GVHD, and survival outcomes were consistent with those seen in recipients of fresh allogeneic CD34 HPC grafts at our center. Our laboratory validation and clinical experience demonstrate the safety of our cryopreservation procedure for CD34-selected allografts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316317PMC
August 2021

Fecal microbiota diversity disruption and clinical outcomes after auto-HCT: a multicenter observational study.

Blood 2021 03;137(11):1527-1537

Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

We previously described clinically relevant reductions in fecal microbiota diversity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Recipients of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous HCT (auto-HCT) incur similar antibiotic exposures and nutritional alterations. To characterize the fecal microbiota in the auto-HCT population, we analyzed 1161 fecal samples collected from 534 adult recipients of auto-HCT for lymphoma, myeloma, and amyloidosis in an observational study conducted at 2 transplantation centers in the United States. By using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing, we assessed fecal microbiota composition and diversity, as measured by the inverse Simpson index. At both centers, the diversity of early pretransplant fecal microbiota was lower in patients than in healthy controls and decreased further during the course of transplantation. Loss of diversity and domination by specific bacterial taxa occurred during auto-HCT in patterns similar to those with allo-HCT. Above-median fecal intestinal diversity in the periengraftment period was associated with decreased risk of death or progression (progression-free survival hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.82; P = .008), adjusting for disease and disease status. This suggests that further investigation into the health of the intestinal microbiota in auto-HCT patients and posttransplant outcomes should be undertaken.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976512PMC
March 2021

Interplay between chromosomal alterations and gene mutations shapes the evolutionary trajectory of clonal hematopoiesis.

Nat Commun 2021 01 12;12(1):338. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Stably acquired mutations in hematopoietic cells represent substrates of selection that may lead to clonal hematopoiesis (CH), a common state in cancer patients that is associated with a heightened risk of leukemia development. Owing to technical and sample size limitations, most CH studies have characterized gene mutations or mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) individually. Here we leverage peripheral blood sequencing data from 32,442 cancer patients to jointly characterize gene mutations (n = 14,789) and mCAs (n = 383) in CH. Recurrent composite genotypes resembling known genetic interactions in leukemia genomes underlie 23% of all detected autosomal alterations, indicating that these selection mechanisms are operative early in clonal evolution. CH with composite genotypes defines a patient group at high risk of leukemia progression (3-year cumulative incidence 14.6%, CI: 7-22%). Multivariable analysis identifies mCA as an independent risk factor for leukemia development (HR = 14, 95% CI: 6-33, P < 0.001). Our results suggest that mCA should be considered in conjunction with gene mutations in the surveillance of patients at risk of hematologic neoplasms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20565-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804935PMC
January 2021

Concordance probability as a meaningful contrast across disparate survival times.

Stat Methods Med Res 2021 03 9;30(3):816-825. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics 5803Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY, USA.

The performance of time-to-event models is frequently assessed in part by estimating the concordance probability, which evaluates the probabilistic pairwise ordering of the model-based risk scores and survival times. The standard definition of this probability conditions on any survival time pair ordering, irrespective of whether the times are meaningfully separated. Inclusion of survival times that would be deemed clinically similar attenuates the concordance and moves the estimate away from the contrast-of-interest: comparing the risk scores between individuals with disparate survival times. In this manuscript, we propose a concordance definition and corresponding method to estimate the probability conditional on survival times being separated by at least a minimum difference. The proposed estimate requires direct input from the analyst to identify a separable survival region and, in doing so, is analogous to the clinically defined subgroups used for binary outcome area under the curve estimates. The method is illustrated in two cancer examples: a prognostic score in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and two biomarkers in metastatic prostate cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0962280220973694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462660PMC
March 2021

High progression-free survival after intermediate intensity double unit cord blood transplantation in adults.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(23):6064-6076

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Cord blood transplantation (CBT) after high intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning has limitations. We investigated cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil-based intermediate intensity (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m2, thiotepa 10 mg/kg, total body irradiation 400 cGy) unmanipulated double-unit CBT (dCBT) with prioritization of unit quality and CD34+ cell dose in graft selection. Ninety adults (median age, 47 years [range, 21-63]; median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index, 2 [range, 0-8]; 61 [68%] acute leukemia) received double-unit grafts (median CD34+ cell dose, 1.3 × 105/kg per unit [range, 0.2-8.3]; median donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match, 5/8 [range 3-7/8]). The cumulative incidences of sustained CB engraftment, day 180 grade III-IV acute, and 3-year chronic graft-versus-host disease were 99%, 24%, and 7%, respectively. Three-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse incidences were 15% and 9%, respectively. Three-year overall survival (OS) is 82%, and progression-free survival (PFS) is 76%. Younger age and higher engrafting unit CD34+ cell dose both improved TRM and OS, although neither impacted PFS. Engrafting unit-recipient HLA match was not associated with any outcome with a 3-year PFS of 79% in 39 patients engrafting with 3-4/8 HLA-matched units. In 52 remission acute leukemia patients, there was no association between minimal residual disease (MRD) and 3-year PFS: MRD negative of 88% vs MRD positive of 77% (P = .375). Intermediate intensity dCBT is associated with high PFS. Use of highly HLA mismatched and unmanipulated grafts permits wide application of this therapy, and the low relapse rates support robust graft-versus-leukemia effects even in patients with MRD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724901PMC
December 2020

Genomic profiling identifies somatic mutations predicting thromboembolic risk in patients with solid tumors.

Blood 2021 04;137(15):2103-2113

Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Department of Medicine.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with cancer (CAT) is a well-described complication of cancer and a leading cause of death in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess potential associations of molecular signatures with CAT, including tumor-specific mutations and the presence of clonal hematopoiesis. We analyzed deep-coverage targeted DNA-sequencing data of >14 000 solid tumor samples using the Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets platform to identify somatic alterations associated with VTE. End point was defined as the first instance of cancer-associated pulmonary embolism and/or proximal/distal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards regression was used, adjusting for pertinent clinical covariates. Of 11 695 evaluable individuals, 72% had metastatic disease at time of analysis. Tumor-specific mutations in KRAS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.64; adjusted P = .08), STK11 (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.55-2.89; adjusted P < .001), KEAP1 (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.21-2.79; adjusted P = .07), CTNNB1 (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.15-2.60; adjusted P = .09), CDKN2B (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13-1.85; adjusted P = .07), and MET (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.15-2.92; adjusted P = .09) were associated with a significantly increased risk of CAT independent of tumor type. Mutations in SETD2 were associated with a decreased risk of CAT (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.16-0.79; adjusted P = .09). The presence of clonal hematopoiesis was not associated with an increased VTE rate. This is the first large-scale analysis to elucidate tumor-specific genomic events associated with CAT. Somatic tumor mutations of STK11, KRAS, CTNNB1, KEAP1, CDKN2B, and MET were associated with an increased risk of VTE in patients with solid tumors. Further analysis is needed to validate these findings and identify additional molecular signatures unique to individual tumor types.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057259PMC
April 2021

Cancer therapy shapes the fitness landscape of clonal hematopoiesis.

Nat Genet 2020 11 26;52(11):1219-1226. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Acquired mutations are pervasive across normal tissues. However, understanding of the processes that drive transformation of certain clones to cancer is limited. Here we study this phenomenon in the context of clonal hematopoiesis (CH) and the development of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (tMNs). We find that mutations are selected differentially based on exposures. Mutations in ASXL1 are enriched in current or former smokers, whereas cancer therapy with radiation, platinum and topoisomerase II inhibitors preferentially selects for mutations in DNA damage response genes (TP53, PPM1D, CHEK2). Sequential sampling provides definitive evidence that DNA damage response clones outcompete other clones when exposed to certain therapies. Among cases in which CH was previously detected, the CH mutation was present at tMN diagnosis. We identify the molecular characteristics of CH that increase risk of tMN. The increasing implementation of clinical sequencing at diagnosis provides an opportunity to identify patients at risk of tMN for prevention strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00710-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891089PMC
November 2020

Pediatric-inspired chemotherapy incorporating pegaspargase is safe and results in high rates of minimal residual disease negativity in adults up to age 60 with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Haematologica 2021 08 1;106(8):2086-2094. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Leukemia Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Center for Cell Engineering, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York.

Administration of pediatric-inspired chemotherapy to adults up to age 60 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is challenging in part due to toxicities of asparaginase as well as myelosuppression. We conducted a multicenter phase II clinical trial (NCT01920737) investigating a pediatric-inspired regimen, based on the augmented arm of the Children's Cancer Group 1882 protocol, incorporating 6 doses of pegaspargase 2000 IU/m2, rationally synchronized to avoid overlapping toxicity with other agents. We treated 39 adults ages 20-60 years (median, 38 years) with newly-diagnosed ALL (n=31) or lymphoblastic lymphoma (n=8). Grade 3-4 hyperbilirubinemia occurred frequently and at higher rates in patients 40-60 (n=18) vs 18-39 (n=21) years (44 vs 10%, p=0.025). However, 8/9 patients re-challenged with pegaspargase did not experience recurrent grade 3-4 hyperbilirubinemia. Grade 3-4 hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia were common (each 59%). Asparaginase activity at 7-days post-infusion reflected levels associated with adequate asparagine depletion, even among those with antibodies to pegaspargase. Complete response (CR)/CR with incomplete hematologic recovery was observed post-induction in 38/39 (97%) patients. Among patients with ALL, rates of MRD negativity by multiparameter flow cytometry were 33% and 83% following Induction Phase I and Phase II, respectively. Event-free and overall survival at 3 years (67.8 and 76.4%) compare favorably to outcomes observed in other series. These results demonstrate pegaspargase can be administered in the context of intensive multi-agent chemotherapy to adults age ≤60 with manageable toxicity. This regimen may serve as an effective backbone into which novel agents may be incorporated in future frontline studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.251686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327717PMC
August 2021

Letermovir for Prevention of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Haploidentical and Mismatched Adult Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 01 11;27(1):85.e1-85.e6. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is serious viral infection in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients. November 2017, the novel CMV DNA terminase complex inhibitor letermovir was approved for prophylaxis of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive allo-HCT recipients. Here we sought to determine the effectiveness of letermovir in preventing CMV infection in CMV-seropositive patients undergoing haploidentical or mismatched adult unrelated donor allo-HCT using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus host-disease prophylaxis. Sixty-four patients underwent transplantation between 2014 and 2019, of whom 32 received letermovir and 32 did not receive letermovir. The day 180 cumulative incidence of CMV infection requiring therapy was 45.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.7% to 57.1%) in the entire cohort, 68.8% (95% CI, 48.9% to 82.2%) in the patients who did not receive letermovir, and 21.9% (95% CI, 9.5% to 37.6%; P < .001) in patients who received letermovir. Adjusting for regimen intensity, disease histology, and age, the hazard ratio for CMV infection was .19 (95% CI, .08 to .47; P < .001) in patients who received primary prophylaxis with letermovir. The 1-year cumulative incidence of treatment- related mortality was similar between patients with and without letermovir treatment (16.9% versus 18.9%), as was overall survival (64.0% versus 49.0%). Persistent CMV infection requiring >28 days of therapy was more common in patients who did not receive letermovir (31.2% versus 6.2%; P = .02). In summary, letermovir was effective in preventing CMV infection in this high-risk population of HLA-mismatched allo-HCT recipients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441845PMC
January 2021

Favorable outcomes of COVID-19 in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation.

J Clin Invest 2020 12;130(12):6656-6667

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

BACKGROUNDUnderstanding outcomes and immunologic characteristics of cellular therapy recipients with SARS-CoV-2 is critical to performing these potentially life-saving therapies in the COVID-19 era. In this study of recipients of allogeneic (Allo) and autologous (Auto) hematopoietic cell transplant and CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we aimed to identify clinical variables associated with COVID-19 severity and assess lymphocyte populations.METHODSWe retrospectively investigated patients diagnosed between March 15, 2020, and May 7, 2020. In a subset of patients, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, quantitative real-time PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody status were available.RESULTSWe identified 77 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who were recipients of cellular therapy (Allo, 35; Auto, 37; CAR T, 5; median time from cellular therapy, 782 days; IQR, 354-1611 days). Overall survival at 30 days was 78%. Clinical variables significantly associated with the composite endpoint of nonrebreather or higher oxygen requirement and death (n events = 25 of 77) included number of comorbidities (HR 5.41, P = 0.004), infiltrates (HR 3.08, P = 0.032), and neutropenia (HR 1.15, P = 0.04). Worsening graft-versus-host disease was not identified among Allo recipients. Immune profiling revealed reductions and rapid recovery in lymphocyte populations across lymphocyte subsets. Antibody responses were seen in a subset of patients.CONCLUSIONIn this series of Allo, Auto, and CAR T recipients, we report overall favorable clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 without active malignancy and provide preliminary insights into the lymphocyte populations that are key for the antiviral response and immune reconstitution.FUNDINGNIH grant P01 CA23766 and NIH/National Cancer Institute grant P30 CA008748.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI141777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685738PMC
December 2020

Hematopoietic recovery in patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for hematologic malignancies.

Blood Adv 2020 08;4(15):3776-3787

Department of Medicine and.

Factors contributing to hematopoietic recovery following chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy have not been well studied. In an analysis of 83 patients with hematologic malignancies treated with CAR T-cell therapy, we describe patterns of hematopoietic recovery and evaluate potentially associated factors. We included patients who received axicabtagene ciloleucel (n = 30) or tisagenlecleucel (n = 10) for B-cell lymphoma, CD19-28z CAR T therapy for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (NCT01044069; n = 37), or B-cell maturation antigen targeting CAR T cells for multiple myeloma (NCT03070327; n = 6). Patients treated with CAR T cells who had not progressed, died, or received additional chemotherapy had "recovered" (per definition in Materials and methods section) hemoglobin, platelet, neutrophil, and white blood cell counts at rates of 61%, 51%, 33%, and 28% at month 1 postinfusion and 93%, 90%, 80%, and 59% at month 3 postinfusion, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that increasing grade of immune effector cell-associated neurological syndrome (ICANS), baseline cytopenias, CAR construct, and higher peak C-reactive protein or ferritin levels were statistically significantly associated with a lower likelihood of complete count recovery at 1 month; a similar trend was seen for cytokine release syndrome (CRS). After adjustment for baseline cytopenia and CAR construct, grade ≥3 CRS or ICANS remained significantly associated with the absence of complete count recovery at 1 month. Higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and macrophage-derived chemokines, although not statistically significant, were seen patients without complete count recovery at 1 month. This remains to be studied further in larger prospective studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7422135PMC
August 2020

Infection during the first year in patients treated with CD19 CAR T cells for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Blood Cancer J 2020 08 5;10(8):79. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is an effective treatment for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In addition to cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity (ICANS), B cell aplasia and hypogammaglobulinemia are common toxicities predisposing these patients to infections. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL treated with FDA-approved CD19 CAR T cells and report the incidence, risk factors, and management of infections during the first year after treatment. A total of 101 infectious events were observed, including 25 mild, 51 moderate, 23 severe, 1 life-threatening, and 1 fatal infection. Bacteria were the most common causative pathogens. The cumulative incidence of overall, bacterial, severe bacterial, viral, and fungal infection at 1 year were 63.3%, 57.2%, 29.6%, 44.7%, and 4%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, the use of systemic corticosteroids for the management of CRS or ICANS was associated with an increased risk of infections and prolonged admission. Impaired performance status and history of infections within 30 days before CAR T cell therapy was a risk factor for severe bacterial infection. In conclusion, infections were common within the first 60 days after CAR T cell therapy, however, they were not associated with an increased risk of death.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00346-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405315PMC
August 2020

Implications of TP53 allelic state for genome stability, clinical presentation and outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes.

Nat Med 2020 10 3;26(10):1549-1556. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Hematology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

Tumor protein p53 (TP53) is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer. In patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), TP53 mutations are associated with high-risk disease, rapid transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), resistance to conventional therapies and dismal outcomes. Consistent with the tumor-suppressive role of TP53, patients harbor both mono- and biallelic mutations. However, the biological and clinical implications of TP53 allelic state have not been fully investigated in MDS or any other cancer type. We analyzed 3,324 patients with MDS for TP53 mutations and allelic imbalances and delineated two subsets of patients with distinct phenotypes and outcomes. One-third of TP53-mutated patients had monoallelic mutations whereas two-thirds had multiple hits (multi-hit) consistent with biallelic targeting. Established associations with complex karyotype, few co-occurring mutations, high-risk presentation and poor outcomes were specific to multi-hit patients only. TP53 multi-hit state predicted risk of death and leukemic transformation independently of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Surprisingly, monoallelic patients did not differ from TP53 wild-type patients in outcomes and response to therapy. This study shows that consideration of TP53 allelic state is critical for diagnostic and prognostic precision in MDS as well as in future correlative studies of treatment response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1008-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381722PMC
October 2020

Measuring the temporal prognostic utility of a baseline risk score.

Lifetime Data Anal 2020 10 24;26(4):856-871. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

In the time-to-event setting, the concordance probability assesses the relative level of agreement between a model-based risk score and the survival time of a patient. While it provides a measure of discrimination over the entire follow-up period of a study, the probability does not provide information on the longitudinal durability of a baseline risk score. It is possible that a baseline risk model is able to segregate short-term from long-term survivors but unable to maintain its discriminatory strength later in the follow-up period. As a consequence, this would motivate clinicians to re-evaluate the risk score longitudinally. This longitudinal re-evaluation may not, however, be feasible in many scenarios since a single baseline evaluation may be the only data collectible due to treatment or other clinical or ethical reasons. In these scenarios, an attenuation of the discriminatory power of the patient risk score over time would indicate decreased clinical utility and call into question whether this score should remain a prognostic tool at later time points. Working within the concordance probability paradigm, we propose a method to address this clinical scenario and evaluate the discriminatory power of a baseline derived risk score over time. The methodology is illustrated with two examples: a baseline risk score in colorectal cancer defined at the time of tumor resection, and for circulating tumor cells in metastatic prostate cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10985-020-09503-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445092PMC
October 2020

DLBCL patients treated with CD19 CAR T cells experience a high burden of organ toxicities but low nonrelapse mortality.

Blood Adv 2020 07;4(13):3024-3033

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome are the most notable toxicities of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. In addition, CAR T-cell-mediated toxicities can involve any organ system, with varied impacts on outcomes, depending on patient factors and involved organs. We performed detailed analysis of organ-specific toxicities and their association with outcomes in 60 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with CD19 CAR T cells by assessing all toxicities in organ-based groups during the first year posttreatment. We observed 539 grade ≥2 and 289 grade ≥3 toxicities. Common grade ≥3 toxicities included hematological, metabolic, infectious, and neurological complications, with corresponding 1-year cumulative incidence of 57.7%, 54.8%, 35.4%, and 18.3%, respectively. Patients with impaired performance status had a higher risk of grade ≥3 metabolic complications, whereas elevated lactate dehydrogenase was associated with higher risks of grade ≥3 neurological and pulmonary toxicities. CRS was associated with higher incidence of grade ≥3 metabolic, pulmonary, and neurologic complications. The 1-year nonrelapse mortality and overall survival were 1.7% and 69%, respectively. Only grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicities were associated with an increased mortality risk. In summary, toxicity burdens after CD19 CAR T-cell therapy were high and varied by organ systems. Most toxicities were manageable and were rarely associated with mortality. Our study emphasizes the importance of toxicity assessment, which could serve as a benchmark for further research to reduce symptom burdens and improve tolerability in patients treated with CAR T cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362382PMC
July 2020

Engraftment kinetics after transplantation of double unit cord blood grafts combined with haplo-identical CD34+ cells without antithymocyte globulin.

Leukemia 2021 03 18;35(3):850-862. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Double unit cord blood (dCB) transplantation (dCBT) is associated with high engraftment rates but delayed myeloid recovery. We investigated adding haplo-identical CD34+ cells to dCB grafts to facilitate early haplo-identical donor-derived neutrophil recovery (optimal bridging) prior to CB engraftment. Seventy-eight adults underwent myeloablation with cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil immunoprophylaxis (no antithymocyte globulin, ATG). CB units (median CD34+ dose 1.1 × 10/kg/unit) had a median 5/8 unit-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-match. Haplo-identical grafts had a median CD34+ dose of 5.2 × 10/kg. Of 77 evaluable patients, 75 had sustained CB engraftment that was mediated by a dominant unit and heralded by dominant unit-derived T cells. Optimal haplo-identical donor-derived myeloid bridging was observed in 34/77 (44%) patients (median recovery 12 days). Other engrafting patients had transient bridging with second nadir preceding CB engraftment (20/77 (26%), median first recovery 12 and second 26.5 days) or no bridge (21/77 (27%), median recovery 25 days). The 2 (3%) remaining patients had graft failure. Higher haplo-CD34+ dose and better dominant unit-haplo-CD34+ HLA-match significantly improved the likelihood of optimal bridging. Optimally bridged patients were discharged earlier (median 28 versus 36 days). ATG-free haplo-dCBT can speed neutrophil recovery but successful bridging is not guaranteed due to rapid haplo-identical graft rejection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0922-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746597PMC
March 2021

Pretransplantation Cognitive Dysfunction in Advanced-Age Hematologic Cancers: Predictors and Associated Outcomes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 08 21;26(8):1497-1504. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Patients presenting for treatment of hematologic cancers may be at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) due to advanced age, previous chemotherapy treatment, deconditioning, and fatigue. Cognitive dysfunction may affect treatment decision making, ability to recall or follow post-HSCT treatment recommendations and overall survival (OS). A total of 448 patients admitted for HSCT between 2011 and 2014 were administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) by occupational therapists during admission before transplantation, and 260 were reassessed following transplantation and before discharge. We examined select predictor variables, including age, Karnofsky Performance Status, sex, disease type, psychotropic medications, and select outcome variables, including OS, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Before transplantation, 36.4% of patients met criteria for cognitive dysfunction. Age was found to be a significant predictor, along with disease type (myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS], myeloproliferative disorder [MPD]). No significant association was found between cognitive dysfunction and OS or NRM. Longitudinal analysis from pretransplantation to post-transplantation indicated significant decline following HSCT. Notably, one-third of the study cohort showed cognitive dysfunction at hospital discharge. A significant proportion of HSCT candidates present with cognitive dysfunction, with older patients and those diagnosed with MDS and MPD at greatest risk in this cohort. Attention to cognitive dysfunction before transplantation may alert the treatment team to high-risk cases that require increased oversight, inclusion by caregivers, and referral to occupational therapy at discharge. Longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to clarify the specific effect of HSCT on cognitive dysfunction and the impact of cognitive dysfunction on transplantation outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7441498PMC
August 2020

Stem Cell Mobilization and Autograft Minimal Residual Disease Negativity with Novel Induction Regimens in Multiple Myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 08 19;26(8):1394-1401. Epub 2020 May 19.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York; The Rockefeller University, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the standard of care for transplantation-eligible patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (VRD) is the most common triplet regimen for newly diagnosed MM in the United States. Carfilzomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRD) has shown promising efficacy and may supplant VRD. We compared stem cell yields and autograft minimal residual disease (MRD)-negativity after VRD and KRD induction. Deeper responses (ie, very good partial response or better) were more common with KRD. Precollection bone marrow (BM) cellularity, interval from the end of induction therapy to start of stem cell collection, and method of stem cell mobilization were similar for the 2 cohorts. Days to complete collection was greater with KRD (2.2 days, versus 1.81 days with VRD), which more often required ≥3 days of apheresis. Precollection viable CD34 cell content was greater with VRD, as was collection yield (11.11 × 10, versus 9.19 × 10 with KRD). Collection failure (defined as <2 × 10 CD34 cells/kg) was more frequent with KRD (5.4% versus .7% with VRD). The difference in stem cell yield between VRD and KRD is associated with the degree of lenalidomide exposure. Age ≥70 years predicted poorer collection for both cohorts. Stem cell autograft purity/MRD-negativity was higher with KRD (81.4%, versus 57.1% with VRD). For both cohorts, MRD-negativity was attained in a larger fraction of autografts than in precollection BM. For patients proceeding to ASCT, the time to neutrophil/platelet engraftment was comparable in the 2 study arms. In summary, our data demonstrate that KRD induces deeper clinical responses and greater autograft purity than VRD without compromising stem cell yield or post-transplantation engraftment kinetics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371503PMC
August 2020

The microbe-derived short-chain fatty acids butyrate and propionate are associated with protection from chronic GVHD.

Blood 2020 07;136(1):130-136

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY.

Studies of the relationship between the gastrointestinal microbiota and outcomes in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have thus far largely focused on early complications, predominantly infection and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We examined the potential relationship of the microbiome with chronic GVHD (cGVHD) by analyzing stool and plasma samples collected late after allo-HCT using a case-control study design. We found lower circulating concentrations of the microbe-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) propionate and butyrate in day 100 plasma samples from patients who developed cGVHD, compared with those who remained free of this complication, in the initial case-control cohort of transplant patients and in a further cross-sectional cohort from an independent transplant center. An additional cross-sectional patient cohort from a third transplant center was analyzed; however, serum (rather than plasma) was available, and the differences in SCFAs observed in the plasma samples were not recapitulated. In sum, our findings from the primary case-control cohort and 1 of 2 cross-sectional cohorts explored suggest that the gastrointestinal microbiome may exert immunomodulatory effects in allo-HCT patients at least in part due to control of systemic concentrations of microbe-derived SCFAs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332893PMC
July 2020
-->