Publications by authors named "Sean G Buchanan"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Genomic Landscape of Intrinsic and Acquired Resistance to Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitors in Patients with Hormone Receptor-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Cancer Discov 2020 Aug 13;10(8):1174-1193. Epub 2020 May 13.

Center for Cancer Precision Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Mechanisms driving resistance to cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) in hormone receptor-positive (HR) breast cancer have not been clearly defined. Whole-exome sequencing of 59 tumors with CDK4/6i exposure revealed multiple candidate resistance mechanisms including loss, activating alterations in , and , and loss of estrogen receptor expression. experiments confirmed that these alterations conferred CDK4/6i resistance. Cancer cells cultured to resistance with CDK4/6i also acquired , or alterations, which conferred sensitivity to AURKA, ERK, or CHEK1 inhibition. Three of these activating alterations-in , and -have not, to our knowledge, been previously demonstrated as mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6i in breast cancer preclinically or in patient samples. Together, these eight mechanisms were present in 66% of resistant tumors profiled and may define therapeutic opportunities in patients. SIGNIFICANCE: We identified eight distinct mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6i present in 66% of resistant tumors profiled. Most of these have a therapeutic strategy to overcome or prevent resistance in these tumors. Taken together, these findings have critical implications related to the potential utility of precision-based approaches to overcome resistance in many patients with HR metastatic breast cancer..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-1390DOI Listing
August 2020

Combined inhibition of PIM and CDK4/6 suppresses both mTOR signaling and Rb phosphorylation and potentiates PI3K inhibition in cancer cells.

Oncotarget 2020 Apr 28;11(17):1478-1492. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Aberrant activation of mitogenic signaling pathways in cancer promotes growth and proliferation of cells by activating mTOR and S6 phosphorylation, and D-cyclin kinases and Rb phosphorylation, respectively. Correspondingly, inhibition of phosphorylation of both Rb and S6 is required for robust anti-tumor efficacy of drugs that inhibit cell signaling. The best-established mechanism of mTOR activation in cancer is via PI3K/Akt signaling, but mTOR activity can also be stimulated by CDK4 and PIM kinases. In this study, we show that the CDK4/6 inhibitor abemaciclib inhibits PIM kinase and S6 phosphorylation in cancer cells and concurrent inhibition of PIM, CDK4, and CDK6 suppresses both S6 and Rb phosphorylation. or mutations obviate the requirement for PIM kinase and circumvent the inhibition of S6 phosphorylation by abemaciclib. Combination with a PI3K inhibitor restored suppression of S6 phosphorylation and synergized to curtail cell growth. By combining abemaciclib with a PI3K inhibitor, three pathways (Akt, PIM, and CDK4) to mTOR activation are neutralized, suggesting a potential combination strategy for the treatment of -mutant ER+ breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197449PMC
April 2020

Aurora A-Selective Inhibitor LY3295668 Leads to Dominant Mitotic Arrest, Apoptosis in Cancer Cells, and Shows Potent Preclinical Antitumor Efficacy.

Mol Cancer Ther 2019 12 17;18(12):2207-2219. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Although Aurora A, B, and C kinases share high sequence similarity, especially within the kinase domain, they function distinctly in cell-cycle progression. Aurora A depletion primarily leads to mitotic spindle formation defects and consequently prometaphase arrest, whereas Aurora B/C inactivation primarily induces polyploidy from cytokinesis failure. Aurora B/C inactivation phenotypes are also epistatic to those of Aurora A, such that the concomitant inactivation of Aurora A and B, or all Aurora isoforms by nonisoform-selective Aurora inhibitors, demonstrates the Aurora B/C-dominant cytokinesis failure and polyploidy phenotypes. Several Aurora inhibitors are in clinical trials for T/B-cell lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, lung, and breast cancers. Here, we describe an Aurora A-selective inhibitor, LY3295668, which potently inhibits Aurora autophosphorylation and its kinase activity and , persistently arrests cancer cells in mitosis, and induces more profound apoptosis than Aurora B or Aurora A/B dual inhibitors without Aurora B inhibition-associated cytokinesis failure and aneuploidy. LY3295668 inhibits the growth of a broad panel of cancer cell lines, including small-cell lung and breast cancer cells. It demonstrates significant efficacy in small-cell lung cancer xenograft and patient-derived tumor preclinical models as a single agent and in combination with standard-of-care agents. LY3295668, as a highly Aurora A-selective inhibitor, may represent a preferred approach to the current pan-Aurora inhibitors as a cancer therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-18-0529DOI Listing
December 2019

Unraveling the genomic determinants of response to CDK4/6 inhibitors.

Oncotarget 2018 Dec 7;9(96):36822-36823. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Sean G. Buchanan: Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305152PMC
December 2018

Aurora A Kinase Inhibition Is Synthetic Lethal with Loss of the Tumor Suppressor Gene.

Cancer Discov 2019 02 29;9(2):248-263. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Loss-of-function mutations in the retinoblastoma gene are common in several treatment-refractory cancers such as small-cell lung cancer and triple-negative breast cancer. To identify drugs synthetic lethal with mutation (), we tested 36 cell-cycle inhibitors using a cancer cell panel profiling approach optimized to discern cytotoxic from cytostatic effects. Inhibitors of the Aurora kinases AURKA and AURKB showed the strongest association in this assay. LY3295668, an AURKA inhibitor with over 1,000-fold selectivity versus AURKB, is distinguished by minimal toxicity to bone marrow cells at concentrations active against cancer cells and leads to durable regression of tumor xenografts at exposures that are well tolerated in rodents. Genetic suppression screens identified enforcers of the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) as essential for LY3295668 cytotoxicity in RB1-deficient cancers and suggest a model in which a primed SAC creates a unique dependency on AURKA for mitotic exit and survival. SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of a synthetic lethal interaction between and AURKA inhibition, and the discovery of a drug that can be dosed continuously to achieve uninterrupted inhibition of AURKA kinase activity without myelosuppression, suggest a new approach for the treatment of RB1-deficient malignancies, including patients progressing on CDK4/6 inhibitors...
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0469DOI Listing
February 2019

Genomic Aberrations that Activate D-type Cyclins Are Associated with Enhanced Sensitivity to the CDK4 and CDK6 Inhibitor Abemaciclib.

Cancer Cell 2017 Dec;32(6):761-776.e6

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. Electronic address:

Most cancers preserve functional retinoblastoma (Rb) and may, therefore, respond to inhibition of D-cyclin-dependent Rb kinases, CDK4 and CDK6. To date, CDK4/6 inhibitors have shown promising clinical activity in breast cancer and lymphomas, but it is not clear which additional Rb-positive cancers might benefit from these agents. No systematic survey to compare relative sensitivities across tumor types and define molecular determinants of response has been described. We report a subset of cancers highly sensitive to CDK4/6 inhibition and characterized by various genomic aberrations known to elevate D-cyclin levels and describe a recurrent CCND1 3'UTR mutation associated with increased expression in endometrial cancer. The results suggest multiple additional classes of cancer that may benefit from CDK4/6-inhibiting drugs such as abemaciclib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2017.11.006DOI Listing
December 2017

The CDK4/6 inhibitor LY2835219 overcomes vemurafenib resistance resulting from MAPK reactivation and cyclin D1 upregulation.

Mol Cancer Ther 2014 Oct 13;13(10):2253-63. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Oncology Discovery Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana.

B-RAF selective inhibitors, including vemurafenib, were recently developed as effective therapies for melanoma patients with B-RAF V600E mutation. However, most patients treated with vemurafenib eventually develop resistance largely due to reactivation of MAPK signaling. Inhibitors of MAPK signaling, including MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib, failed to show significant clinical benefit in patients with acquired resistance to vemurafenib. Here, we describe that cell lines with acquired resistance to vemurafenib show reactivation of MAPK signaling and upregulation of cyclin D1 and are sensitive to inhibition of LY2835219, a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6. LY2835219 was demonstrated to inhibit growth of melanoma A375 tumor xenografts and delay tumor recurrence in combination with vemurafenib. Furthermore, we developed an in vivo vemurafenib-resistant model by continuous administration of vemurafenib in A375 xenografts. Consistently, we found that MAPK is reactivated and cyclin D1 is elevated in vemurafenib-resistant tumors, as well as in the resistant cell lines derived from these tumors. Importantly, LY2835219 exhibited tumor growth regression in a vemurafenib-resistant model. Mechanistic analysis revealed that LY2835219 induced apoptotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in vemurafenib-resistant cells whereas it primarily mediated cell-cycle G1 arrest in the parental cells. Similarly, RNAi-mediated knockdown of cyclin D1 induced significantly higher rate of apoptosis in the resistant cells than in parental cells, suggesting that elevated cyclin D1 activity is important for the survival of vemurafenib-resistant cells. Altogether, we propose that targeting cyclin D1-CDK4/6 signaling by LY2835219 is an effective strategy to overcome MAPK-mediated resistance to B-RAF inhibitors in B-RAF V600E melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-14-0257DOI Listing
October 2014

LY2801653 is an orally bioavailable multi-kinase inhibitor with potent activity against MET, MST1R, and other oncoproteins, and displays anti-tumor activities in mouse xenograft models.

Invest New Drugs 2013 Aug 29;31(4):833-44. Epub 2012 Dec 29.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, DC0522, 307 E McCarty Street, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

The HGF/MET signaling pathway regulates a wide variety of normal cellular functions that can be subverted to support neoplasia, including cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, scattering and motility, invasion, and angiogenesis. MET over-expression (with or without gene amplification), aberrant autocrine or paracrine ligand production, and missense MET mutations are mechanisms that lead to activation of the MET pathway in tumors and are associated with poor prognostic outcome. We report here preclinical development of a potent, orally bioavailable, small-molecule inhibitor LY2801653 targeting MET kinase. LY2801653 is a type-II ATP competitive, slow-off inhibitor of MET tyrosine kinase with a dissociation constant (Ki) of 2 nM, a pharmacodynamic residence time (Koff) of 0.00132 min(-1) and t1/2 of 525 min. LY2801653 demonstrated in vitro effects on MET pathway-dependent cell scattering and cell proliferation; in vivo anti-tumor effects in MET amplified (MKN45), MET autocrine (U-87MG, and KP4) and MET over-expressed (H441) xenograft models; and in vivo vessel normalization effects. LY2801653 also maintained potency against 13 MET variants, each bearing a single-point mutation. In subsequent nonclinical characterization, LY2801653 was found to have potent activity against several other receptor tyrosine oncokinases including MST1R, FLT3, AXL, MERTK, TEK, ROS1, DDR1/2 and against the serine/threonine kinases MKNK1/2. The potential value of MET and other inhibited targets within a number of malignancies (such as colon, bile ducts, and lung) is discussed. LY2801653 is currently in phase 1 clinical testing in patients with advanced cancer (trial I3O-MC-JSBA, NCT01285037).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-012-9912-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3717159PMC
August 2013

MET kinase inhibitor SGX523 synergizes with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib in a hepatocyte growth factor-dependent fashion to suppress carcinoma growth.

Cancer Res 2010 Sep 19;70(17):6880-90. Epub 2010 Jul 19.

Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.

The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-MET pathway supports several hallmark cancer traits, and it is frequently activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers (http://www.vai.org/met/). With the development of many cancer drugs targeting this pathway, there is a need for relevant in vivo model systems for preclinical evaluation of drug efficacy. Here, we show that production of the human HGF ligand in transgenic severe combined immunodeficient mice (hHGF(tg)-SCID mice) enhances the growth of many MET-expressing human carcinoma xenografts, including those derived from lung, breast, kidney, colon, stomach, and pancreas. In this model, the MET-specific small-molecule kinase inhibitor SGX523 partially inhibits the HGF-dependent growth of lung, breast, and pancreatic tumors. However, much greater growth suppression is achieved by combinatorial inhibition with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor erlotinib. Together, these results validate the hHGF(tg)-SCID mouse model for in vivo determination of MET sensitivity to drug inhibition. Our findings also indicate that simultaneously targeting the MET and EGFR pathways can provide synergistic inhibitory effects for the treatment of cancers in which both pathways are activated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0898DOI Listing
September 2010

SGX523 is an exquisitely selective, ATP-competitive inhibitor of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase with antitumor activity in vivo.

Mol Cancer Ther 2009 Dec;8(12):3181-90

SGX Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The MET receptor tyrosine kinase has emerged as an important target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Activation of MET by mutation or gene amplification has been linked to kidney, gastric, and lung cancers. In other cancers, such as glioblastoma, autocrine activation of MET has been demonstrated. Several classes of ATP-competitive inhibitor have been described, which inhibit MET but also other kinases. Here, we describe SGX523, a novel, ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor remarkable for its exquisite selectivity for MET. SGX523 potently inhibited MET with an IC50 of 4 nmol/L and is >1,000-fold selective versus the >200-fold selectivity of other protein kinases tested in biochemical assays. Crystallographic study revealed that SGX523 stabilizes MET in a unique inactive conformation that is inaccessible to other protein kinases, suggesting an explanation for the selectivity. SGX523 inhibited MET-mediated signaling, cell proliferation, and cell migration at nanomolar concentrations but had no effect on signaling dependent on other protein kinases, including the closely related RON, even at micromolar concentrations. SGX523 inhibition of MET in vivo was associated with the dose-dependent inhibition of growth of tumor xenografts derived from human glioblastoma and lung and gastric cancers, confirming the dependence of these tumors on MET catalytic activity. Our results show that SGX523 is the most selective inhibitor of MET catalytic activity described to date and is thus a useful tool to investigate the role of MET kinase in cancer without the confounding effects of promiscuous protein kinase inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0477DOI Listing
December 2009

A novel mode of Gleevec binding is revealed by the structure of spleen tyrosine kinase.

J Biol Chem 2004 Dec 26;279(53):55827-32. Epub 2004 Oct 26.

Structural GenomiX, Inc., 10505 Roselle Street, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase required for signaling from immunoreceptors in various hematopoietic cells. Phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues in the activation loop of the Syk kinase catalytic domain is necessary for signaling, a phenomenon typical of tyrosine kinase family members. Syk in vitro enzyme activity, however, does not depend on phosphorylation (activation loop tyrosine --> phenylalanine mutants retain catalytic activity). We have determined the x-ray structure of the unphosphorylated form of the kinase catalytic domain of Syk. The enzyme adopts a conformation of the activation loop typically seen only in activated, phosphorylated tyrosine kinases, explaining why Syk does not require phosphorylation for activation. We also demonstrate that Gleevec (STI-571, Imatinib) inhibits the isolated kinase domains of both unphosphorylated Syk and phosphorylated Abl with comparable potency. Gleevec binds Syk in a novel, compact cis-conformation that differs dramatically from the binding mode observed with unphosphorylated Abl, the more Gleevec-sensitive form of Abl. This finding suggests the existence of two distinct Gleevec binding modes: an extended, trans-conformation characteristic of tight binding to the inactive conformation of a protein kinase and a second compact, cis-conformation characteristic of weaker binding to the active conformation. Finally, the Syk-bound cis-conformation of Gleevec bears a striking resemblance to the rigid structure of the nonspecific, natural product kinase inhibitor staurosporine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M409792200DOI Listing
December 2004

Structure of nucleotide-binding domain 1 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

EMBO J 2004 Jan 18;23(2):282-93. Epub 2003 Dec 18.

Structural GenomiX Inc., San Diego, CA, USA.

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that functions as a chloride channel. Nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1), one of two ABC domains in CFTR, also contains sites for the predominant CF-causing mutation and, potentially, for regulatory phosphorylation. We have determined crystal structures for mouse NBD1 in unliganded, ADP- and ATP-bound states, with and without phosphorylation. This NBD1 differs from typical ABC domains in having added regulatory segments, a foreshortened subdomain interconnection, and an unusual nucleotide conformation. Moreover, isolated NBD1 has undetectable ATPase activity and its structure is essentially the same independent of ligand state. Phe508, which is commonly deleted in CF, is exposed at a putative NBD1-transmembrane interface. Our results are consistent with a CFTR mechanism, whereby channel gating occurs through ATP binding in an NBD1-NBD2 nucleotide sandwich that forms upon displacement of NBD1 regulatory segments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7600040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1271750PMC
January 2004

Structural studies of Salmonella typhimurium ArnB (PmrH) aminotransferase: a 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose lipopolysaccharide-modifying enzyme.

Structure 2002 Nov;10(11):1569-80

Structural Genomix, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Lipid A modification with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose confers on certain pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides, including those derived from the innate immune system. ArnB catalysis of amino group transfer from glutamic acid to the 4"-position of a UDP-linked ketopyranose molecule to form UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose represents a key step in the lipid A modification pathway. Structural and functional studies of the ArnB aminotransferase were undertaken by combining X-ray crystallography with biochemical analyses. High-resolution crystal structures were solved for two native forms and one covalently inhibited form of S. typhimurium ArnB. These structures permitted identification of key residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis, including a rarely observed nonprolyl cis peptide bond in the active site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0969-2126(02)00879-1DOI Listing
November 2002

Structural genomics: bridging functional genomics and structure-based drug design.

Authors:
Sean G Buchanan

Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 2002 May;5(3):367-81

Considerable advances in structural genomics have been witnessed in the last year. Several pilot studies have begun to report their initial results, and new centers have been funded to join the endeavor. The legacies of the genome sequencing efforts, namely high-throughput molecular biology and whole-organism genome sequences, have been integrated as front-end modules for structural genomics pipelines. Impressive advances have been made in NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. New methods in structural bioinformatics and computational chemistry have been published that provide the means to exploit the wealth of new information in drug discovery. Not surprisingly, the biopharmaceutical industry has been quick to recognize the benefits of these new developments and has begun to adopt them. This article reviews recent results from structural genomics initiatives and the potential applications of new information and technologies in the drug discovery process.
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May 2002