Publications by authors named "Scott T Weiss"

531 Publications

Seasonal Variation in miR-328-3p and let-7d-3p Are Associated With Seasonal Allergies and Asthma Symptoms in Children.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2021 Jul;13(4):576-588

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules of around 18-22 nucleotides that are key regulators of many biologic processes, particularly inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of circulating miRs from asthmatic children with seasonal variation in allergic inflammation and asthma symptoms.

Methods: We used available small RNA sequencing on blood serum from 398 children with mild-to-moderate asthma from the Childhood Asthma Management Program. We used seasonal asthma symptom data at the study baseline and allergen affection status from baseline skin prick tests as primary outcomes. We identified differentially expressed (DE) miRs between pairs of seasons using DESeq2. Regression analysis was used to identify associations between allergy status to specific seasonal allergens and DE miRs in 4 seasons and between seasonal asthma symptom data and DE miRs. We performed pathway enrichment analysis for target genes of the DE miRs using DAVID.

Results: After quality control, 398 samples underwent differential analysis between the 4 seasons. We found 52 unique miRs from a total of 81 DE miRs across seasons. Further investigation of the association between these miRs and sensitization to seasonal allergens using skin prick tests revealed that 26 unique miRs from a total of 38 miRs were significantly associated with a same-season allergen. Comparison between seasonal asthma symptom data revealed that 2 of these 26 miRs also had significant associations with asthma symptoms in the same seasons: miR-328-3p ( < 0.03) and let-7d-3p ( < 0.05). Enrichment analysis showed that the most enriched pathway clusters were Rap1, Ras, and MAPK signaling pathways.

Conclusion: Our results show seasonal variation in miR-328-3p and let-7d-3p are significantly associated with seasonal asthma symptoms and seasonal allergies. These indicate a potentially protective role for let-7d-3p and a deleterious role for miR-328-3p in asthmatics sensitized to mulberry. Further work will determine whether these miRs are drivers or results of the allergic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2021.13.4.576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255344PMC
July 2021

The Association of Prenatal Vitamin D Sufficiency With Aeroallergen Sensitization and Allergic Rhinitis in Early Childhood.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass; Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.

Background: The role of prenatal vitamin D sufficiency and supplementation in the development of childhood aeroallergen sensitization and allergic rhinitis remains uncertain.

Objective: To describe the association of prenatal vitamin D sufficiency with childhood allergic outcomes in participants of the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial, a randomized controlled trial of prenatal vitamin D supplementation.

Methods: We included 414 mother-offspring pairs with offspring aeroallergen sensitization data available at age 6 years in this analysis. We examined the association between prenatal vitamin D sufficiency status, based on vitamin D levels measured in the first and third trimesters, or vitamin D supplementation treatment assignment with the outcomes of aeroallergen sensitization, parent-reported clinical allergic rhinitis, parent-reported clinical allergic rhinitis with aeroallergen sensitization, food sensitization, any sensitization, eczema, and total IgE at ages 3 and 6 years.

Results: Compared with early and late insufficiency, early prenatal vitamin D insufficiency with late sufficiency was associated with reduced development of clinical allergic rhinitis with aeroallergen sensitization at 3 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.82; P = .02) and 6 years (aOR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29-0.98; P = .05). At 6 years, clinical allergic rhinitis with sensitization was significantly decreased in offspring whose mothers received high-dose vitamin D (aOR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.91; P = .02) compared with offspring whose mothers who received low-dose vitamin D. Associations of prenatal vitamin D with aeroallergen sensitization were strengthened among children who also developed asthma or who had a maternal history of atopy.

Conclusions: Among mothers with first-trimester vitamin D insufficiency, we detected a protective effect of third-trimester prenatal vitamin D sufficiency on the development of clinical allergic rhinitis with aeroallergen sensitization at ages 3 and 6 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2021.06.009DOI Listing
June 2021

Genome-wide association analysis of COVID-19 mortality risk in SARS-CoV-2 genomes identifies mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that colocalizes with P.1 of the Brazilian strain.

Genet Epidemiol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Biostatistics, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 mortality has been extensively studied in relation to host susceptibility. How sequence variations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome affect pathogenicity is poorly understood. Starting in October 2020, using the methodology of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we looked at the association between whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of the virus and COVID-19 mortality as a potential method of early identification of highly pathogenic strains to target for containment. Although continuously updating our analysis, in December 2020, we analyzed 7548 single-stranded SARS-CoV-2 genomes of COVID-19 patients in the GISAID database and associated variants with mortality using a logistic regression. In total, evaluating 29,891 sequenced loci of the viral genome for association with patient/host mortality, two loci, at 12,053 and 25,088 bp, achieved genome-wide significance (p values of 4.09e-09 and 4.41e-23, respectively), though only 25,088 bp remained significant in follow-up analyses. Our association findings were exclusively driven by the samples that were submitted from Brazil (p value of 4.90e-13 for 25,088 bp). The mutation frequency of 25,088 bp in the Brazilian samples on GISAID has rapidly increased from about 0.4 in October/December 2020 to 0.77 in March 2021. Although GWAS methodology is suitable for samples in which mutation frequencies varies between geographical regions, it cannot account for mutation frequencies that change rapidly overtime, rendering a GWAS follow-up analysis of the GISAID samples that have been submitted after December 2020 as invalid. The locus at 25,088 bp is located in the P.1 strain, which later (April 2021) became one of the distinguishing loci (precisely, substitution V1176F) of the Brazilian strain as defined by the Centers for Disease Control. Specifically, the mutations at 25,088 bp occur in the S2 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which plays a key role in viral entry of target host cells. Since the mutations alter amino acid coding sequences, they potentially imposing structural changes that could enhance viral infectivity and symptom severity. Our analysis suggests that GWAS methodology can provide suitable analysis tools for the real-time detection of new more transmissible and pathogenic viral strains in databases such as GISAID, though new approaches are needed to accommodate rapidly changing mutation frequencies over time, in the presence of simultaneously changing case/control ratios. Improvements of the associated metadata/patient information in terms of quality and availability will also be important to fully utilize the potential of GWAS methodology in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22421DOI Listing
June 2021

Hematopoietic mosaic chromosomal alterations increase the risk for diverse types of infection.

Nat Med 2021 Jun 7;27(6):1012-1024. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, Helsinki, Finland.

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01371-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245201PMC
June 2021

A prospective study of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in the first trimester of pregnancy and second trimester heavy metal levels.

Environ Res 2021 08 19;199:111351. Epub 2021 May 19.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Vitamin D facilitates the absorption of calcium but may also increase absorption of other metals; the literature is conflicting.

Objective: To examine whether 25OHD in the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with subsequent metals levels in the late second trimester of pregnancy.

Methods: We used data from a sample of women in the LIFECODES pregnancy cohort (N = 381). 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay in plasma samples drawn at 10 weeks of gestation. A panel of 17 metals and elements was measured in urine collected at 26 weeks of gestation. We used linear or logistic regression to estimate associations between 25OHD (dichotomous, linear, and in tertiles) and either urinary metal concentrations or the proportion of samples below the limit of detection, respectively. Multivariable models included urinary specific gravity, age, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, insurance type, gestational age, and season.

Results: After multivariable adjustment, low 25OHD was associated with a 47% increase in lead level, a 60% increase in tin level, and 1.58 times the odds of detectable tungsten. A 10 ng/ml increase in 25OHD was associated with a 12% decrease in tin and an 8% increase in molybdenum. While we had a small sample size, we found some evidence of effect modification by race. Women who reported their race as Black or were classified in the other race category, who also had low 25OHD, had 40% higher thallium than women with higher 25OHD and were more likely to have detectable beryllium and tungsten. These metals were not associated with low 25OHD in women who reported their race as White. Tin and lead were higher in women with low 25OHD in all race groups.

Discussion: In total, further research is warranted to determine if vitamin D levels alter metal levels, and to elucidate the shape of the association for each metal across a range of corresponding 25OHD levels, and longitudinally, across pregnancy. This is especially true for pregnant people as exposure to metals during pregnancy has health consequences for the fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308798PMC
August 2021

powerEQTL: An R package and shiny application for sample size and power calculation of bulk tissue and single-cell eQTL analysis.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Non-Clinical Efficacy & Safety, Biostatistics & Programming, Sanofi, Framingham, MA 01701.

Summary: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed thousands of genetic loci for common diseases. One of the main challenges in the post-GWAS era is to understand the causality of the genetic variants. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis is an effective way to address this question by examining the relationship between gene expression and genetic variation in a sufficiently powered cohort. However, it is frequently a challenge to determine the sample size at which a variant with a specific allele frequency will be detected to associate with gene expression with sufficient power. This is a particularly difficult task for single-cell RNAseq studies. Therefore, a user-friendly tool to estimate statistical power for eQTL analyses in both bulk tissue and single-cell data is needed. Here, we presented an R package called powerEQTL with flexible functions to estimate power, minimal sample size, or detectable minor allele frequency for both bulk tissue and single-cell eQTL analysis. A user-friendly, program-free web application is also provided, allowing users to calculate and visualize the parameters interactively.

Availability And Implementation: The powerEQTL R package source code and online tutorial are freely available at CRAN: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/powerEQTL/. The R shiny application is publicly hosted at https://bwhbioinfo.shinyapps.io/powerEQTL/.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btab385DOI Listing
May 2021

Pharmacogenetic Polygenic Risk Score for Bronchodilator Response in Children and Adolescents with Asthma: Proof-of-Concept.

J Pers Med 2021 Apr 20;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

PRecisiOn Medicine Translational Research (PROMoTeR) Center, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of response to asthma medications have primarily focused on Caucasian populations, with findings that may not be generalizable to minority populations. We derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for response to albuterol as measured by bronchodilator response (BDR), and examined the PRS in a cohort of Hispanic school-aged children with asthma. We leveraged a published GWAS of BDR to identify relevant genetic variants, and ranked the top variants according to their Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) scores. Variants with CADD scores greater than 10 were used to compute the PRS. Once we derived the PRS, we determined the association of the PRS with BDR in a cohort of Hispanic children with asthma (the Genetics of Asthma in Costa Rica Study (GACRS)) in adjusted linear regression models. Mean BDR in GACRS participants was5.6% with a standard deviation of 10.2%. We observed a 0.63% decrease in BDR in response to albuterol for a standard deviation increase in the PRS ( = 0.05). We also observed decreased odds of a BDR response at or above the 12% threshold for a one standard deviation increase in the PRS (OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.95)). Our findings show that combining variants from a pharmacogenetic GWAS into a PRS may be useful for predicting medication response in asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11040319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073919PMC
April 2021

Circulating MicroRNA: Incident Asthma Prediction and Vitamin D Effect Modification.

J Pers Med 2021 Apr 16;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Of children with recurrent wheezing in early childhood, approximately half go on to develop asthma. MicroRNAs have been described as excellent non-invasive biomarkers due to their prognostic utility. We hypothesized that circulating microRNAs can predict incident asthma and that that prediction might be modified by vitamin D. We selected 75 participants with recurrent wheezing at 3 years old from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). Plasma samples were collected at age 3 and sequenced for small RNA-Seq. The read counts were normalized and filtered by depth and coverage. Logistic regression was employed to associate miRNAs at age 3 with asthma status at age 5. While the overall effect of miRNA on asthma occurrence was weak, we identified 38 miRNAs with a significant interaction effect with vitamin D and 32 miRNAs with a significant main effect in the high vitamin D treatment group in VDAART. We validated the VDAART results in Project Viva for both the main effect and interaction effect. Meta-analysis was performed on both cohorts to obtain the combined effect and a logistic regression model was used to predict incident asthma at age 7 in Project Viva. Of the 23 overlapped miRNAs in the stratified and interaction analysis above, 9 miRNAs were replicated in Project Viva with strong effect size and remained in the meta-analysis of the two populations. The target genes of the 9 miRNAs were enriched for asthma-related Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathways. Using logistic regression, microRNA hsa-miR-574-5p had a good prognostic ability for incident asthma prognosis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of 0.83. In conclusion, miRNAs appear to be good biomarkers of incident asthma, but only when vitamin D level is considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11040307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073146PMC
April 2021

Commercially Available Blocking Oligonucleotides Effectively Suppress Unwanted Hemolysis-Related miRNAs in a Large Whole-Blood RNA Cohort.

J Mol Diagn 2021 06 17;23(6):671-682. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Mass General Brigham Personalized Medicine, Partners Healthcare, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

When sequencing small RNA libraries derived from whole blood, the most abundant microRNAs (miRs) detected are often miR-486-5p, miR-451a, and miR-92a-3p. These highly expressed erythropoietic miRs are released into the sample from red blood cell hemolysis. Next-generation sequencing of these unwanted miRs leads to a waste in sequencing cost and diminished detection of lowly expressed miRNAs, including many potential miRNA biomarkers. Previous work has developed a method to reduce targeted miRNAs using oligonucleotides that bind their target miRNA and prevent its ligation during library construction, although the extent to which oligonucleotides can be multiplexed and their effect on larger cohorts has not been thoroughly explored. We present a method for suppressing detection of three highly abundant heme miRs in a single multiplexed blocking oligonucleotide reaction. In a small paired-sample pilot (n = 8) and a large cohort of samples (n = 901), multiplexed oligos reduced detection of their target miRNAs by approximately 70%, allowing for an approximately 10-fold increase in reads mapping to nonheme miRs and increased detection of very lowly expressed miRs, with minimal off-target effects. By removing all three highly expressed erythropoietic miRNAs from next-generational sequencing libraries, this commercially available multiplexed blocking oligonucleotide method allows for greater detection of lowly expressed biomarkers, improving the efficacy, cost-efficiency, and sensitivity of biomarker studies and diagnostic tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2021.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207476PMC
June 2021

A System for Phenotype Harmonization in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Genotype-phenotype association studies often combine phenotype data from multiple studies to increase power. Harmonization of the data usually requires substantial effort due to heterogeneity in phenotype definitions, study design, data collection procedures, and data set organization. Here we describe a centralized system for phenotype harmonization that includes input from phenotype domain and study experts, quality control, documentation, reproducible results, and data sharing mechanisms. This system was developed for the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program, which is generating genomic and other omics data for >80 studies with extensive phenotype data. To date, 63 phenotypes have been harmonized across thousands of participants from up to 17 studies per phenotype (participants recruited 1948-2012). We discuss challenges in this undertaking and how they were addressed. The harmonized phenotype data and associated documentation have been submitted to National Institutes of Health data repositories for controlled-access by the scientific community. We also provide materials to facilitate future harmonization efforts by the community, which include (1) the code used to generate the 63 harmonized phenotypes, enabling others to reproduce, modify or extend these harmonizations to additional studies; and (2) results of labeling thousands of phenotype variables with controlled vocabulary terms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab115DOI Listing
April 2021

Systems Approaches to Treatment Response to Imatinib in Severe Asthma: A Pilot Study.

J Pers Med 2021 Mar 25;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

There is an acute need for advances in pharmacologic therapies and a better understanding of novel drug targets for severe asthma. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to improve forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) in a clinical trial of patients with severe asthma. In a pilot study, we applied systems biology approaches to epithelium gene expression from these clinical trial patients treated with imatinib to better understand lung function response with imatinib treatment. Bronchial brushings from ten imatinib-treated patient samples and 14 placebo-treated patient samples were analyzed. We used personalized perturbation profiles (PEEPs) to characterize gene expression patterns at the individual patient level. We found that strong responders-patients with greater than 20% increase in FEV-uniquely shared multiple downregulated mitochondrial-related pathways. In comparison, weak responders (5-10% FEV increase), and non-responders to imatinib shared none of these pathways. The use of PEEP highlights its potential for application as a systems biology tool to develop individual-level approaches to predicting disease phenotypes and response to treatment in populations needing innovative therapies. These results support a role for mitochondrial pathways in airflow limitation in severe asthma and as potential therapeutic targets in larger clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11040240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064376PMC
March 2021

Drug Repurposing to Treat Glucocorticoid Resistance in Asthma.

J Pers Med 2021 Mar 3;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92123, USA.

Corticosteroid resistance causes significant morbidity in asthma, and drug repurposing may identify timely and cost-effective adjunctive treatments for corticosteroid resistance. In 95 subjects from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) and 19 subjects from the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP), corticosteroid response was measured by the change in percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV). In each cohort, differential gene expression analysis was performed comparing poor (resistant) responders, defined as those with zero to negative change in FEV, to good responders, followed by Connectivity Map (CMap) analysis to identify inversely associated (i.e., negatively connected) drugs that reversed the gene expression profile of poor responders to resemble that of good responders. Mean connectivity scores weighted by sample size were calculated. The top five drug compound candidates underwent in vitro validation in NF-κB-based luciferase reporter A549 cells stimulated by IL-1β ± dexamethasone. In CAMP and SARP, 134 and 178 respective genes were differentially expressed in poor responders. CMap analysis identified 46 compounds in common across both cohorts with connectivity scores < -50. γ-linolenic acid, ampicillin, exemestane, brinzolamide, and INCA-6 were selected for functional validation. γ-linolenic acid, brinzolamide, and INCA-6 significantly reduced IL-1β induced luciferase activity and potentiated the anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone in A549/NF-κB-luc reporter cells. These results demonstrate how existing drugs, including γ-linolenic acid, brinzolamide, and INCA-6, may be repurposed to improve corticosteroid response in asthmatics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999884PMC
March 2021

Multi-omics analyses implicate EARS2 in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.

Allergy 2021 Aug 4;76(8):2602-2604. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14837DOI Listing
August 2021

Vitamin D and COVID-19: Can it be protective?

Authors:
Scott T Weiss

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 05;113(5):1079-1080

Harvard Medical School and Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083797PMC
May 2021

Robust, flexible, and scalable tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium across diverse ancestries.

Genetics 2021 May;218(1)

Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in data sets composed of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and to evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence data sets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false-positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently among the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/genetics/iyab044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128395PMC
May 2021

Maternal 17q21 genotype influences prenatal vitamin D effects on offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze.

Eur Respir J 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Prenatal vitamin D supplementation has been linked to reduced risk of early life asthma/recurrent wheeze. This protective effect appears to be influenced by variations in the 17q21 functional SNP rs12936231 of the child, which regulates the expression of and for which the high-risk CC-genotype is associated with early-onset asthma. However, this does not fully explain the differential effects of supplementation. We investigated the influence of maternal rs12936231 genotype variation on the protective effect of prenatal vitamin D supplementation against offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze.

Methods: We determined the rs12936231 genotype of mother-child pairs from two randomised-controlled trials: the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART, n=613) and the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 (COPSAC, n=563) to examine the effect of maternal genotype variation on offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze at age 0-3 years between groups who received high-dose prenatal vitamin D supplementation placebo.

Results: Offspring of mothers with low-risk GG-genotype or GC-genotype who received high-dose vitamin D supplementation had a significantly reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze when compared to the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.77; p<0.001 for VDAART and HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.92; p=0.021 for COPSAC), whereas no difference was observed among the offspring of mothers with high-risk CC-genotype (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.61-1.84; p=0.853 for VDAART and HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.54-2.28; p=0.785 for COPSAC).

Conclusion: Maternal 17q21 genotype has an important influence on the protective effects of prenatal vitamin D supplementation against offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02012-2020DOI Listing
March 2021

Tobacco use and age are associated with different morphologic features of anterior communicating artery aneurysms.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 26;11(1):4791. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

We present a cohort of patients with anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms to investigate morphological characteristics and clinical factors associated with rupture of the aneurysms. 505 patients with ACoA aneurysms were identified at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016, with available CT angiography (CTA). Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were performed to evaluate aneurysmal morphologic features, including location, projection, irregularity, the presence of daughter dome, height, height/width ratio, and relationships between surrounding vessels. Patient risk factors assessed included patient age, sex, tobacco use, alcohol use, and family history of aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Logistic regression was used to build a predictive ACoA score for rupture. Morphologic features associated with ruptured ACoA aneurysms were the presence of a daughter dome (OR 21.4, 95% CI 10.6-43.1), smaller neck diameter (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.71), larger aspect ratio (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.05-6.24), larger flow angle (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05), and smaller ipsilateral A2-ACoA angle (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-1.00). Tobacco use was predominantly associated with morphological factors intrinsic to the aneurysm that were associated with rupture while younger age was also associated with morphologic features extrinsic to the aneurysm that were associated with rupture. The ACoA score had good predictive capacity for rupture with AUC = 0.92 using the 0.632 bootstrap cross-validation for correction of overfitting bias. Ruptured ACoA aneurysms were associated with morphological features that are simple to assess using a simple scoring system. Tobacco use and younger age were predominantly associated with intrinsic and extrinsic morphological features characteristic of rupture, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84315-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910488PMC
February 2021

Sequencing of 53,831 diverse genomes from the NHLBI TOPMed Program.

Nature 2021 02 10;590(7845):290-299. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation server, and genomic and phenotypic data that are available through dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes). In the first 53,831 TOPMed samples, we detected more than 400 million single-nucleotide and insertion or deletion variants after alignment with the reference genome. Additional previously undescribed variants were detected through assembly of unmapped reads and customized analysis in highly variable loci. Among the more than 400 million detected variants, 97% have frequencies of less than 1% and 46% are singletons that are present in only one individual (53% among unrelated individuals). These rare variants provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history. The extensive catalogue of genetic variation in TOPMed studies provides unique opportunities for exploring the contributions of rare and noncoding sequence variants to phenotypic variation. Furthermore, combining TOPMed haplotypes with modern imputation methods improves the power and reach of genome-wide association studies to include variants down to a frequency of approximately 0.01%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03205-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875770PMC
February 2021

Characteristics and Mechanisms of a Sphingolipid-associated Childhood Asthma Endotype.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 04;203(7):853-863

Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital-University of Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark.

A link among sphingolipids, 17q21 genetic variants, and childhood asthma has been suggested, but the underlying mechanisms and characteristics of such an asthma endotype remain to be elucidated. To study the sphingolipid-associated childhood asthma endotype using multiomic data. We used untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry plasma metabolomic profiles at the ages of 6 months and 6 years from more than 500 children in the COPSAC (Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood) birth cohort focusing on sphingolipids, and we integrated the 17q21 genotype and nasal gene expression of SPT (serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase) (i.e., the rate-limiting enzyme in sphingolipid synthesis) in relation to asthma development and lung function traits from infancy until the age 6 years. Replication was sought in the independent VDAART (Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial) cohort. Lower concentrations of ceramides and sphingomyelins at the age of 6 months were associated with an increased risk of developing asthma before age 3, which was also observed in VDAART. At the age of 6 years, lower concentrations of key phosphosphingolipids (e.g., sphinganine-1-phosphate) were associated with increased airway resistance. This relationship was dependent on the 17q21 genotype and nasal SPT gene expression, with significant interactions occurring between the genotype and the phosphosphingolipid concentrations and between the genotype and SPT expression, in which lower phosphosphingolipid concentrations and reduced SPT expression were associated with increasing numbers of at-risk alleles. However, the findings did not pass the false discovery rate threshold of <0.05. This exploratory study suggests the existence of a childhood asthma endotype with early onset and increased airway resistance that is characterized by reduced sphingolipid concentrations, which are associated with 17q21 genetic variants and expression of the SPT enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202008-3206OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017574PMC
April 2021

Morphological variables associated with ruptured basilar tip aneurysms.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 28;11(1):2526. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Morphological factors of intracranial aneurysms and the surrounding vasculature could affect aneurysm rupture risk in a location specific manner. Our goal was to identify image-based morphological parameters that correlated with ruptured basilar tip aneurysms. Three-dimensional morphological parameters obtained from CT-angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) from 200 patients with basilar tip aneurysms diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016 were evaluated. We examined aneurysm wall irregularity, the presence of daughter domes, hypoplastic, aplastic or fetal PCoAs, vertebral dominance, maximum height, perpendicular height, width, neck diameter, aspect and size ratio, height/width ratio, and diameters and angles of surrounding parent and daughter vessels. Univariable and multivariable statistical analyses were performed to determine statistical significance. In multivariable analysis, presence of a daughter dome, aspect ratio, and larger flow angle were significantly associated with rupture status. We also introduced two new variables, diameter size ratio and parent-daughter angle ratio, which were both significantly inversely associated with ruptured basilar tip aneurysms. Notably, multivariable analyses also showed that larger diameter size ratio was associated with higher Hunt-Hess score while smaller flow angle was associated with higher Fisher grade. These easily measurable parameters, including a new parameter that is unlikely to be affected by the formation of the aneurysm, could aid in screening strategies in high-risk patients with basilar tip aneurysms. One should note, however, that the changes in parameters related to aneurysm morphology may be secondary to aneurysm rupture rather than causal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81364-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844275PMC
January 2021

Maternal Metabolome in Pregnancy and Childhood Asthma or Recurrent Wheeze in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial.

Metabolites 2021 Jan 23;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

The in utero environment during pregnancy has important implications for the developing health of the child. We aim to examine the potential impact of maternal metabolome at two different timepoints in pregnancy on offspring respiratory health in early life. In 685 mother-child pairs from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial, we assessed the prospective associations between maternal metabolites at both baseline (10-18 weeks gestation) and third trimester (32-38 weeks gestation) and the risk of child asthma or recurrent wheeze by age three using logistic regression models accounting for confounding factors. Subgroup analyses were performed by child sex. Among 632 metabolites, 19 (3.0%) and 62 (9.8%) from baseline and third trimester, respectively, were associated with the outcome (-value < 0.05). Coffee-related metabolites in the maternal metabolome appeared to be of particular importance. Caffeine, theophylline, trigonelline, quinate, and 3-hydroxypyridine sulfate were inversely associated with asthma risk at a minimum of one timepoint. Additional observations also highlight the roles of steroid and sphingolipid metabolites. Overall, there was a stronger relationship between the metabolome in later pregnancy and offspring asthma risk. Our results suggest that alterations in prenatal metabolites may act as drivers of the development of offspring asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11020065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910853PMC
January 2021

Low gestational vitamin D level and childhood asthma are related to impaired lung function in high-risk children.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 22;148(1):110-119.e9. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Golisano Children's Hospital, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.

Background: Lung function impairment in early life often persists into adulthood. Therefore, identifying risk factors for low childhood lung function is crucial.

Objective: We examined the effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level and childhood asthma phenotype on childhood lung function in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART).

Methods: The 25(OH)D level was measured at set time points in mothers during pregnancy and in children during early life. On the basis of parental reports, children were categorized into 3 clinical phenotypes: asymptomatic/infrequent wheeze, early transient wheeze, and asthma at age 6 years. Lung function was assessed with impulse oscillometry at ages 4, 5, and 6 years and with spirometry at ages 5 and 6 years.

Results: A total of 570 mother-child pairs were included in this post hoc analysis. Mean gestational 25(OH)D-level quartiles were negatively associated with child respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (R5) from age 4 to 6 years (β, -0.021 kPa/L/s; 95% CI, -0.035 to -0.007; P = .003) and positively associated with FEV (β, 0.018 L; 95% CI, 0.005-0.031; P = .008) and forced vital capacity (β, 0.022 L; 95% CI, 0.009-0.036; P = .002) from age 5 to 6 years. Children with asthma at age 6 years had lower lung function from age 4 to 6 years than the asymptomatic/infrequent wheeze group (β, 0.065 kPa/L/s; 95% CI, 0.028 to 0.102; P < .001 for R5 and β, -0.063 L; 95% CI, -0.099 to -0.028; P < .001 for FEV).

Conclusions: Low gestational 25(OH)D level and childhood asthma are important risk factors for decreased lung function in early childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.12.647DOI Listing
July 2021

Geometric variations associated with posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Background: Hemodynamic stress, conditioned by the morphology of the surrounding vasculature, plays an important role in aneurysm formation. Our goal was to identify image-based location-specific parameters that are associated with posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms.

Methods: Three-dimensional morphological parameters obtained from CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography from 187 patients with unilateral PCoA aneurysms, diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016, were evaluated. In order to control for genetic and clinical risk factors, we chose the contralateral unaffected PCoA as a control group. We examined diameters and angles of the surrounding parent and daughter vessels. Univariable and multivariable statistical analyses were performed to determine statistical significance. Sensitivity analyses with small aneurysms (≤5 mm) only and an unmatched analysis of 432 PCoA aneurysms and 197 control patients without PCoA aneurysms were also performed.

Results: In a multivariable conditional logistic regression model we showed that smaller diameter size ratio (OR 1.45×10, 95% CI 1.12×10 to 1.88×10) and larger daughter-daughter angle (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07) were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm presence after correcting for other variables. In subgroup analyses of small aneurysms (≤5 mm) and in an unmatched analysis the significance and direction of these results were preserved.

Conclusions: Larger daughter-daughter angles and smaller diameter size ratio are significantly associated with the presence of PCoA aneurysms. These simple parameters can be utilized to guide the risk assessment for the formation of PCoA aneurysms in high risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017062DOI Listing
January 2021

DNA methylation perturbations may link altered development and aging in the lung.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 01 19;13(2):1742-1764. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Fetal perturbations in DNA methylation during lung development may reveal insights into the enduring impacts on adult lung health and disease during aging that have not been explored altogether before. We studied the association between genome-wide DNA-methylation and post-conception age in fetal-lung (n=78, 42 exposed to in-utero-smoke (IUS)) tissue and chronological age in adult-lung tissue (n=160, 114 with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) using multi-variate linear regression models with covariate adjustment and tested for effect modification by phenotypes. Overlapping age-associations were evaluated for functional and tissue-specific enrichment using the Genotype-Tissue-Expression (GTEx) project. We identified 244 age-associated differentially methylated positions and 878 regions overlapping between fetal and adult-lung tissues. Hyper-methylated CpGs (96%) were enriched in transcription factor activity (FDR adjusted P=2x10) and implicated in developmental processes including embryonic organ morphogenesis, neurogenesis and growth delay. Hypo-methylated CpGs (2%) were enriched in oxido-reductase activity and VEGFA-VEGFR2 Signaling. Twenty-one age-by-sex and eleven age-by-pack-years interactions were statistically significant (FDR<0.05) in adult-lung tissue. DNA methylation in transcription factors during development in fetal lung recapitulates in adult-lung tissue with aging. These findings reveal molecular mechanisms and pathways that may link disrupted development in early-life and age-associated lung diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880367PMC
January 2021

High-dose vitamin D during pregnancy and pathway gene polymorphisms in prevention of offspring persistent wheeze.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 May 20;32(4):679-689. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest a protective effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy on offspring risk of persistent wheeze, but only in some individuals, which might be explained by variations in vitamin D pathway genes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation by maternal and offspring vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype and GC genotype, encoding vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), in two RCTs.

Methods: In the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC ) RCT, we analyzed the effect of high-dose vitamin D during pregnancy on the risk of persistent wheeze age 0-3 years by variants in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR (rs1544410, rs2228570, rs7975128, rs7975232) and GC (rs4588, rs7041). Replication was sought in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART).

Results: In COPSAC , VDR SNP rs1544410 influenced the effect of high-dose vitamin D: maternal P  = .049 and child P  = .001, with the largest effect in offspring from mothers with TT genotype: hazard ratio (95% CI), 0.26 (0.10-0.68), P = .006, and no effect among CT or CC genotypes: 0.85 (0.48-1.51), P = .58 and 0.94 (0.47-1.89), P = .87, respectively. However, these findings were not replicated in VDAART. There was no significant effect modification from maternal or offspring GC genotype in either COPSAC or VDAART: all P  ≥ .17.

Conclusions: We found that the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on offspring risk of persistent wheeze was significantly influenced by VDR genotype in the COPSAC RCT, but not VDAART, which may be due to population differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.13453DOI Listing
May 2021

A microbial metabolite remodels the gut-liver axis following bariatric surgery.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 03 11;29(3):408-424.e7. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for type 2 diabetes and is associated with changes in gut metabolites. Previous work uncovered a gut-restricted TGR5 agonist with anti-diabetic properties-cholic acid-7-sulfate (CA7S)-that is elevated following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Here, we elucidate a microbiome-dependent pathway by which SG increases CA7S production. We show that a microbial metabolite, lithocholic acid (LCA), is increased in murine portal veins post-SG and by activating the vitamin D receptor, induces hepatic mSult2A1/hSULT2A expression to drive CA7S production. An SG-induced shift in the microbiome increases gut expression of the bile acid transporters Asbt and Ostα, which in turn facilitate selective transport of LCA across the gut epithelium. Cecal microbiota transplant from SG animals is sufficient to recreate the pathway in germ-free (GF) animals. Activation of this gut-liver pathway leads to CA7S synthesis and GLP-1 secretion, causally connecting a microbial metabolite with the improvement of diabetic phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954942PMC
March 2021

Unsupervised cluster analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes reflects its geographic progression and identifies distinct genetic subgroups of SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Genet Epidemiol 2021 04 8;45(3):316-323. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Biostatistics, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Over 10,000 viral genome sequences of the SARS-CoV-2virus have been made readily available during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic since the initial genome sequence of the virus was released on the open access Virological website (http://virological.org/) early on January 11. We utilize the published data on the single stranded RNAs of 11,132 SARS-CoV-2 patients in the GISAID database, which contains fully or partially sequenced SARS-CoV-2 samples from laboratories around the world. Among many important research questions which are currently being investigated, one aspect pertains to the genetic characterization/classification of the virus. We analyze data on the nucleotide sequencing of the virus and geographic information of a subset of 7640 SARS-CoV-2 patients without missing entries that are available in the GISAID database. Instead of modeling the mutation rate, applying phylogenetic tree approaches, and so forth, we here utilize a model-free clustering approach that compares the viruses at a genome-wide level. We apply principal component analysis to a similarity matrix that compares all pairs of these SARS-CoV-2 nucleotide sequences at all loci simultaneously, using the Jaccard index. Our analysis results of the SARS-CoV-2 genome data illustrates the geographic and chronological progression of the virus, starting from the first cases that were observed in China to the current wave of cases in Europe and North America. This is in line with a phylogenetic analysis which we use to contrast our results. We also observe that, based on their sequence data, the SARS-CoV-2 viruses cluster in distinct genetic subgroups. It is the subject of ongoing research to examine whether the genetic subgroup could be related to diseases outcome and its potential implications for vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005425PMC
April 2021

COPD-associated miR-145-5p is downregulated in early-decline FEV trajectories in childhood asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 29;147(6):2181-2190. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Background: Many microRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Longitudinal lung function growth trajectories of children with asthma-normal growth, reduced growth (RG), early decline (ED), and RG with an ED (RGED)-have been observed, with RG and RGED associated with adverse outcomes, including COPD.

Objective: Our aim was to determine whether circulating miRNAs from an early age in children with asthma would be prognostic of reduced lung function growth patterns over the next 16 years.

Methods: We performed small RNA sequencing on sera from 492 children aged 5 to 12 years with mild-to-moderate asthma from the CAMP clinical trial, who were subsequently followed for 12 to 16 years. miRNAs were assessed for differential expression between previously assigned lung function growth patterns.

Results: We had 448 samples and 259 miRNAs for differential analysis. In a comparison of the normal and the most severe group (ie, normal growth compared with RGED), we found 1 strongly dysregulated miRNA, hsa-miR-145-5p (P < 8.01E-05). This miR was downregulated in both ED groups (ie, ED and RGED). We verified that miR-145-5p was strongly associated with airway smooth muscle cell growth in vitro.

Conclusion: Our results showed that miR-145-5p is associated with the ED patterns of lung function growth leading to COPD in children with asthma and additionally increases airway smooth muscle cell proliferation. This represents a significant extension of our understanding of the role of miR-145-5p in COPD and suggests that reduced expression of miR-145-5p is a risk factor for ED of long-term lung function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.11.048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184594PMC
June 2021