Publications by authors named "Scott T Leatherdale"

218 Publications

Weight control intentions and mental health among Canadian adolescents: a gender-based analysis of students in the COMPASS study.

Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can 2021 Apr;41(4):119-130

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Little is known about gender differences in associations between weight control intentions and mental health in adolescents. Our objective was to examine these associations in a large sample of adolescent girls and boys.

Methods: Using data from Year 6 (2017-18) of the COMPASS study (n = 57 324), we performed a series of multivariable linear regressions to examine whether weight control intentions (gain, lose, stay the same, no intention) were associated with depression, anxiety and self-concept, while adjusting for relevant covariates including body mass index. Models were stratified by self-reported gender.

Results: Compared to those with no intentions, girls who intended to lose weight reported higher symptoms of depression (B = 0.52, p < 0.001) and anxiety (B = 0.41, p < 0.001) and poorer self-concept (B = 2.06, p < 0.001). Girls who intended to gain weight also reported higher symptoms of depression (B = 0.54, p < 0.001), anxiety (B = 0.50, p < 0.001) and self-concept (B = 1.25, p < 0.001). Boys who intended to lose weight reported greater symptoms of depression (B = 0.26, p < 0.001) and anxiety (B = 0.33, p < 0.001) and poor self-concept (B = 1.10, p < 0.001). In boys, weight-gain intentions were associated with greater symptoms of anxiety (B = 0.17, p < 0.05), but not depression or self-concept.

Conclusion: Intentions to gain or lose weight were associated with symptoms of mental disorder and poor self-concept in our large sample of adolescents, and these relationships differed in boys and girls. These findings have important implications for school-based programs promoting healthy weight and body image.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.24095/hpcdp.41.4.01DOI Listing
April 2021

High School Intramural Participation and Substance Use: A Longitudinal Analysis of COMPASS Data.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Apr 6:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Background: There is an association between sports participation and substance use. However, there is some evidence that intramural sports in high school may not have the same effect. Therefore, the objective of this research was to examine the longitudinal associations between intramural participation in high school and substance use. This study used a three-year linked sample (2016-2018) of grade 9 and 10 (ages 13-17) Canadian high school students in the COMPASS (Cannabis use, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, Sedentary behavior) study (=7,845). Students reported their participation in intramurals over time (consistent, none, initiate, intermittent, and quit) and their substance use behaviors (binge drinking, cannabis use, cigarette use, and e-cigarette use). Mixed effects models were used. 42% of students did not participate in intramurals. For binge drinking, male students who never participated had lower odds (0.66 [0.47-0.93]) compared to consistent intramural participators. Female (3.50 [CI: 1.34-9.16]) and male students (1.97 [1.28-3.02]) who did not participate in any intramurals were more likely to use cannabis than consistent participators. Male students who did not participate were also more likely to use cigarettes (1.81 [1.05-3.12]). No associations were found between intramural participation and e-cigarette use. Intramural participation may be associated with increased binge drinking among male high school students. More promisingly, consistent participation in intramurals may be protective against cannabis use among male and female students and cigarette use among male students.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2021.1901932DOI Listing
April 2021

Trends in youth cannabis use across cannabis legalization: Data from the COMPASS prospective cohort study.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Jun 11;22:101351. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

University of Waterloo, School of Public Health and Health Systems, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

Canada legalized recreational cannabis use for adults on October 17, 2018 with decision-makers emphasising the need to reduce cannabis use among youth. We sought to characterise trends of youth cannabis use before and after cannabis legalization by relying on a quasi-experimental design evaluating cannabis use among high school students in Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, and Québec who participated in the COMPASS prospective cohort study. Overall trends in use were examined using a large repeat cross-sectional sample (n = 102,685) at two time points before legalization (16/17 and 17/18 school years) and one after (18/19 school year). Further differential changes in use among students affected by legalization were examined using three sequential four-year longitudinal cohorts (n = 5,400) of students as they progressed through high school. Youth cannabis use remains common with ever-use increasing from 30.5% in 2016/17 to 32.4% in 2018/19. In the repeat cross-sectional sample, the odds of ever use in the year following legalization were 1.05 times those of the preceding year (p = 0.0090). In the longitudinal sample, no significant differences in trends of cannabis use over time were found between cohorts for any of the three use frequency metrics. Therefore, it appears that cannabis legalization has not yet been followed by pronounced changes on youth cannabis use. High prevalence of youth cannabis use in this sample remains a concern. These data suggest that the Cannabis Act has not yet led to the reduction in youth cannabis use envisioned in its public health approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010707PMC
June 2021

A School-Level Examination of the Association between Programs and Policies and Physical Activity Outcomes among Females from the COMPASS Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 23;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

(1) The majority of Canadian youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and more female than male youth are falling short of these recommendations. School programs and policies are a viable strategy to improve youth physical activity. However, they may differentially affect female and male activity. This study aimed to examine school-level differences in physical activity outcomes among male and female students and to explore how school programs and policies associate with school-level physical activity outcomes among females. (2) This study used data from 136 schools participating in year 7 (Y7 2018-2019) of the COMPASS study. Data on school programs and policies and on student physical activity were collected. School-level means and percentages for outcomes were calculated and compared between males and females and the impact of physical activity programs and policies on female physical activity outcomes were examined. (3) More males met the guidelines, achieved more strength training days and physical activity minutes compared to females. The number of female varsity sports, community partnerships and fitness ambassadors were all positively and significantly associated with female physical activity. (4) Supportive physical activity environments fostered by offering varsity sports, establishing community partnerships and positive role models may promote physical activity among female youth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005194PMC
March 2021

Can We Reverse this Trend? Exploring Health and Risk Behaviours of Grade 12 Cohorts of Ontario Students from 2013-2019.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 18;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

Adolescents engage in multiple health risk behaviours that put them at risk of future chronic disease. By the time students graduate from secondary school, they may be engaging in behaviours that set them on a particular health trajectory. It is important to monitor the co-occurrence of health risk behaviours of cohorts of grade 12 students over time to highlight important areas for intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in health and risk behaviours over six waves among subsequent cohorts of grade twelve students from Ontario, Canada. A total of 44,740 grade 12 students participated in the COMPASS study across the six waves (2013/14 to 2018/19), and self-reported movement (physical activity, screen time, sleep), dietary (fruit and vegetables, breakfast), and substance use (smoking, vaping, binge drinking, and cannabis use) behaviours. Over 91.0% of students reported engaging in three or more health risk behaviours, with increases in the number of students reporting inadequate sleep, not eating breakfast on every school day, and vaping over time. Although modest, the wave 6 cohort reported slightly more risk behaviours compared with the wave 1 cohort, highlighting the importance of multidimensional health promotion strategies across multiple settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002993PMC
March 2021

Examining If Changes in the Type of School-Based Intramural Programs Affect Youth Physical Activity over Time: A Natural Experiment Evaluation.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 9;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

(1) School-based physical activity programs such as intramurals provide youth with inclusive opportunities to be physically active, yet we know little about how types of intramurals (e.g., team and individual sports) may contribute to youth MVPA. This research aims to evaluate how real-world changes in types of intramurals available in schools impact youth physical activity over time. (2) This study used three years of longitudinal school- and student-level data from Ontario schools participating in year 5 (2016-2017), year 6 (2017-2018) and year 7 (2018-2019) of the COMPASS study. Data on types of intramural programs from 55 schools were obtained, baseline demographic characteristics were measured and data on physical activity and sport participation were collected on a sample of 4417 students. Hierarchical linear mixed regression models were used to estimate how changes in the type of intramurals associate with youth MVPA over time. (3) Regardless of participation, adding individual and team intramurals was significantly and positively associated with female MVPA in Y6. (4) The indirect, but positive relationship between adding individual and team intramurals and female MVPA may be explained by other characteristics of the school environment that are conducive to female MVPA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967481PMC
March 2021

Evaluating the Impact of the Healthy Kids Community Challenge (HKCC) on Physical Activity of Older Youth.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 17;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.

(1) Background: The Healthy Kids Community Challenge (HKCC) was a community-based obesity prevention intervention funded by the Government of Ontario (Canada). (2) Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to examine the impact of the HKCC on physical activity (PA) outcomes using both repeat cross-sectional (T1 2014-2015, n = 31,548; T2 2015-2016, n = 31,457; and T3 2016-2017, n = 30,454) and longitudinal data (n = 3906) from the COMPASS study. Grade 9-12 students in HKCC communities were placed into one of three intervention groups [T2 data collection post-HKCC finishing (IG1), T2 data collection during HKCC (IG2), and T2 data collection pre-HKCC starting (IG3)], Ontario students in non-HKCC communities were Control Group 1 (CG1) and Alberta students were Control Group 2 (CG2). (3) Results: Repeat cross-sectional results show over time the HKCC had no significant impact on PA outcomes in any of the intervention groups. Longitudinal results show a significant decrease in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (IG2: -3.15 min/day) between T1 and T3 in IG2. (4) Conclusions: These results suggest the HKCC did not have an impact on improving PA outcomes among older youth in HKCC communities. Moving forward, there is a need to provide effective and sustainable interventions to promote PA among older youth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002468PMC
March 2021

Disciplinary Approaches for Cannabis Use Policy Violations in Canadian Secondary Schools.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 3;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, 1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.

The objective of this study was to examine the disciplinary approaches being used in secondary schools for student violations of school cannabis policies. Survey data from 134 Canadian secondary schools participating in the Cannabis use, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, and Sedentary behaviour (COMPASS) study were used from the school year immediately following cannabis legalization in Canada (2018/19). Despite all schools reporting always/sometimes using a progressive discipline approach, punitive consequences (suspension, alert police) remain prevalent as first-offence options, with fewer schools indicating supportive responses (counselling, cessation/educational programs). Schools were classified into disciplinary approach styles, with most schools using Authoritarian and Authoritative approaches, followed by Neglectful and Permissive/Supportive styles. Further support for schools boards in implementing progressive discipline and supportive approaches may be of benefit.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967611PMC
March 2021

A longitudinal examination of alcohol cessation and academic outcomes among a sample of Canadian secondary school students.

Addict Behav 2021 Jul 26;118:106882. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave, West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

Introduction: The negative effects of alcohol consumption on learning ability and intellectual development of youth may be recovered after cessation. This study explored to what extent reduction or complete cessation of alcohol consumption affects school performance of secondary school students.

Methods: Alcohol use was self-reported by 37,223 grade 9-12 students attending 89 secondary schools across Ontario (n = 79) and Alberta (n = 10), Canada, participating in the COMPASS study over four years (school years 2013-14 to 2016-17). Measures included past-year frequency of drinking and frequency of binge drinking. A first-order autoregressive multinomial logistic regression was used to establish the impact of reduction or cessation of alcohol use on school performance.

Results: During follow-up, 1465 (6.4%) reductions and 1903 (8.3%) cessations in alcohol consumption, and 1447 (10.1%) reductions and 2147 (14.9%) cessations of binge drinking were reported. Male students reported more cessation in both drinking (9.7% male vs 7.1% female) and binge drinking (15.6% male vs 14.4% female), though female students had higher rates of reductions. Students who quit or reduced their drinking or binge drinking were less likely to skip classes, leave their homework incomplete, or expect to get or to aspire to educational qualifications above a high school diploma compared to those who continued their alcohol use.

Conclusions: Aside from health benefits, reduction or cessation of alcohol use may improve students' academic rigor. Prioritising school-based alcohol prevention efforts may therefore be beneficial for aspects of academic performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106882DOI Listing
July 2021

Are closed campus policies associated with adolescent eating behaviours?

Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can 2021 Mar;41(3):73-84

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: The effectiveness of school nutrition regulations may be undermined by food environments surrounding schools. Given challenges in regulating external retail, some have recommended policies that ensure students are unable to leave school property during the day (closed campus policies; CCP). We aimed to examine whether CCP are associated with student eating behaviours.

Methods: We used student and school-administrator survey data from the 60 610 Grades 9 to 12 students and 134 Canadian secondary schools that participated in Year 7 (2018/19) of the COMPASS study. Multiple ordinal regression models tested school CCP as a predictor of weekday dietary behaviours (0-5 days), controlling for student-level (grade, sex, spending money, ethnicity) and school-level (urbanicity, province, area median household income, vending machines) covariates.

Results: CCP were reported by 16 schools. Students who attended CCP schools reported eating lunch purchased from fast food outlets or other restaurants and drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; soft drinks and sports drinks; sweetened coffee or tea drinks) on fewer weekdays, but consumed snacks from school vending machines on more weekdays, relative to students at open campus schools. No significant differences were observed in student reports of eating home-packed or school cafeteria lunches or snacks purchased off-campus.

Conclusion: CCP may help improve adolescent diets by reducing SSB and lunchtime fast food consumption on weekdays; however, students already purchasing food may shift from off-campus to within-school options, highlighting the importance of ensuring healthy school food environments and encouraging students to bring home-prepared lunches. Future studies using experimental longitudinal designs are needed to determine the effect of CCP on various health behaviours and outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.24095/hpcdp.41.3.02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011479PMC
March 2021

Steering clear: Traffic violations among emerging adults who engage in habitual or casual cannabis use.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 1;153:106059. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada. Electronic address:

While some research has shown that cannabis use can impair driving ability, evidence to the degree and impact of impairment are lacking. This study examined the association between habitual or casual cannabis use and past-year traffic violations among emerging adults (EAs). Data come from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. Respondents (n = 5630) were categorized as: early (15-19 y), middle (20-24 y), and late (25-29 y) EAs. Traffic violations were measured using self-report and cannabis use was measured using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The prevalence of traffic violations was higher for males (19.2 %) vs females (9.9 %) and middle (16.2 %) and late (19.4 %) EAs vs early (8.8 %) EAs. The odds of reporting traffic violations were higher for EAs who engaged in habitual [OR = 1.77 (1.17-2.67)] or casual [OR = 1.79 (1.27-2.51)] cannabis use when compared to non-users. Age moderated the association such that higher odds of traffic violations were reported in early EAs who were casual cannabis users and middle EAs who were habitual or casual cannabis users when compared to non-users. Use of other drugs was also a moderator-in the absence vs. presence of other drug use, odds of traffic violations were higher in those who engaged in either habitual or casual use of cannabis. When accounting for the moderating effects of age and drug use, habitual and casual cannabis use resulted in increased odds of a traffic violation. Future research is warranted to explore the robustness of our findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106059DOI Listing
April 2021

Use of additional nicotine replacement therapy by participants in a five-year follow-up of a tobacco cessation trial.

Addict Behav 2021 Jun 16;117:106875. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto M5S 2S1, Canada.

Introduction: Using data from an extended follow-up of a randomized trial of mailed nicotine patches, the current secondary analysis explores the continued level of interest in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as a means to promote tobacco cessation and whether the purchase of additional NRT was related to tobacco cessation.

Methods: Attempts were made to re-contact participants (N = 999) from a randomized trial of mailed nicotine patches to take part in a five-year follow-up. Those contacted were asked about their current smoking status, interest in free-of-charge NRT, and purchase of other NRT in the time since the 6-month follow-up.

Results: A total of 518 participants were successfully interviewed at the five-year time point. While 43.6% of these participants purchased additional NRT, this purchase was unrelated to success at tobacco cessation or to initial group randomization (received/did not received nicotine patches at baseline). Current smokers reported continued interest in receiving free-of charge NRT (77.2% were interested). Participants in the intervention group who reported using all of the nicotine patches they received at baseline (31.8%) were more likely to report purchasing additional NRT (54.9% versus 39.1%; p = .02) and to report not currently smoking at the five-year follow-up (46.2% versus 27.2%; p = .006) compared to those who used some or none of the nicotine patches mailed to them.

Conclusions: The present study found no consistent evidence that NRT is related to long-term success at tobacco cessation. Smokers remain interested in NRT as a means to help them quit smoking.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106875DOI Listing
June 2021

Multilevel Latent Class Profile Analysis: An Application to Stage-Sequential Patterns of Alcohol Use in a Sample of Canadian Youth.

Eval Health Prof 2021 Mar 29;44(1):50-60. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Statistics, 34973Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.

Recently, latent class analysis (LCA) and its variants have been proposed to identify subgroups of individuals who follow similar sequential patterns of latent class membership for longitudinal study. A primary assumption underlying the family of LCA is that individual observations are independent. In many applications, however, particularly in research on adolescent substance use, individuals are often dependent because of multilevel data structure, where the unit of observation (e.g., students) is nested in higher level units (e.g., schools). In this study, we propose multilevel latent class profile analysis (MLCPA), which will allow us to analyze the longitudinal data with a multilevel structure under the framework of LCA. We apply an MLCPA using data from the COMPASS study, a 9-year study funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Health Canada, in order to identify representative sequential drinking patterns of Canadian youth and investigate whether these sequential patterns vary across schools. The MLCPA identified three common student-level drinking behaviors: , , and . The sequence of drinking behaviors can be classified into one of three longitudinal sequential patterns: , , and . In addition, MLCPA uncovered two latent clusters ( and ) out of 64 schools in Ontario and Alberta based on the prevalences of sequential drinking patterns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163278721989547DOI Listing
March 2021

High school sport participation and substance use: A cross-sectional analysis of students from the COMPASS study.

Addict Behav Rep 2020 Dec 15;12:100298. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine the association between participation in school sports and substance use behaviors in both male and female high school students.

Methods: The current study used cross-sectional data from 60,601 students from Year 6 (2017-2018) of the COMPASS study. Students reported their school physical activity participation (none, intramurals only, varsity only, both) and past 30-day substance use (binge drinking, cannabis use, cigarette use, e-cigarette use). Hierarchical logistic regression models predicted the odds of substance use, by sex.

Results: 55% of students did not participate in any school sports and 32% reported substance use. Intramurals were negatively associated with cannabis use and cigarette use among all students and e-cigarette use among females. Varsity sports were associated with lower odds of cigarette use among all students and cannabis use among males. In contrast, participating in varsity sports was associated with increased odds of binge drinking and e-cigarette use among all students. Participating in both intramurals and varsity sports was associated with increased odds of binge drinking and e-cigarette use but with decreased odds of cannabis use and cigarette use.

Conclusions: Intramurals were found to be protective against cannabis use and cigarette use among all students and e-cigarette use among females. Although varsity sports were protective against cannabis and cigarette use, they were found to be a risk factor for binge drinking and e-cigarette use. Substance use prevention efforts should be a focus among school varsity sports teams, especially for binge drinking and e-cigarette use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7752659PMC
December 2020

Does social support moderate the association between hunger and mental health in youth? A gender-specific investigation from the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study.

Nutr J 2020 12 5;19(1):134. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Institute for Health and Social Policy and Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 1033 Avenue des Pins, Montreal, Quebec, H3A1A1, Canada.

Background: Youth who go hungry have poorer mental health than their counterparts - there are gender differences in this relationship. This study investigated the role of social support in the association between hunger and mental health among a nationally representative sample of youth in Canada in gender-specific analyses.

Methods: We used a probability-based sample of 21,750 youth in grades 6-10 who participated in the 2017-2018 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children. Self-report data were gathered on hunger, mental health (measured via the World Health Organization-5 well-being index) and five sources of support - peer, family and teacher support as well as the school climate and neighborhood support. We conducted adjusted, gender-specific, multilevel regression analyses assessing the association between mental health, social support and hunger.

Results: We found that youth who reported lower support were more likely to experience going to bed hungry (relative to never hungry) across all support factors. As for the social support factors, all the social support factors were associated with a higher mental health score, even after controlling for hunger. Despite these results our final set of models showed that our measures of social support did not alleviate the negative association between hunger and mental health. As for gender-specific findings, the negative association between hunger and a mental health was more pronounced among females relative to their male counterparts. We also found that certain social support factors (i.e., family, teacher and neighborhood support) were associated with a higher mental health score among females relative to males while controlling for hunger status.

Conclusions: We find that five social support factors are associated with a higher mental health score among ever hungry youth; however, social support did not overpower the negative association between hunger and mental health. Food insecurity is a challenge to address holistically; however, hungry youth who have high social support have higher odds of better mental health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00648-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719255PMC
December 2020

A cross-sectional examination of the association between co-ed and gender-specific school intramural programs and intramural participation among a sample of Canadian secondary school students.

Prev Med Rep 2020 Dec 26;20:101233. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Intramurals are an important part of the physical activity offerings in secondary schools; however, it is not well understood how co-ed and gender-specific intramural programs impact intramural participation among male and female students. Therefore, the objective of this research was to examine if the number of co-ed, male-only, and female-only intramurals offered at a school was associated with student participation in intramurals. A large sample of Canadian secondary school students (N = 59,370) completed the COMPASS survey in 2017-2018. School staff reported the number of co-ed, male-only, and female-only intramurals offered at each school. Students reported whether they participated in school intramurals. Hierarchical models were used to assess associations. Intramural participation was marginally higher among male students (36%) than female students (32%; p < 0.0001). Female students attending schools that offered female-only intramurals were 17% (OR 1.17 [95% CI: 1.05-1.30]) more likely to participate. The number of co-ed and male-only intramurals offered were not significantly associated with student participation. We found a positive association between offering female-only intramurals and female intramural participation, highlighting the importance of these programs for female students. Offering female-only intramurals may be a way for schools to improve participation and physical activity levels of female students. More research is needed on the impact of specific sports or activities on male and female student participation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2020.101233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680699PMC
December 2020

Targeting mailed nicotine patch distribution interventions to rural regions of Canada: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 23;20(1):1757. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 33 Ursula Franklin St, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2S1, Canada.

Background: Quitting smoking is the most effective way of reducing the risk of cancer among smokers. One way of helping people stop smoking is to provide them with free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT), such as when NRT is sent to people by postal mail as part of a mass distribution initiative. Our previous research indicated that there may be a substantial impact on increasing quit rates of a mailed NRT intervention in rural areas. The current research seeks to confirm this finding and to understand the social determinants of health driving these anticipated large effects.

Methods/design: Telephone numbers will be randomly selected from across rural regions of Canada in order to recruit adult smokers interested in completing a smoking survey and willing to be interviewed again in 6 months. The survey will ask participants about their smoking history, demographic characteristics, and a hypothetical question: would they be interested in receiving nicotine patches if they were provided to them free of charge? Half of the smokers interested in receiving nicotine patches will be selected by chance and offered the NRT package. The other half of smokers will not be offered the nicotine patches. In addition, the municipality where each participant lives will be identified and, once the relevant general population data becomes available, attempts will be made to link participant data to relevant municipal characteristics (e.g., smoking rates, availability of health services). Characteristics of the participants and the municipalities in which they live will be used to explain why the nicotine patch intervention may have a larger impact in some rural regions compared to others.

Discussion: The findings from the proposed RCT are timely and of high relevance as the distribution of nicotine patches has substantial potential to combat the public health problem of cigarette related cancer, other diseases, and premature death from tobacco use. Targeting such tobacco cessation initiatives to rural regions may substantially increase the impact of this intervention, helping to optimize the use of limited prevention resources while aiming to save the maximum number of lives.

Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04606797 , October, 27, 2020.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09810-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684960PMC
November 2020

Hit the chronic… physical activity: are cannabis associated mental health changes in adolescents attenuated by remaining active?

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Jan 5;56(1):141-152. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Purpose: High-frequency cannabis use in adolescents has been associated with adult mental illness. In contrast, physical activity has been demonstrated to benefit mental health status. The purpose of this study was to examine whether, within a 1-year prospective study design, changes in cannabis use frequency are associated with changes in mental health, and whether meeting physical activity guidelines moderates these associations.

Methods: COMPASS (2012-2021) is a hierarchical longitudinal health data survey from a rolling cohort of secondary school students across Canada; student-level mental health data linked from Years 5 (2016/17) and 6 (2017/18) were analysed (n = 3173, 12 schools). Multilevel conditional change regression models were used to assess associations between mental health scores change, cannabis use change and physical activity guideline adherence change after adjusting for covariates.

Results: Adopting at least weekly cannabis use was associated with increases in depressive and anxiety symptoms and decreases in psychosocial well-being. Maintaining physical activity guidelines across both years improved psychosocial well-being regardless of cannabis use frequency, and offset increases in depressive symptoms among individuals who adopted high frequency cannabis use. Physical activity adherence had no apparent relationship with anxiety symptoms.

Conclusion: Regardless of the sequence of events, adopting high frequency cannabis use may be a useful behavioural marker of current or future emotional distress, and the need for interventions to address mental health. Physical activity adherence may be one approach to minimizing potential changes in mental health associated with increasing cannabis use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-020-01900-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Environmental Factors of Youth Milk and Milk Alternative Consumption.

Am J Health Behav 2020 09;44(5):666-680

Assocoiate Professor, School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada).

The objective of this research was to determine the school and community characteristics associated with milk and milk alternative (MMA) consumption by Canadian youth. We analyzed self-reported data from 50,058 Canadian students participating in the 2017-2018 wave of the COMPASS survey. We used logistic and linear regression analyses to identify school- and community-level factors associated with students meeting the MMA guidelines, and factors associated with daily number of MMA servings consumed, respectively. Student-level factors were more strongly associated with MMA consumption than school- and community-level factors. Students who attended schools that provided staff with nutrition training consumed fewer daily servings of MMAs and were less likely to meet MMA guidelines. Students attending schools that received healthy eating grants were more likely to meet MMA guidelines, whereas students attending schools that sold flavored milk in their vending machines were less likely to meet MMA guidelines. Our findings suggest that student-level factors have a stronger association with MMA consumption than school or community factors. Additional research is needed to understand how factors associated with MMA consumption may influence behaviours over time, and how changes to Canada's food guide may impact youth eating habits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.44.5.10DOI Listing
September 2020

Are weight status and weight perception associated with academic performance among youth?

J Eat Disord 2020 26;8:52. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Health Sciences, Brock University, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Niagara Region, 1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1 Canada.

Background: Emerging evidence suggests perceptions of being overweight account for many of the psychosocial consequences commonly associated with obesity. Previous research suggests an obesity achievement gap, yet limited research has explored weight perception in association with academic performance. Moreover, underweight perceptions have typically been excluded from research. The current study examined how BMI classification and weight perception relate to academic performance in a large cohort of youth.

Methods: We used cross-sectional survey data from 61,866 grade 9-12 students attending the 122 Canadian schools that participated in Year 6 (2017/2018) of the COMPASS study. Mixed effect regression models were used to examine associations between students' BMI classification and weight perceptions and their math and English/French course grades. All models were stratified by sex and adjusted for sociodemographic covariates and school clustering.

Results: For English/French grades, males and females with overweight or underweight perceptions were less likely to achieve higher grades than their peers with perceptions of being at "about the right weight", controlling for BMI and covariates. For math grades, females with overweight perceptions, and all students with underweight perceptions, were less likely to achieve higher grades than their peers with "about the right weight" perceptions. All students with BMIs in the obesity range were less likely to report grades of 60% or higher than their peers with "normal-weight" BMIs, controlling for weight perception and covariates. Overweight BMIs were predictive of lower achievement in females for English/French grades, and in males for math grades, relative to "normal-weight" BMIs. Results for students that did not respond to the weight and weight perception items resembled those for obesity BMI and overweight/underweight perceptions, respectively.

Conclusions: Overall, this study demonstrates that an obesity achievement gap remains when controlling for students' perceptions of their weight, and that both underweight and overweight perceptions predict lower academic performance, regardless of BMI classification. Results suggest barriers to academic success exist among youth with larger body sizes, and those with perceptions of deviating from "about the right weight".
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40337-020-00329-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586687PMC
October 2020

Measurement Invariance of the Flourishing Scale among a Large Sample of Canadian Adolescents.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 25;17(21). Epub 2020 Oct 25.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

Our aim was to examine measurement invariance of the Flourishing Scale (FS)-a concise measure of psychological wellbeing-across two study samples and by population characteristics among Canadian adolescents. Data were retrieved from 74,501 Canadian secondary school students in Year 7 (2018-2019) of the COMPASS Study and from the original validation of the FS ( = 689). We assessed measurement invariance using a confirmatory factor analysis in which increasingly stringent equality constraints were specified for model parameters between the following groups: study sample (i.e., adolescents vs. adults), gender, grade, and ethno-racial identity. In all models, full measurement invariance of the FS across all sub-groups was demonstrated. Our findings support the validity of the FS for measuring psychological wellbeing among Canadian adolescents in secondary school. Observed differences in FS score among subgroups therefore represent true differences in wellbeing rather than artifacts of differential interpretation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663739PMC
October 2020

Does having one or more smoking friends mediate the transition from e-cigarette use to cigarette smoking: a longitudinal study of Canadian youth.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Jan 27;32(1):67-74. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Purpose: Studies have shown consistent associations between youth e-cigarette use and subsequent smoking uptake. However, it remains unclear why, as limited evidence exists regarding the mechanisms underlying these associations. Our study investigated whether having one or more smoking friends mediated the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking onset among a longitudinal sample of Canadian youth who were never smokers at baseline.

Methods: A longitudinal sample of youth that participated in three waves of the COMPASS study (2015-2016 to 2017-2018) was identified (N = 5,535). The product of coefficients method was used to assess whether having one or more smoking friends mediated the association between: (1) past 30-day e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking onset and (2) past 30-day e-cigarette use and subsequent dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes.

Results: Having one or more smoking friends did not mediate the association between (1) past 30-day e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking onset (β = 0.38, 95% CI - 0.12, 0.89) or (2) past 30-day e-cigarette use and subsequent dual use (β = 0.46, 95% CI - 0.16, 1.07). Post hoc tests indicated that smoking friends significantly predicted past 30-day e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking at wave 3 (aOR 1.68 and 2.29, respectively).

Conclusion: Having smoking friends did not explain the association between e-cigarette use and smoking uptake despite being a common risk factor for both e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking. Prevention efforts should consider how best to incorporate effective programming to address these social influences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01358-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Reluctancy towards Help-Seeking for Mental Health Concerns at Secondary School among Students in the COMPASS Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 29;17(19). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

Youth populations represent a key population for addressing mental health, yet many youths express reluctance towards help seeking. Considering the volume of time that almost all youth spend at school during the school year, it is important to assess the role of the school environment in relation to students' attitudes toward help-seeking. Data from 47,290 grade 9 to 12 students and 116 Canadian secondary schools that participated in the 2018-19 wave of the COMPASS (Cannabis, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol, Smoking, Sedentary behaviour) study were analyzed using GEE models to assess the student and school characteristics associated with attitudes regarding seeking help for mental health concerns from an adult at school. Overall, 58% of students reported being reluctant to seek help for mental health concerns at school. Students who reported lower self-rated mental health (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.65, 1.87), emotion regulation (aOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.09), family support (aOR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.16, 2.47), peer support (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.31), and school connectedness (aOR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.92, 0.93) scores were more likely to be reluctant towards help-seeking at school than students with more favourable scores on these variables. Students with higher flourishing scores were less likely than students who were languishing to report reluctance to help-seeking at school (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.96, 0.97). Students attending schools in areas with lower population densities and median household incomes between $50,000-75,000 were less likely to be reluctant to help-seeking relative to students attending schools in areas with higher density (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.93) and median household incomes (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.31), respectively. The availability of school mental health services and specialists were not associated with student help-seeking reluctance. High levels of resistance towards help-seeking among youth remain a significant barrier, particularly among youth at highest risk (i.e., with lower support and poorer mental health). The student and school characteristics identified in the current study can help inform strategies to promote greater acceptance of help seeking among students in schools.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579088PMC
September 2020

Gender differences in the longitudinal association between multilevel latent classes of chronic disease risk behaviours and body mass index in adolescents.

Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can 2020 Sep;40(9):259-266

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Few studies have assessed the relationship between chronic disease risk behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in a longitudinal, sex/gender-specific context. This study used gender-specific analyses to assess the extent to which chronic disease risk behaviour latent classes are associated with BMI and weight status at follow-up.

Methods: Longitudinal data from 4510 students in Grades 9 to 12, tracked from 2013- 2015, who participated in the COMPASS study were used to assess gender differences in the lagged association between previously determined latent classes (of physical activity and substance use) with BMI using multilevel mixed-effects models. Our multilevel regression models assessed the association between two latent classes, active experimenters and inactive non-using youth, with BMI when stratified by gender.

Results: Male inactive non-substance-using youth were associated with a 0.29 higher continuous BMI (95% CI: 0.057, 0.53) and odds of overweight/obesity increased by 72% (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4) for binary BMI at follow-up relative to active youth who experiment with substance use. No significant associations were detected in females.

Conclusion: Over time, physical activity has a protective role on BMI in male youth. Both substance use and physical inactivity should be addressed in obesity prevention efforts. Gender stratification in analyses is also important since females and males have different contributing factors to increases in BMI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.24095/hpcdp.40.9.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7534557PMC
September 2020

Determining the long-term health burden and risk of sequelae for 14 foodborne infections in British Columbia, Canada: protocol for a retrospective population-based cohort study.

BMJ Open 2020 08 31;10(8):e036560. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Introduction: Over one in eight Canadians is affected by a foodborne infection annually; however, the long-term consequences, including the risks and costs of sequelae, are unclear. We aim to estimate the health burden and direct costs of 14 infections commonly transmitted by food, considering the acute illness and subsequent sequelae and mortality, for the population of British Columbia, Canada (~4.7 million).

Methods And Analysis: We will conduct a population-based retrospective cohort study of the British Columbia provincial population, over a 10-year study period (1 January 2005 to 31 December 2014). Exposure is defined as a provincially reported illness caused by , , , hepatitis A virus, , non-typhoidal spp, Typhi, Paratyphi, Shiga toxin-producing , , or (excluding ). We will link individual-level longitudinal data from eight province-wide administrative health and reportable disease databases that include physician visits, hospitalisations and day surgeries, deaths, stillbirths, prescription medications (except those to treat HIV) and reportable foodborne diseases. Using these linked databases, we will investigate the likelihood of various sequelae and death. Hazard models will be used to estimate the risk of outcomes and their association with the type of foodborne infection. Epidemiological analyses will be conducted to determine the progression of illness and the fraction of sequelae attributable to specific foodborne infections. Economic analyses will assess the consequent direct healthcare costs.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study has been approved by a University of Waterloo Research Ethics Committee (no 30645), the University of British Columbia Behavioral Research Ethics Board (no H16-00021) and McGill University's Institutional Review Board (no A03-M12-19A). Results will be disseminated via presentations to academics, public health practitioners and knowledge users, and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Where such publications are not open access, manuscripts will also be available via the University of Waterloo's Institutional Repository (https://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462161PMC
August 2020

Trends in youth e-cigarette and cigarette use between 2013 and 2019: insights from repeat cross-sectional data from the COMPASS study.

Can J Public Health 2021 Feb 17;112(1):60-69. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: E-cigarettes are an increasingly popular product among youth in Canada. However, there is a lack of long-term data presenting trends in use. As such, the objective of this study was to examine trends in e-cigarette and cigarette use across various demographic characteristics between 2013 and 2019 among a large sample of secondary school youth in Canada.

Methods: Using repeat cross-sectional data from a non-probability sample of students in grades 9 to 12, this study explored trends in the prevalence of ever and current e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking between 2013-2014 and 2018-2019 in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec. Trends in ever and current e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking were studied across demographic variables among students in Ontario.

Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current use was variable across province and increased over time, particularly between 2016-2017 and 2018-2019. In contrast, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was relatively stable over the study period, decreasing significantly in Alberta and Ontario between 2017-2018 and 2018-2019. In Ontario, the prevalence of ever and current e-cigarette use increased among all grades, both genders, and all ethnicities.

Conclusion: Consistent with data from the United States, the prevalence of e-cigarette use among our large sample of Canadian youth has increased substantially in a short period of time. Surveillance systems should continue to monitor the prevalence of tobacco use among youth. Additional interventions may be necessary to curb e-cigarette use among Canadian youth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00389-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851234PMC
February 2021

The impact of an alcohol policy change on developmental trajectories of youth alcohol use: examination of a natural experiment in Canada.

Can J Public Health 2021 Apr 6;112(2):210-218. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Objectives: In 2015, the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) authorized sale of alcohol in some Ontario grocery stores. This research evaluates the impact of the new policy on alcohol use patterns of youth in a quasi-experimental setting with two control groups.

Methods: The sample consists of 2267 grade 9 students attending 60 secondary schools across Ontario (n = 56) and Alberta (n = 4), who provided 4-year linked longitudinal data (2013-2014 to 2016-2017) in the COMPASS study. The study used the frequency of drinking and the frequency of binge drinking to characterize alcohol use behaviours.

Results: Latent transition analysis found four statuses of alcohol use: abstainer, periodic drinker, low-risk drinker, and high-risk regular drinker. The new policy had no negative impact among periodic and low-risk drinkers, but the risk of transitioning from the abstainer (lowest risk status) to high-risk regular drinker (highest risk status) among the exposed cohort was 1.71 times greater post-policy than pre-policy change, compared with those of Ontario-unexposed (0.50) and Alberta-unexposed cohorts (1.00). The probability of sustaining high-risk drinking among the exposed cohort increased by a factor of 1.76, compared with 1.13-fold and 0.89-fold among the Ontario-unexposed and Alberta-unexposed cohorts, respectively.

Conclusion: Youth are more likely to transition from abstinence to high-risk regular drinking, and high-risk regular drinkers are more likely to maintain their behaviours in the jurisdictions exposed to the latest change in LCBO policy authorizing grocery stores to sell alcohol. When formulating policy interventions, youth access to alcohol should be considered in order to reduce their harmful alcohol consumption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00366-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910382PMC
April 2021

Are School Substance Use Policy Violation Disciplinary Consequences Associated with Student Engagement in Cannabis?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 31;17(15). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

Schools are increasingly concerned about student cannabis use with the recent legalization in Canada; however, little is known about how to effectively intervene when students violate school substance use policies. The purpose of this study is to assess the disciplinary approaches present in secondary schools prior to cannabis legalization and examine associations with youth cannabis use. This study used Year 6 (2017/2018) data from the COMPASS (Cannabis use, Obesity, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, Sedentary behavior) study including 66,434 students in grades 9 through 12 and the 122 secondary schools they attend in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec. Student questionnaires assessed youth cannabis use and school administrator surveys assessed potential use of 14 cannabis use policy violation disciplinary consequences through a ("check all that apply") question. Regression models tested the association between school disciplinary approaches and student cannabis use with student- (grade, sex, ethnicity, tobacco use, binge drinking) and school-level covariates (province, school area household median income). For first-offence violations of school cannabis policies, the vast majority of schools selected confiscating the product (93%), informing parents (93%), alerting police (80%), and suspending students from school (85%), among their disciplinary response options. Few schools indicated requiring students to help around the school (5%), issuing a fine (7%), or assigning additional class work (8%) as potential consequences. The mean number of total first-offence consequences selected by schools was 7.23 (SD = 2.14). Overall, 92% of schools reported always using a progressive disciplinary approach in which sanctions get stronger with subsequent violations. Students were less likely to report current cannabis use if they attended schools that indicated assigning additional class work (OR 0.57, 95% CI (0.38, 0.84)) or alerting the police (OR 0.81, 95% CI (0.67, 0.98)) among their potential first-offence consequences, or reported always using the progressive discipline approach (OR 0.77, 95% CI (0.62, 0.96)) for subsequent cannabis policy violations. In conclusion, results reveal the school disciplinary context in regard to cannabis policy violations in the year immediately preceding legalization. Various consequences for cannabis policy violations were being used by schools, yet negligible association resulted between the type of first-offence consequences included in a school's range of disciplinary approaches and student cannabis use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432868PMC
July 2020

Factors Associated with Students Meeting Components of Canada's New 24-Hour Movement Guidelines over Time in the COMPASS Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 24;17(15). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

This study aimed to determine if secondary school students are meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines (24-MG), as well as each individual recommendation (physical activity; sleep; sedentary behavior) within the 24-MG, and which student-level characteristics predict meeting the 24-MG, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. This study is the first to examine longitudinal changes in students meeting the 24-MG, as well as student-level characteristics that were predictive of favourable shifts in movement patterns. Cross-sectional data were obtained for 11,793 grade 9 students across Canada as part of the COMPASS study. Of this sample, 3713 students provided linked follow-up data from grade 9 to grade 12. The probability of meeting the guidelines was modeled using two-level logistic regression analyses, adjusting for student-level co-variates and school clustering. Only 1.28% ( < 0.0001) of the sample met the overall 24-MG. Among grade 9 students, 35.9% ( < 0.0001), 50.8% ( < 0.0001), and 6.4% ( < 0.0001) were meeting the individual recommendations for physical activity, sleep, and screen time, respectively. Of those students, less than half were still meeting them by grade 12. Community sport participation was the only predictor of all three individual recommendations within the 24-MG. Longitudinal analyses found that community sport participation and parental support and encouragement were significantly associated with Grade 12 students starting to meet the physical activity and screen time recommendations, respectively, after having not met them in grade 9. Findings can be used to inform policy and public health practice, as well as to inform future research examining causal relationships between the variables.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432761PMC
July 2020