Publications by authors named "Scott T C Shepherd"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cytokine release syndrome in a patient with colorectal cancer after vaccination with BNT162b2.

Nat Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Gastrointestinal and Lymphoma Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, UK.

Patients with cancer are currently prioritized in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs globally, which includes administration of mRNA vaccines. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) has not been reported with mRNA vaccines and is an extremely rare immune-related adverse event of immune checkpoint inhibitors. We present a case of CRS that occurred 5 d after vaccination with BTN162b2 (tozinameran)-the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine-in a patient with colorectal cancer on long-standing anti-PD-1 monotherapy. The CRS was evidenced by raised inflammatory markers, thrombocytopenia, elevated cytokine levels (IFN-γ/IL-2R/IL-18/IL-16/IL-10) and steroid responsiveness. The close temporal association of vaccination and diagnosis of CRS in this case suggests that CRS was a vaccine-related adverse event; with anti-PD1 blockade as a potential contributor. Overall, further prospective pharmacovigillence data are needed in patients with cancer, but the benefit-risk profile remains strongly in favor of COVID-19 vaccination in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01387-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Selection of metastasis competent subclones in the tumour interior.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 17;5(7):1033-1045. Epub 2021 May 17.

Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, University College London Cancer Institute, London, UK.

The genetic evolutionary features of solid tumour growth are becoming increasingly well described, but the spatial and physical nature of subclonal growth remains unclear. Here, we utilize 102 macroscopic whole-tumour images from clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients, with matched genetic and phenotypic data from 756 biopsies. Utilizing a digital image processing pipeline, a renal pathologist marked the boundaries between tumour and normal tissue and extracted positions of boundary line and biopsy regions to X and Y coordinates. We then integrated coordinates with genomic data to map exact spatial subclone locations, revealing how genetically distinct subclones grow and evolve spatially. We observed a phenotype of advanced and more aggressive subclonal growth in the tumour centre, characterized by an elevated burden of somatic copy number alterations and higher necrosis, proliferation rate and Fuhrman grade. Moreover, we found that metastasizing subclones preferentially originate from the tumour centre. Collectively, these observations suggest a model of accelerated evolution in the tumour interior, with harsh hypoxic environmental conditions leading to a greater opportunity for driver somatic copy number alterations to arise and expand due to selective advantage. Tumour subclone growth is predominantly spatially contiguous in nature. We found only two cases of subclone dispersal, one of which was associated with metastasis. The largest subclones spatially were dominated by driver somatic copy number alterations, suggesting that a large selective advantage can be conferred to subclones upon acquisition of these alterations. In conclusion, spatial dynamics is strongly associated with genomic alterations and plays an important role in tumour evolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-021-01456-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Cancer, COVID-19, and Antiviral Immunity: The CAPTURE Study.

Cell 2020 10 3;183(1):4-10. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Renal and Skin Units, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Cancer Dynamics Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London, UK. Electronic address:

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has posed a significant challenge for risk evaluation and mitigation among cancer patients. Susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19 in cancer patients has not been studied in a prospective and broadly applicable manner. CAPTURE is a pan-cancer, longitudinal immune profiling study designed to address this knowledge gap.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470737PMC
October 2020

Radiological Response Heterogeneity Is of Prognostic Significance in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-targeted Therapy.

Eur Urol Focus 2020 09 6;6(5):999-1005. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Barts Cancer Institute, CRUK Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, London, UK; Department of Oncology, Royal Free NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST) is widely used to assess tumour response but is limited by not considering disease site or radiological heterogeneity (RH).

Objective: To determine whether RH or disease site has prognostic significance in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective analysis was conducted of a second-line phase II study in patients with metastatic ccRCC (NCT00942877), evaluating 138 patients with 458 baseline lesions.

Intervention: The phase II trial assessed vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy±Src inhibition.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: RH at week 8 was assessed within individual patients with two or more lesions to predict overall survival (OS) using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. We defined a high heterogeneous response as occurring when one or more lesion underwent a ≥10% reduction and one or more lesion underwent a ≥10% increase in size. Disease progression was defined by RECIST 1.1 criteria.

Results And Limitations: In patients with a complete/partial response or stable disease by RECIST 1.1 and two or more lesions at week 8, those with a high heterogeneous response had a shorter OS compared to those with a homogeneous response (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-2.92; p<0.001). Response by disease site at week 8 did not affect OS. At disease progression, one or more new lesion was associated with worse survival compared with >20% increase in sum of target lesion diameters only (HR 2.12; 95% CI: 1.43-3.14; p<0.001). Limitations include retrospective study design.

Conclusions: RH and the development of new lesions may predict survival in metastatic ccRCC. Further prospective studies are required.

Patient Summary: We looked at individual metastases in patients with kidney cancer and showed that a variable response to treatment and the appearance of new metastases may be associated with worse survival. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2019.01.010DOI Listing
September 2020

Response to: 'Letter to the editor, European Journal of Cancer', commenting on 'Performance of formulae based estimates of glomerular filtration rate for carboplatin dosing in stage 1 seminoma'.

Eur J Cancer 2014 Aug 28;50(12):2178-9. Epub 2014 May 28.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, United Kingdom.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2014.04.027DOI Listing
August 2014

Performance of formulae based estimates of glomerular filtration rate for carboplatin dosing in stage 1 seminoma.

Eur J Cancer 2014 Mar 17;50(5):944-52. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, United Kingdom.

Background: Single cycle carboplatin, dosed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), is standard adjuvant therapy for stage 1 seminoma. Accurate measurement of GFR is essential for correct dosing. Isotopic methods remain the gold standard for the determination of GFR. Formulae to estimate GFR have improved the assessment of renal function in non-oncological settings. We assessed the utility of these formulae for carboplatin dosing.

Methods: We studied consecutive subjects receiving adjuvant carboplatin for stage 1 seminoma at our institution between 2007 and 2012. Subjects underwent 51Cr-ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) measurement of GFR with carboplatin dose calculated using the Calvert formula. Theoretical carboplatin doses were calculated from estimated GFR using Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI), Management of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formulae with additional correction for actual body surface area (BSA). Carboplatin doses calculated by formulae were compared with dose calculated by isotopic GFR; a difference <10% was considered acceptable.

Results: 115 patients were identified. Mean isotopic GFR was 96.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2). CG and CKD-EPI tended to overestimate GFR whereas MDRD tended to underestimate GFR. The CKD-EPI formula had greatest accuracy. The CKD-EPI formula, corrected for actual BSA, performed best; 45.9% of patients received within 10% of correct carboplatin dose. Patients predicted as underdosed (13.5%) by CKD-EPI were more likely to be obese (p=0.013); there were no predictors of the 40.5% receiving an excess dose.

Conclusions: Our data support further evaluation of the CKD-EPI formula in this patient population but clinically significant variances in carboplatin dosing occur using non-isotopic methods of GFR estimation. Isotopic determination of GFR should remain the recommended standard for carboplatin dosing when accuracy is essential.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2013.12.021DOI Listing
March 2014