Publications by authors named "Scott Lake"

4 Publications

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Late Gestation Maternal Feed Restriction Decreases Microbial Diversity of the Placenta While Mineral Supplementation Improves Richness of the Fetal Gut Microbiome in Cattle.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 27;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA.

Feed intake restriction impacts both humans and ruminants in late gestation, although it is unknown whether this adverse maternal environment influences the microbiome of the reproductive tract, and through it, the colonization of the fetal gut. A 2 × 2 factorial design including a 70% feed intake restriction (feed restricted 'FR' or control diets 'CON') and mineral supplementation (unsupplemented 'S-' or supplemented 'S+') was used to analyze these effects in multiparous cows ( = 27). Vaginal swabs were obtained 60, 30, and 10 days prior to the estimated calving date, along with neonatal rumen fluid and meconium. Placental tissues and efficiency measurements were collected. Microbial DNA was extracted for 16S sequencing of the V4 region. Feed restriction decreased the diversity of the placental microbiome, but not the vagina, while mineral supplementation had little impact on these microbial communities. Mineral supplementation did improve the richness and diversity of the fetal gut microbiomes in relation to reproductive microbes. These differences within the placental microbiome may influence individual health and performance. Adequate maternal nutrition and supplementation yielded the greatest placental efficiency, which may aid in the establishment of a healthy placental microbiome and fetal microbial colonization.
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July 2021

Study protocol for targeted interventions to prevent chronic low back pain in high-risk patients: A multi-site pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (TARGET Trial).

Contemp Clin Trials 2019 07 25;82:66-76. Epub 2019 May 25.

Boston Medical Center, 1 Boston Medical Center Place, Dowling 5 South, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent and potentially disabling conditions for which people seek health care. Patients, providers, and payers agree that greater effort is needed to prevent acute LBP from transitioning to chronic LBP.

Methods And Study Design: The TARGET (Targeted Interventions to Prevent Chronic Low Back Pain in High-Risk Patients) Trial is a primary care-based, multisite, cluster randomized, pragmatic trial comparing guideline-based care (GBC) to GBC + referral to Psychologically Informed Physical Therapy (PIPT) for patients presenting with acute LBP and identified as high risk for persistent disabling symptoms. Study sites include primary care clinics within each of five geographical regions in the United States, with clinics randomized to either GBC or GBC + PIPT. Acute LBP patients at all clinics are risk stratified (high, medium, low) using the STarT Back Tool. The primary outcomes are the presence of chronic LBP and LBP-related functional disability determined by the Oswestry Disability Index at 6 months. Secondary outcomes are LBP-related processes of health care and utilization of services over 12 months, determined through electronic medical records. Study enrollment began in May 2016 and concluded in June 2018. The trial was powered to include at least 1860 high-risk patients in the randomized controlled trial cohort. A prospective observational cohort of approximately 6900 low and medium-risk acute LBP patients was enrolled concurrently.

Discussion: The TARGET pragmatic trial aims to establish the effectiveness of the stratified approach to acute LBP intervention targeting high-risk patients with GBC and PIPT.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.govNCT02647658 Registered Jan. 6, 2016.
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July 2019