Publications by authors named "Scott Kominsky"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations.

Chem Sci 2018 Jan 15;9(3):743-753. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Department of Mechanical Engineering , Johns Hopkins University , Whiting School of Engineering , Latrobe Hall 103 , Baltimore , MD 21218 , USA . Email: ; Tel: +1-410-516-0656.

Breast neoplasms frequently colonize bone and induce development of osteolytic bone lesions by disrupting the homeostasis of the bone microenvironment. This degenerative process can lead to bone pain and pathological bone fracture, a major cause of cancer morbidity and diminished quality of life, which is exacerbated by our limited ability to monitor early metastatic disease in bone and assess fracture risk. Spurred by its label-free, real-time nature and its exquisite molecular specificity, we employed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy to assess and quantify early metastasis driven biochemical alterations to bone composition. As early as two weeks after intracardiac inoculations of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in NOD-SCID mice, Raman spectroscopic measurements in the femur and spine revealed consistent changes in carbonate substitution, overall mineralization as well as crystallinity increase in tumor-bearing bones when compared with their normal counterparts. Our observations reveal the possibility of early stage detection of biochemical changes in the tumor-bearing bones - significantly before morphological variations are captured through radiographic diagnosis. This study paves the way for a better molecular understanding of altered bone remodeling in such metastatic niches, and for further clinical studies with the goal of establishing a non-invasive tool for early metastasis detection and prediction of pathological fracture risk in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7sc02905eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5869989PMC
January 2018

CITED2 attenuates macrophage recruitment concordant with the downregulation of CCL20 in breast cancer cells.

Oncol Lett 2018 Jan 15;15(1):871-878. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

The transcriptional co-regulator Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain-2 (CITED2) may promote breast tumor growth; however, the mechanisms by which its effects are mediated remain to be fully elucidated. Tumor-associated macrophages serve an important function in tumor development and progression and are recruited by chemotactic factors produced by cells within the tumor microenvironment. The present study assessed the effects of CITED2 silencing on macrophage recruitment in two xenograft mouse models of human breast cancer, one in which tumor growth was sensitive to CITED2 silencing (MDA-MB-231) and one in which it was insensitive (MDA-MB-468). The present study identified that silencing CITED2 significantly attenuated macrophage infiltration in MDA-MB-231 but not MDA-MB-468 orthotopic tumors, concordant with its effect on tumor growth. Correspondingly, conditioned media obtained from CITED2-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited a significantly decreased ability to induce macrophage recruitment by Transwell migration assay, whereas the chemotactic effect of MDA-MB-468 conditioned media was unaffected. Examining the expression of macrophage chemoattractants within orthotopic tumors and tumor cell-conditioned media revealed a significant decrease in C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)20 mRNA and protein expression following CITED2-silencing in MDA-MB-231 cells, compared with that in cells transfected with scramble shRNA. However, mRNA and protein expression was unaffected by CITED2-silencing in MDA-MB-468 cells. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that CITED2 was localized to the CCL20 promoter in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that it serves a direct function in its regulation, which is consistent with the effect of CITED2 silencing on CCL20 expression. Lastly, neutralizing CCL20 in the conditioned media of MDA-MB-231 cells significantly inhibited macrophage recruitment. Collectively, these results suggest that CITED2 is involved in modulating macrophage recruitment, representing a novel mechanism through which it may influence tumor growth. This may be partly mediated by regulating tumor cell production of the chemokine CCL20.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772916PMC
January 2018

Down-regulation of CITED2 attenuates breast tumor growth, vessel formation and TGF-β-induced expression of VEGFA.

Oncotarget 2017 Jan;8(4):6169-6178

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

While we previously demonstrated that CITED2 expression in primary breast tumor tissues is elevated relative to normal mammary epithelium and inversely correlated with patient survival, its functional impact on primary tumor development and progression remained unknown. To address this issue, we examined the effect of CITED2 silencing on the growth of human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 following orthotopic administration in vivo. Here, we show that CITED2 silencing significantly attenuated MDA-MB-231 primary tumor growth concordant with reduced tumor vascularization, while MDA-MB-468 primary tumor growth and tumor vascularization remained unaffected. Correspondingly, expression of VEGFA was significantly reduced in shCITED2-expressing MDA-MB-231, but not MDA-MB-468 tumors. Consistent with the observed pattern of vascularization and VEGFA expression, we found that TGF-β stimulation induced expression of VEGFA and enhanced CITED2 recruitment to the VEGFA promoter in MDA-MA-231 cells, while failing to induce VEGFA expression in MDA-MB-468 cells. Further supporting its involvement in TGF-β-induced expression of VEGFA, CITED2 silencing prevented TGF-β induction of VEGFA expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, these data indicate that CITED2 regulates primary breast tumor growth, likely by influencing tumor vasculature via TGF-β-dependent regulation of VEGFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5351621PMC
January 2017

CITED2 Modulates Breast Cancer Metastatic Ability through Effects on IKKα.

Mol Cancer Res 2016 08 23;14(8):730-9. Epub 2016 May 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Unlabelled: Previously, we identified the transcriptional coactivator CITED2 as a potential facilitator of bone metastasis using a murine mammary cancer model. Extending these studies to human breast cancer, it was observed that CITED2 mRNA expression was significantly elevated in patient specimens of metastatic breast cancer relative to primary tumors, with highest levels in metastasis to bone relative to non-bone sites. To further evaluate CITED2 functions in breast cancer metastasis, CITED2 expression was stably reduced in the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, which are metastatic in animal models. While CITED2 knockdown had no effect on cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion were significantly reduced, as was the establishment of metastasis following intracardiac administration in athymic nude mice. To explore the mechanism behind these effects, gene expression following CITED2 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells by cDNA microarray was performed. As confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels in both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, expression of the NF-κB regulator IKKα was significantly reduced, along with several NF-κB targets with known roles in metastasis (OPN, MMP9, uPA, SPARC, IL11, and IL1β). Furthermore, ChIP assay revealed recruitment of CITED2 to the promoter of IKKα, indicating a direct role in regulating its expression. Consistent with reduced IKKα expression, CITED2 knockdown inhibited both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Finally, restoration of IKKα expression following CITED2 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells rescued their invasive ability. Collectively, these data demonstrate that CITED2 modulates metastatic ability in human breast cancer cells, at least in part, through the regulation of IKKα.

Implications: The current study highlights the role of CITED2 in facilitating breast cancer metastasis, partly via regulation of IKKα. Mol Cancer Res; 14(8); 730-9. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-16-0081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4987170PMC
August 2016

CCL20/CCR6 Signaling Regulates Bone Mass Accrual in Mice.

J Bone Miner Res 2016 07 11;31(7):1381-90. Epub 2016 Mar 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

CCL20 is a member of the macrophage inflammatory protein family and is reported to signal monogamously through the receptor CCR6. Although studies have identified the genomic locations of both Ccl20 and Ccr6 as regions important for bone quality, the role of CCL20/CCR6 signaling in regulating bone mass is unknown. By micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometric analysis, we show that global loss of Ccr6 in mice significantly decreases trabecular bone mass coincident with reduced osteoblast numbers. Notably, CCL20 and CCR6 were co-expressed in osteoblast progenitors and levels increased during osteoblast differentiation, indicating the potential of CCL20/CCR6 signaling to influence osteoblasts through both autocrine and paracrine actions. With respect to autocrine effects, CCR6 was found to act as a functional G protein-coupled receptor in osteoblasts and although its loss did not appear to affect the number or proliferation rate of osteoblast progenitors, differentiation was significantly inhibited as evidenced by delays in osteoblast marker gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization. In addition, CCL20 promoted osteoblast survival concordant with activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. Beyond these potential autocrine effects, osteoblast-derived CCL20 stimulated the recruitment of macrophages and T cells, known facilitators of osteoblast differentiation and survival. Finally, we generated mice harboring a global deletion of Ccl20 and found that Ccl20(-/-) mice exhibit a reduction in bone mass similar to that observed in Ccr6(-/-) mice, confirming that this phenomenon is regulated by CCL20 rather than alternate CCR6 ligands. Collectively, these data indicate that CCL20/CCR6 signaling may play an important role in regulating bone mass accrual, potentially by modulating osteoblast maturation, survival, and the recruitment of osteoblast-supporting cells. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2813DOI Listing
July 2016

The Notch pathway inhibits TGFβ signaling in breast cancer through HEYL-mediated crosstalk.

Cancer Res 2014 Nov 12;74(22):6509-18. Epub 2014 Sep 12.

Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Acquired resistance to TGFβ is a key step in the early stages of tumorigenesis. Mutations in TGFβ signaling components are rare, and little is known about the development of resistance in breast cancer. On the other hand, an activated Notch pathway is known to play a substantial role in promoting breast cancer development. Here, we present evidence of crosstalk between these two pathways through HEYL. HEYL, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor and a direct target of Notch signaling, is specifically overexpressed in breast cancer. HEYL represses TGFβ activity by binding to TGFβ-activated Smads. HeyL(-/-) mice have defective mammary gland development with fewer terminal end buds. On the other hand, HeyL transgenic mice show accelerated mammary gland epithelial proliferation and 24% of multiparous mice develop mammary gland cancer. Therefore, repression of TGFβ signaling by Notch acting through HEYL may promote initiation of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4233182PMC
November 2014

Enpp1: a potential facilitator of breast cancer bone metastasis.

PLoS One 2013 5;8(7):e66752. Epub 2013 Jul 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis and once established, it is frequently incurable. Critical to our ability to prevent and treat bone metastasis is the identification of the key factors mediating its establishment and understanding their biological function. To address this issue we previously carried out an in vivo selection process to isolate murine mammary tumor sublines possessing an enhanced ability to colonize the bone. A comparison of gene expression between parental cells and sublines by genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis revealed several potential mediators of bone metastasis, including the pyrophosphate-generating ectoenzyme Enpp1. By qRT-PCR and Western analysis we found that expression of Enpp1 was elevated in human breast cancer cell lines known to produce bone metastasis in animal models compared to non-metastatic and normal mammary epithelial cell lines. Further, in clinical specimens, levels of Enpp1 were significantly elevated in human primary breast tumors relative to normal mammary epithelium, with highest levels observed in breast-bone metastasis as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. To examine the potential role of Enpp1 in the development of bone metastasis, Enpp1 expression was stably increased in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the ability to colonize the bone following intracardiac and direct intratibial injection of athymic nude mice was determined. By both routes of administration, increased expression of Enpp1 enhanced the ability of MDA-MB-231 cells to form tumors in the bone relative to cells expressing vector alone, as determined by digital radiography and histological analysis. Taken together, these data suggest a potential role for Enpp1 in the development of breast cancer bone metastasis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066752PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3702501PMC
February 2014

CITED2 modulates estrogen receptor transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 Jul 27;437(2):261-6. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) is a member of the CITED family of non-DNA binding transcriptional co-activators of the p300/CBP-mediated transcription complex. Previously, we identified CITED2 as being overexpressed in human breast tumors relative to normal mammary epithelium. Upon further investigation within the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subset of these breast tumor samples, we found that CITED2 mRNA expression was elevated in those associated with poor survival. In light of this observation, we investigated the effect of elevated CITED2 levels on ER function. While ectopic overexpression of CITED2 in three ER-positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and CAMA-1) did not alter cell proliferation in complete media, growth was markedly enhanced in the absence of exogenous estrogen. Correspondingly, cells overexpressing CITED2 demonstrated reduced sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Subsequent studies revealed that basal ER transcriptional activity was elevated in CITED2-overexpressing cells and was further increased upon the addition of estrogen. Similarly, basal and estrogen-induced expression of the ER-regulated genes trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) was higher in cells overexpressing CITED2. Concordant with this observation, ChIP analysis revealed higher basal levels of CITED2 localized to the TFF-1 and PGR promoters in cells with ectopic overexpression of CITED2, and these levels were elevated further in response to estrogen stimulation. Taken together, these data indicate that CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of ER in breast cancer cells and that its increased expression in tumors may result in estrogen-independent ER activation, thereby reducing estrogen dependence and response to anti-estrogen therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.06.063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775505PMC
July 2013

MIP-1δ activates NFATc1 and enhances osteoclastogenesis: involvement of both PLCγ2 and NFκB signaling.

PLoS One 2012 9;7(7):e40799. Epub 2012 Jul 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Pathological bone resorption is a source of significant morbidity in diseases affecting the skeleton such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, and cancer metastasis to bone. Evidence indicates that elevated levels of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α play a role in this process by promoting the formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Additionally, current studies have identified inflammatory chemokines of the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) family as potential mediators of pathological bone resorption, where both MIP-1α and -3α have been shown to enhance osteoclast (OCL) development. In this study we provide evidence that MIP-1δ, whose expression is associated with renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis and rheumatoid arthritis, enhances OCL formation in vitro via a direct effect on OCL precursors. Consistent with this ability, exposure of OCL precursors to MIP-1δ resulted in the activation of PLCγ2 and NF-κB, two signaling pathways known to regulate OCL differentiation. Moreover, MIP-1δ induced expression and nuclear translocation of NFATc1, a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, which was dependent on activation of both the PLCγ2 and NFκB signaling pathways. Lastly, consistent with in vitro studies, in vivo administration of MIP-1δ significantly increased OCL number and resorption area as determined using a murine calvarial bone resorption model. Taken together, these data highlight the potential of MIP-1δ as a mediator of pathological bone resorption and provide insight into the molecular mechanism through which MIP-1δ enhances osteoclastogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0040799PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3392212PMC
January 2013

Preclinical and clinical evaluation of intraductally administered agents in early breast cancer.

Sci Transl Med 2011 Oct;3(106):106ra108

Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

Most breast cancers originate in the epithelial cells lining the breast ducts. Intraductal administration of cancer therapeutics would lead to high drug exposure to ductal cells and eliminate preinvasive neoplasms while limiting systemic exposure. We performed preclinical studies in N-methyl-N'-nitrosourea-treated rats to compare the effects of 5-fluorouracil, carboplatin, nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, and methotrexate to the previously reported efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) on treatment of early and established mammary tumors. Protection from tumor growth was observed with all five agents, with extensive epithelial destruction present only in PLD-treated rats. Concurrently, we initiated a clinical trial to establish the feasibility, safety, and maximum tolerated dose of intraductal PLD. In each eligible woman awaiting mastectomy, we visualized one ductal system and administered dextrose or PLD using a dose-escalation schema (2 to 10 mg). Intraductal administration was successful in 15 of 17 women with no serious adverse events. Our preclinical studies suggest that several agents are candidates for intraductal therapy. Our clinical trial supports the feasibility of intraductal administration of agents in the outpatient setting. If successful, administration of agents directly into the ductal system may allow for "breast-sparing mastectomy" in select women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3002368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3616888PMC
October 2011

Identification of prospective factors promoting osteotropism in breast cancer: a potential role for CITED2.

Int J Cancer 2010 Feb;126(4):876-84

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Breast cancer metastases develop in the bone more frequently than any other site and are a common cause of morbidity in the form of bone pain, pathological fractures, nerve compression and life-threatening hypercalcemia. Despite ongoing research efforts, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate breast cancer cell homing to and colonization of the bone as well as resultant pathological bone alteration remain poorly understood. To identify key mediators promoting breast cancer metastasis to bone, we utilized an immunocompetent, syngeneic murine model of breast cancer metastasis employing the mammary tumor cell line NT2.5. Following intracardiac injection of NT2.5 cells in neu-N mice, metastases developed in the bone, liver and lung, closely mimicking the anatomical distribution of metastases in patients with breast cancer. Using an in vivo selection process, we established NT2.5 sublines demonstrating an enhanced ability to colonize the bone and liver. Genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis comparing gene expression between parental NT2.5 cells and established sublines revealed both known and novel mediators of bone metastasis and osteolysis, including the transcriptional co-activator CITED2. In further studies, we found that expression of CITED2 was elevated in human primary breast tumors and bone metastasis compared to normal mammary epithelium and was highest in breast cancer cell lines that cause osteolytic bone metastasis in animal models. In addition, reducing CITED2 expression in NT2.5 cells inhibited the establishment of bone metastasis and osteolysis in vivo, suggesting a potential role for CITED2 in promoting breast cancer bone metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.24780DOI Listing
February 2010

MMP-13 is over-expressed in renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis and is induced by TGF-beta1.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2008 16;25(8):865-70. Epub 2008 Aug 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Ave., Ross Building, Room 209, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Bone metastasis occurs frequently in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients causing significant morbidity by stimulating excessive osteolysis, yet the mechanisms responsible have been little studied. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are over-expressed in many cancer types and are believed to play a role in bone metastasis, however, the expression of MMPs in RCC bone metastasis (RBM) has not been investigated. Due to their ability to degrade the main component of organic bone matrix, type I collagen, we investigated the expression of MMP-1, -2, -8, -9, and -13 in RBM. By quantitative (q)RT-PCR, expression of MMP-13 was significantly increased in RBM tissues relative to that in RCC and adjacent normal kidney while no differences in the expression of MMP-1, -2, -8, or -9 mRNA were observed. Correspondingly, increased expression of MMP-13 protein was also observed in RBM relative to RCC by immunohistochemical analysis. Intriguingly, the expression of MMP-13 in the human RBM cell line RBM1-IT4 was stimulated by TGF-beta1, a growth factor abundant in the bone microenvironment and known to promote RBM-induced osteolysis in animals. Exposure of RBM1-IT4 cells to TGF-beta1 increased MMP-13 mRNA levels as well as the latent and active forms of MMP-13 protein. Further, stable expression of a dominant-negative TGF-beta type II receptor in RBM1-IT4 cells inhibited MMP-13 expression following TGF-beta1 exposure. These data suggest that MMP-13 expression is elevated in RBM relative to primary RCC and adjacent normal kidney, and is regulated at the cellular level by TGF-beta1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10585-008-9202-2DOI Listing
January 2009

Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 delta: a novel osteoclast stimulating factor secreted by renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis.

Cancer Res 2008 Mar;68(5):1261-6

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Approximately 30% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) develop bone metastasis, which is characterized by extensive osteolysis leading to severe bone pain and pathologic fracture. Although the mechanism of RCC-induced osteolysis is unknown, studies of bone metastasis have shown that tumor-induced changes in bone remodeling are likely mediated by alterations in the bone microenvironment. Here, we report the discovery of a novel osteoclast stimulatory factor secreted by RCC bone metastasis (RBM). Through microarray analysis, we found expression of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 delta (MIP-1 delta), to be increased in RBM versus patient-matched primary RCC tissues and confirmed this finding by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MIP-1 delta expression in RBM tissues was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than in human bone marrow, suggesting a potential alteration of the bone microenvironment. The receptors for MIP-1 delta, CCR1 and CCR3, were expressed in both osteoclast precursors and mature, bone-resorbing osteoclasts as shown by qRT-PCR and Western analysis. In functional studies, MIP-1 delta stimulated chemotaxis of two osteoclast precursor cell types: murine bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) and RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, MIP-1 delta treatment of murine calvaria caused increased bone resorption as determined by measurement of released calcium. Correspondingly, MIP-1 delta significantly enhanced osteoclast formation and activity in response to RANKL in both BM-MNC and RAW 264.7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that MIP-1 delta expression is increased in RBM relative to RCC and bone marrow, and may promote RBM-induced osteolysis by stimulating the recruitment and differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6122DOI Listing
March 2008

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin as a novel-targeted therapeutic for brain metastasis.

Cancer Res 2007 Sep;67(17):7977-82

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Brain metastasis is the most commonly occurring intracranial tumor whose incidence seems to be increasing. With standard therapy, the average survival time of patients is approximately 8 months, and treatment often leads to neurologic dysfunction in long-term survivors, emphasizing the need for novel therapeutics. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has recently been shown to rapidly and specifically destroy cancer cells expressing CPE receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4. Unfortunately, the utility of CPE is precluded by systemic toxicity because its receptors are expressed in numerous organs. Here, we provide the first preclinical evidence that CPE may be uniquely suited to the local treatment of brain metastasis. By immunohistochemical analysis, claudin-3 and claudin-4 were expressed frequently in metastases from breast (15 of 18), lung (15 of 20), and colon (12 of 14) carcinoma, and infrequently in metastases from renal cell carcinoma (2 of 16) and melanoma (2 of 16). In contrast, expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 was absent in adjacent normal brain tissue. Further examination of the central nervous system (CNS) revealed low or undetectable levels of claudin-3 and claudin-4 in all regions tested by Western and immunohistochemical analysis. Treatment of breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, NT2.5-luc) and normal human astrocytes with CPE in vitro resulted in rapid and dose-dependent cytolysis exclusively in breast cancer cells, correlating with claudin-3 and claudin-4 expression. Moreover, intracranial CPE treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival in two murine models of breast cancer brain metastasis, without any apparent local or systemic toxicity. These data suggest that CPE therapy may have efficacy against a wide variety of brain metastases without CNS toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-1314DOI Listing
September 2007

Renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis--elucidating the molecular targets.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2007 Dec;26(3-4):691-704

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 601 N. Caroline St., JHOC #5251, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

The development of bone metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) signals a transition to a terminal state for the patient with previously isolated disease. These patients may suffer the morbidity of severe, persistent pain, pathologic fractures, and spinal compression from vertebral metastasis before they succumb to their cancer. Although recent advancements have been made in the understanding of breast and prostate bone metastasis, there has been less knowledge in the area of metastatic RCC to the skeleton. This particular cancer in bone remains relatively resistant to standard forms of treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy. A better understanding of the biology of RCC bone metastasis is critically needed in order to improve treatment. Bone-derived cell lines and an experimental animal model have been developed in order to explore the relevant mechanisms of how RCC cells survive within and destroy the bone. This review will focus on the growth factor signaling pathways most important for the RCC-stimulated osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, namely the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and transforming growth factor-beta receptor (TGF-betaR) pathways. By inhibiting these receptors, growth of RCC within the bone is decreased which, directly or indirectly, decreases bone destruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10555-007-9090-yDOI Listing
December 2007

TGF-beta promotes the establishment of renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis.

J Bone Miner Res 2007 Jan;22(1):37-44

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Unlabelled: Bone metastases develop in approximately 30% of patients with RCC, and the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. We found that TGF-beta1 stimulation of RCC bone metastasis cells promotes tumor growth and bone destruction possibly by stimulating paracrine interactions between tumor cells and the bone.

Introduction: Bone metastasis is a frequent complication and causes marked morbidity in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Surprisingly, the specific mechanisms of RCC interaction with bone have been scarcely studied despite the inability to prevent or effectively treat bone metastasis. Bone is a reservoir for various growth factors including the pleiotropic cytokine TGF-beta1. TGF-beta1 has been shown to have tumor-supportive effects on advanced cancers and evidence suggests its involvement in promoting the development of breast cancer bone metastasis. Here, we studied the potential role of TGF-beta1 in the growth of RCC bone metastasis (RBM).

Materials And Methods: To inhibit TGF-beta1 signaling, RBM cells stably expressing a dominant-negative (DN) TGF-betaRII cDNA were generated. The in vivo effect of TGF-beta1 on RBM tumor growth and osteolysis was determined by histological and radiographic analysis, respectively, of athymic nude mice after intratibial injection of parental, empty vector, or DN RBM cells. The in vitro effect of TGF-beta1 on RBM cell growth was determined after TGF-beta1 treatment by MTT assay.

Results: TGF-beta1 and the TGF-beta receptors I and II (TGF-betaRI/II) were consistently expressed in both RBM tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of TGF-beta1 signaling in RBM cells significantly reduced tumor establishment and osteolysis observed in vivo after injection into the murine tibia, although no effect on tumor establishment was observed after injection of RBM cells subcutaneously or into the renal subcapsule. Treatment of five RBM cell lines with TGF-beta1 in vitro either had no effect (2/5) or resulted in a significant inhibition (3/5) of cell growth, suggesting that TGF-beta1 may promote RBM tumor growth indirectly in vivo.

Conclusions: TGF-beta1 stimulation of RBM cells plays a role in promoting tumor growth and subsequent osteolysis in vivo, likely through the initiation of tumor-promoting paracrine interactions between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment. These data suggest that inhibition of TGF-beta1 signaling may be useful in the treatment of RBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.061005DOI Listing
January 2007

Claudins: emerging targets for cancer therapy.

Authors:
Scott L Kominsky

Expert Rev Mol Med 2006 Aug 4;8(18):1-11. Epub 2006 Aug 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

The claudin (CLDN) family of transmembrane proteins plays a critical role in the maintenance of epithelial and endothelial tight junctions. In addition to their function in preserving the structure of tight junctions, CLDNs might also play a role in the maintenance of the cytoskeleton and in cell signalling. Interestingly, several studies have recently reported specific CLDN family members to be overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer types. Although their functional role in cancer progression remains unclear, the differential expression of these proteins between tumour and normal cells, in addition to their membrane localisation, makes them prime candidates for cancer therapy. Preclinical studies have shown that tumour cells overexpressing CLDNs can be successfully targeted via several approaches, including the use of anti-CLDN antibodies as well as the cytolytic enterotoxin from Clostridium perfringens. Further studies are needed to determine the potential systemic toxicity of this approach considering the ubiquitous expression of CLDNs in the body, but CLDN-targeted therapeutics appear to have promise in the treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1462399406000056DOI Listing
August 2006

Ductal access for prevention and therapy of mammary tumors.

Cancer Res 2006 Jan;66(2):638-45

Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

In cancer patients and in those at high risk, systemic exposure to agents for therapy or prevention is accompanied by undesirable side effects. We hypothesized that it is possible to prevent and treat breast cancer by introducing anticancer agents into the mammary ductal network. Here, we show the efficacy of intraductally administered anticancer agents 4-hydroxytamoxifen and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer using the rat N-methyl-N'-nitrosourea-induced and spontaneous HER-2/neu transgenic mouse (neu-N) models of breast cancer. Intraductal administration of PLD to neu-N mice caused regression of established tumors and prevented tumor development more effectively than i.v. injection (P < 0.0001). Intraductal administration resulted in lower circulating levels of PLD compared with i.v. administration, with no evidence of systemic toxicity or long-term histopathologic changes in the mammary gland. Compared with systemic administration, intraductal injection provides direct access to breast lesions with higher local and lower systemic drug exposure. These studies suggest that this approach has potential for application to prevention and neoadjuvant therapy of early breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-4329DOI Listing
January 2006

Twist overexpression induces in vivo angiogenesis and correlates with chromosomal instability in breast cancer.

Cancer Res 2005 Dec;65(23):10801-9

Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Aggressive cancer phenotypes are a manifestation of many different genetic alterations that promote rapid proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we show that stable overexpression of Twist in a breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, altered its morphology to a fibroblastic-like phenotype, which exhibited protein markers representative of a mesenchymal transformation. In addition, it was observed that MCF-7/Twist cells had increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis when compared with empty vector control cells. The functional changes induced by VEGF in vivo were analyzed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of MCF-7/Twist-xenografted tumors. MRI showed that MCF-7/Twist tumors exhibited higher vascular volume and vascular permeability in vivo than the MCF-7/vector control xenografts. Moreover, elevated expression of Twist in breast tumor samples obtained from patients correlated strongly with high-grade invasive carcinomas and with chromosome instability, particularly gains of chromosomes 1 and 7. Taken together, these results show that Twist overexpression in breast cancer cells can induce angiogenesis, correlates with chromosomal instability, and promotes an epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition that is pivotal for the transformation into an aggressive breast cancer phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5575828PMC
December 2005

Very high frequency of hypermethylated genes in breast cancer metastasis to the bone, brain, and lung.

Clin Cancer Res 2004 May;10(9):3104-9

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

Purpose: Most often it is not the primary tumor, but metastasis to distant organs that results in the death of breast cancer patients. To characterize molecular alterations in breast cancer metastasis, we investigated the frequency of hypermethylation of five genes (Cyclin D2, RAR-beta, Twist, RASSF1A, and HIN-1) in metastasis to four common sites: lymph node, bone, brain, and lung.

Experimental Design: Methylation-specific PCR for the five genes was performed on DNA extracted from archival paraffin-embedded specimens of paired primary breast cancer and its lymph nodes (LN) metastasis (n = 25 each); in independent samples of metastasis to the bone (n = 12), brain (n = 8), and lung (n = 10); and in normal bone, brain, and lung (n = 22).

Results: No hypermethylation was detected in the five genes in the normal host tissues. In paired samples, LN metastasis had a trend of higher prevalence of methylation compared with the primary breast carcinoma for all five genes with significance for HIN-1 (P = 0.04). Compared with the primary breast carcinomas, all five genes had higher methylation frequencies in the bone, brain, and lung metastasis, with HIN-1 and RAR-beta methylation being significantly higher (P < 0.01) in each group. Loss of expression of all five genes correlated, with a few exceptions, to hypermethylation of their promoter sequences in metastatic carcinoma cells microdissected from LNs.

Conclusion: The frequent presence of hypermethylated genes in locoregional and distant metastasis could render them particularly susceptible to therapy targeted toward gene reactivation combining demethylating agents, histone deacetylase inhibitors, and/or differentiating agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-03-0118DOI Listing
May 2004

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin elicits rapid and specific cytolysis of breast carcinoma cells mediated through tight junction proteins claudin 3 and 4.

Am J Pathol 2004 May;164(5):1627-33

Breast Cancer Program, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) induces cytolysis very rapidly through binding to its receptors, the tight junction proteins CLDN 3 and 4. In this study, we investigated CLDN 3 and 4 expression in breast cancer and tested the potential of CPE-mediated therapy. CLDN 3 and 4 proteins were detected in all primary breast carcinomas tested (n = 21) and, compared to normal mammary epithelium, were overexpressed in approximately 62% and 26%, respectively. Treatment of breast cancer cell lines in culture with CPE resulted in rapid and dose-dependent cytolysis exclusively in cells that expressed CLDN 3 and 4. Intratumoral CPE treatment of xenografts of T47D breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume (P = 0.007), with accompanying necrosis. Necrotic reactions were also seen in three freshly resected primary breast carcinoma samples treated with CPE for 12 hours, while isolated primary breast carcinoma cells underwent rapid and complete cytolysis within 1 hour. Thus, expression of CLDN 3 and 4 sensitizes primary breast carcinomas to CPE-mediated cytolysis and emphasizes the potential of CPE in breast cancer therapy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1615652PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63721-2DOI Listing
May 2004

Loss of the tight junction protein claudin-7 correlates with histological grade in both ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

Oncogene 2003 Apr;22(13):2021-33

Breast Cancer Program, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

Claudins are transmembrane proteins that seal tight junctions, and are critical for maintaining cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial cell sheets. However, their role in cancer progression remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that Claudin-7 (CLDN-7) expression is lower in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast than in normal breast epithelium, as determined by both RT-PCR (9/10) and Western analysis (6/8). Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and IDC showed that the loss of CLDN-7 expression correlated with histological grade in both DCIS (P<0.001, n=38) and IDC (P=0.014, n=31), occurring predominantly in high-grade (Nuclear and Elston grade 3) lesions. Tissue array analysis of 355 IDC cases further confirmed the inverse correlation between CLDN-7 expression and histological grade (P=0.03). This pattern of expression is consistent with the biological function of CLDN-7, as greater discohesion is typically observed in high-grade lesions. In line with this observation, by IHC analysis, CLDN-7 expression was lost in the vast majority (13/17) of cases of lobular carcinoma in situ, which is defined by cellular discohesion. In fact, inducing disassociation of MCF-7 and T47D cells in culture by treating with HGF/scatter factor resulted in a loss of CLDN-7 expression within 24 h. Silencing of CLDN-7 expression correlated with promoter hypermethylation as determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and nucleotide sequencing in breast cancer cell lines (3/3), but not in IDCs (0/5). In summary, these studies provide insight into the potential role of CLDN-7 in the progression and ability of breast cancer cells to disseminate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1206199DOI Listing
April 2003