Publications by authors named "Scott Hartman"

19 Publications

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Combinations of peptides synergistically activate the regenerative capacity of skin cells in vitro.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Objective: To explore synergistic effects related to skin regeneration, peptides with distinct biological mechanisms of action were evaluated in combination with different skin cell lines in the presence or absence of niacinamide (Nam). Furthermore, the synergistic responses of peptide combinations on global gene expression were compared with the changes that occur with fractional laser resurfacing treatment, a gold standard approach for skin rejuvenation, to further define optimal peptide combinations.

Methods: Microarray profiling was used to characterize the biological responses of peptide combinations (+/- Nam) relative to the individual components in epidermal keratinocyte and dermal fibroblast cell lines. Cellular functional assays were utilized to confirm the synergistic effects of peptide combinations. Bioinformatics approaches were used to link the synergistic effects of peptide combinations on gene expression to the transcriptomics of the skin rejuvenation response from fractional laser treatment.

Results: Microarray analysis of skin cells treated with peptide combinations revealed synergistic changes in gene expression compared with individual peptide controls. Bioinformatic analysis of synergy genes in keratinocytes revealed the activation of NRF2-mediated oxidative stress responses by a combination of Ac-PPYL, Pal-KTTKS and Nam. Additional analysis revealed direct downstream transcriptional targets of NRF2/ARE exhibiting synergistic regulation by this combination of materials, which was corroborated by a cellular reporter assay. NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathways were also found to be activated in the transcriptomics of the early skin rejuvenation response to fractional laser treatment, suggesting the importance of this biology in the early stages of tissue repair. Additionally, the second combination of peptides (pal-KT and Ac-PPYL) was found to synergistically restore cellular ATP levels that had been depleted due to the presence of ROS, indicating an additional mechanism, whereby peptide synergies may accelerate skin repair.

Conclusion: Through combinatorial synergy studies, we have identified additional in vitro skin repair mechanisms beyond the previously described functions of individual peptides and correlated these to the transcriptomics of the skin rejuvenation response of fractional laser treatment. These findings suggest that specific peptides can act together, via complementary and synergistic mechanisms, to holistically enhance the regenerative capacity of in vitro skin cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12725DOI Listing
July 2021

Modeling Dragons: Using linked mechanistic physiological and microclimate models to explore environmental, physiological, and morphological constraints on the early evolution of dinosaurs.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(5):e0223872. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.

We employed the widely-tested biophysiological modeling software, Niche Mapper™ to investigate the metabolic function of the Late Triassic dinosaurs Plateosaurus and Coelophysis during global greenhouse conditions. We tested a variety of assumptions about resting metabolic rate, each evaluated within six microclimate models that bound paleoenvironmental conditions at 12° N paleolatitude, as determined by sedimentological and isotopic proxies for climate within the Chinle Formation of the southwestern United States. Sensitivity testing of metabolic variables and simulated "metabolic chamber" analyses support elevated "ratite-like" metabolic rates and intermediate "monotreme-like" core temperature ranges in these species of early saurischian dinosaur. Our results suggest small theropods may have needed partial to full epidermal insulation in temperate environments, while fully grown prosauropods would have likely been heat stressed in open, hot environments and should have been restricted to cooler microclimates such as dense forests or higher latitudes and elevations. This is in agreement with the Late Triassic fossil record and may have contributed to the latitudinal gap in the Triassic prosauropod record.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223872PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259893PMC
July 2020

Optimizing interconception care: Rationale for the IMPLICIT model.

Semin Perinatol 2020 06 14;44(4):151247. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

University of Rochester Medical Center, 55 Barrett Drive Suite 100, Webster NY 14580, United States.

Despite traditional prenatal interventions, the incidence of low birth weight and prematurity in the United States have not significantly decreased. Interconception care for women between pregnancies has been proposed as a method of improving various perinatal outcomes. Although broadly advocated by national groups, interconception care (ICC) has not been widely implemented. We describe best practices for an ICC model based on screening mothers for tobacco use, depression, folic acid intake, and inter-pregnancy interval at well child visits. Because of the model's flexibility, sites can readily customize implementation by incorporating the questions directly into existing workflows and using local service providers already working in maternal-child health. This model has demonstrated promising results and ease of implementation thus far, and offers great potential for improved perinatal outcomes and promotion of health equity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semperi.2020.151247DOI Listing
June 2020

A new paravian dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of North America supports a late acquisition of avian flight.

PeerJ 2019 10;7:e7247. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

University of Wisconsin Geology Museum, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

The last two decades have seen a remarkable increase in the known diversity of basal avialans and their paravian relatives. The lack of resolution in the relationships of these groups combined with attributing the behavior of specialized taxa to the base of Paraves has clouded interpretations of the origin of avialan flight. Here, we describe gen. et sp. nov., a new paravian theropod from the Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic) of Wyoming, USA, represented by a single adult or subadult specimen comprising a partial, well-preserved skull and postcranial skeleton. Limb proportions firmly establish as occupying a terrestrial, non-volant lifestyle. Our phylogenetic analysis emphasizes extensive taxonomic sampling and robust character construction, recovering the new taxon most parsimoniously as a troodontid close to , , and . Multiple alternative paravian topologies have similar degrees of support, but proposals of basal paravian archaeopterygids, avialan microraptorians, and being closer to Pygostylia than archaeopterygids or unenlagiines are strongly rejected. All parsimonious results support the hypothesis that each early paravian clade was plesiomorphically flightless, raising the possibility that avian flight originated as late as the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626525PMC
July 2019

Lower rotational inertia and larger leg muscles indicate more rapid turns in tyrannosaurids than in other large theropods.

PeerJ 2019 21;7:e6432. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA.

Synopsis: Tyrannosaurid dinosaurs had large preserved leg muscle attachments and low rotational inertia relative to their body mass, indicating that they could turn more quickly than other large theropods.

Methods: To compare turning capability in theropods, we regressed agility estimates against body mass, incorporating superellipse-based modeled mass, centers of mass, and rotational inertia (mass moment of inertia). Muscle force relative to body mass is a direct correlate of agility in humans, and torque gives potential angular acceleration. Agility scores therefore include rotational inertia values divided by proxies for (1) muscle force (ilium area and estimates of m. caudofemoralis longus cross-section), and (2) musculoskeletal torque. Phylogenetic ANCOVA (phylANCOVA) allow assessment of differences in agility between tyrannosaurids and non-tyrannosaurid theropods (accounting for both ontogeny and phylogeny). We applied conditional error probabilities () to stringently test the null hypothesis of equal agility.

Results: Tyrannosaurids consistently have agility index magnitudes twice those of allosauroids and some other theropods of equivalent mass, turning the body with both legs planted or pivoting over a stance leg. PhylANCOVA demonstrates definitively greater agilities in tyrannosaurids, and phylogeny explains nearly all covariance. Mass property results are consistent with those of other studies based on skeletal mounts, and between different figure-based methods (our main mathematical slicing procedures, lofted 3D computer models, and simplified graphical double integration).

Implications: The capacity for relatively rapid turns in tyrannosaurids is ecologically intriguing in light of their monopolization of large (>400 kg), toothed dinosaurian predator niches in their habitats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387760PMC
February 2019

Clinician and Staff Perceptions of Barriers to Providing Contraception in Primary Care.

PRiMER 2019 8;3. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

University of Rochester Family Medicine Residency, Rochester, NY.

Introduction: Short interpregnancy periods increase the likelihood of preterm delivery and low birth weight,1 both of which are significant causes of infant morbidity and mortality.2 Since nearly half of pregnancies in the United States are unplanned,3 opportunities exist to better understand barriers to contraceptive services. Studying these barriers as perceived by clinical staff can better guide programs to improve interpregnancy spacing.

Methods: Between September and November 2017, 76 staff and 95 primary care clinicians from two family medicine residency practices (Highland Family Medicine (HFM) in Rochester, New York and St Margaret Family Medicine (SM) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) completed surveys. Questions assessed perceived barriers to providing contraceptive services, contraception knowledge, and opportunities for improvement. Survey-based analysis focused on comparative descriptive statistics between staff and provider responses.

Results: Clinicians ranked side effects and patient lack of awareness and misconceptions about contraceptive methods more highly than staff (=0.0073 and =0.0001, respectively). Staff identified childcare and work absence as more significant barriers (=0.0114 and =0.0380, respectively). Providers felt appointment timing was the largest constraint to contraceptive care. Staff perceived financial limitations and scheduling to be the top barriers. Nonclinician staff exhibited significant knowledge gaps regarding contraception.

Conclusions: Numerous modifiable barriers contribute to difficulty providing contraceptive services. Providers and staff largely agree on the perceived barriers, but there is a significant gap in nonclinician staff knowledge of contraception. Education can address one of the leading concerns, but improvement efforts should also address areas such as availability of devices, scheduling issues, and resident supervision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22454/PRiMER.2019.228141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205092PMC
February 2019

Gastroenteritis in Children.

Am Fam Physician 2019 02;99(3):159-165

University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. Evaluation of a child with acute gastroenteritis should include a recent history of fluid intake and output. Significant dehydration is unlikely if parents report no decrease in oral intake or urine output and no vomiting. The physical examination is the best way to evaluate hydration status. The four-item Clinical Dehydration Scale can be used to determine severity of dehydration based on physical examination findings. In children with mild illness, stool microbiological tests are not routinely needed when viral gastroenteritis is the likely diagnosis. Mild gastroenteritis in children can be managed at home. Oral rehydration therapy, such as providing half-strength apple juice followed by the child's preferred liquids, is the mainstay of treatment for mild dehydration and is as effective as intravenous rehydration for preventing hospitalization and return to the emergency department. Oral rehydration solutions are recommended for moderate dehydration. Ondansetron may be prescribed if needed to prevent vomiting and improve tolerance of oral rehydration solutions. Hospitalization and intravenous fluids are recommended for children who do not respond to oral rehydration therapy plus an antiemetic and patients with severe dehydration (i.e., signs of shock or more than 10% dehydration). Handwashing, breastfeeding, and rotavirus vaccination reduce the incidence of acute gastroenteritis in young children.
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February 2019

Supporting Family Physician Maternity Care Providers.

Fam Med 2018 10;50(9):662-671

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA.

Maternity care access in the United States is in crisis. The American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology projects that by 2030 there will be a nationwide shortage of 9,000 obstetrician-gynecologists (OB/GYNs). Midwives and OB/GYNs have been called upon to address this crisis, yet in underserved areas, family physicians are often providing a majority of this care. Family medicine maternity care, a natural fit for the discipline, has been on sharp decline in recent years for many reasons including difficulties cultivating interdisciplinary relationships, navigating privileging, developing and maintaining adequate volume/competency, and preventing burnout. In 2016 and 2017, workshops were held among family medicine educators with resultant recommendations for essential strategies to support family physician maternity care providers. This article summarizes these strategies, provides guidance, and highlights the role family physicians have in addressing maternity care access for the underserved as well as presenting innovative ideas to train and retain rural family physician maternity care providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22454/FamMed.2018.325322DOI Listing
October 2018

A guide to providing wide-ranging care to newborns.

J Fam Pract 2018 04;67(4):E4-E15

Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY, USA.

Here's how to refine your care, which includes an assessment of neonatal feedings, the evaluation of jaundice and fever, and the prevention of SIDS.
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April 2018

Delivering Interconception Care During Well-Child Visits: An IMPLICIT Network Study.

J Am Board Fam Med 2018 Mar-Apr;31(2):201-210

From the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) St. Margaret Family Medicine Residency, Pittsburgh, PA (SS); UPMC Shadyside Family Medicine Residency, Pittsburgh (LS); Middlesex Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program, Middletown, CT (SER); MAHEC Family Health Centers, Asheville, NC (DJF); Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (SGH); Lancaster General Research Institute, Lancaster, PA (MAH); IMPLICIT Network and UPMC McKeesport, Shadyside and St. Margaret Family Health Centers, Pittsburgh (JLB); Lancaster General Family Medicine Residency, Lancaster (SR).

Background: Preterm birth, birth defects, and unintended pregnancy are major sources of infant and maternal morbidity, mortality, and associated resource use in American health care. Interconception Care (ICC) is recommended as a strategy to improve birth outcomes by modifying maternal risks between pregnancies, but no established model currently exists. The Interventions to Minimize Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants through Continuous Improvement Techniques (IMPLICIT) Network developed and implemented a unique approach to ICC by assessing mothers during their baby's well-child visits (WCVs) up to 24 months.

Methods: Mothers who accompanied their children to WCVs at eleven eastern US family medicine residency programs underwent screening for four risk factors (tobacco use, depression risk, contraception use to avoid unintended pregnancy and prolong interpregnancy interval, and use of a multivitamin with folic acid). Positive screens in women were addressed through brief interventions or referrals to treatment.

Results: Mothers accompanied their babies to 92.7% of WCVs. At more than half of WCVs (69.1%), mothers were screened for presence of ICC behavioral risks, although significant practice variation existed. Risk factors were identified at significant rates (tobacco use, 16.2%; depression risk, 8.1%; lack of contraception use, 28.2%; lack of multivitamin use, 45.4%). Women screened positive for 1 or more ICC risk factor at 64.6% of WCVs. Rates of documented interventions for women who screened positive were also substantial (tobacco use, 80.0%; depression risk, 92.8%; lack of contraception use, 76.0%; lack of multivitamin use, 58.2%).

Conclusion: WCVs provide a reliable point of contact with mothers and a unique opportunity to assess and address behavioral risks for future poor birth outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2018.02.170227DOI Listing
September 2019

Basal paravian functional anatomy illuminated by high-detail body outline.

Nat Commun 2017 03 1;8:14576. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China.

Body shape is a fundamental expression of organismal biology, but its quantitative reconstruction in fossil vertebrates is rare. Due to the absence of fossilized soft tissue evidence, the functional consequences of basal paravian body shape and its implications for the origins of avians and flight are not yet fully understood. Here we reconstruct the quantitative body outline of a fossil paravian Anchiornis based on high-definition images of soft tissues revealed by laser-stimulated fluorescence. This body outline confirms patagia-bearing arms, drumstick-shaped legs and a slender tail, features that were probably widespread among paravians. Finely preserved details also reveal similarities in propatagial and footpad form between basal paravians and modern birds, extending their record to the Late Jurassic. The body outline and soft tissue details suggest significant functional decoupling between the legs and tail in at least some basal paravians. The number of seemingly modern propatagial traits hint that feathering was a significant factor in how basal paravians utilized arm, leg and tail function for aerodynamic benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5339877PMC
March 2017

The Need to Enhance Women's Health Training Opportunities in Internal Medicine Residency Programs.

Authors:
Scott G Hartman

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2017 02 4;26(2):97-98. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center , Rochester, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2016.6131DOI Listing
February 2017

The Importance of Antenatal Partner Support.

Authors:
Scott Hartman

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2016 07 16;25(7):659-61. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester , Rochester, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2016.5773DOI Listing
July 2016

ABM Clinical Protocol #19: Breastfeeding Promotion in the Prenatal Setting, Revision 2015.

Breastfeed Med 2015 Dec;10(10):451-7

2 Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester , Rochester, New York.

A central goal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2015.29016.rosDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4685902PMC
December 2015

Group Prenatal Care: A Financial Perspective.

Matern Child Health J 2016 Jan;20(1):1-10

Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Introduction: Multiple studies have demonstrated improved perinatal outcomes for group prenatal care (GPC) when compared to traditional prenatal care. Benefits of GPC include lower rates of prematurity and low birth weight, fewer cesarean deliveries, improved breastfeeding outcomes and improved maternal satisfaction with care. However, the outpatient financial costs of running a GPC program are not well established.

Methods: This study involved the creation of a financial model that forecasted costs and revenues for prenatal care groups with various numbers of participants based on numerous variables, including patient population, payor mix, patient show rates, staffing mix, supply usage and overhead costs. The model was developed for use in an urban underserved practice.

Results: Adjusted revenue per pregnancy in this model was found to be $989.93 for traditional care and $1080.69 for GPC. Cost neutrality for GPC was achieved when each group enrolled an average of 10.652 women with an enriched staffing model or 4.801 women when groups were staffed by a single nurse and single clinician.

Conclusions: Mathematical cost-benefit modeling in an urban underserved practice demonstrated that GPC can be not only financially sustainable but possibly a net income generator for the outpatient clinic. Use of this model could offer maternity care practices an important tool for demonstrating the financial practicality of GPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-015-1802-2DOI Listing
January 2016

Analysis of Affymetrix GeneChip data using amplified RNA.

Biotechniques 2006 Feb;40(2):165-6, 168, 170

Department of Oncology, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

When small biological samples are collected by microdissection or other methods, amplification techniques are required to provide sufficient target for hybridization to expression arrays. One such technique is to perform two successive rounds of T7-based in vitro transcription. However the use of random primers, required to regenerate cDNA from the first round of transcription, results in shortened copies of cDNA from which the 5' end is missing. In this paper we describe an experiment designed to compare the quality of data obtained from labeling small RNA samples using the Affymetrix Two-Cycle Eukaryotic. Target Labeling procedure to that of data obtained using the One-Cycle Eukaryotic Target Labeling protocol. We utilized different preprocessing algorithms to compare the data generated using both labeling methods and present a new algorithm that improves upon existing ones in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/000112057DOI Listing
February 2006

A low density of 0.8 g cm(-3) for the Trojan binary asteroid 617 Patroclus.

Nature 2006 Feb;439(7076):565-7

Department of Astronomy, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

The Trojan population consists of two swarms of asteroids following the same orbit as Jupiter and located at the L4 and L5 stable Lagrange points of the Jupiter-Sun system (leading and following Jupiter by 60 degrees ). The asteroid 617 Patroclus is the only known binary Trojan. The orbit of this double system was hitherto unknown. Here we report that the components, separated by 680 km, move around the system's centre of mass, describing a roughly circular orbit. Using this orbital information, combined with thermal measurements to estimate the size of the components, we derive a very low density of 0.8(- 0.1)+0.2 g cm(-3). The components of 617 Patroclus are therefore very porous or composed mostly of water ice, suggesting that they could have been formed in the outer part of the Solar System.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04350DOI Listing
February 2006

Photocarcinogenesis in human adult skin grafts.

Carcinogenesis 2002 Jan;23(1):181-7

The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

It has been demonstrated previously that the exposure to 7,12-dimethyl[a]benzanthracene (DMBA) and UVB radiation leads to the development of epidermal cysts, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), melanocytic hyperplasia and melanoma in human foreskins from newborns grafted to immunodeficient mice. Improved techniques in grafting full-thickness skin from adults have enabled us to study photocarcinogenesis in human skin from different body sites and from older donors. One hundred and fifty-five normal white skin specimens from the trunk and face of 53 adult individuals were grafted onto severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) and recombinase activating gene-1 (Rag-1) knockout mice and irradiated two to three times weekly with 40 mJ/cm(2) UVB or solar-simulated UV (SSUV) over a period of up to 10 months with or without one prior topical application of DMBA. Over an observation period of 2-22 months, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of 134 specimens revealed actinic keratoses in 30% of the DMBA- + UV-treated grafts, in 18% of the grafts exposed to SSUV only, and in 10% of the grafts exposed to UVB only. Actinic keratoses were absent in grafts treated with DMBA only. One SCC was found in an abdominal skin graft 3 months after exposure to DMBA followed by UVB. Point mutations in codon 61 of the human Ha-ras gene were detected in the SCC, five of six analyzed actinic keratoses and in non-lesional epidermis of DMBA- and UVB-treated grafts, indicating that DMBA as well as UVB alone can induce these mutations in human skin. In contrast to the previous experience with neonatal foreskin grafts, melanocytic lesions were not found except for mild hyperplasia in few cases. The data suggest that melanocytes from young individuals are more susceptible to the transforming effects of genotoxic agents than melanocytes from adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.1.181DOI Listing
January 2002
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