Publications by authors named "Scott D Kristenson"

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Transthoracic Echocardiography: Beginner's Guide with Emphasis on Blind Spots as Identified with CT and MRI.

Radiographics 2021 Jul-Aug;41(4):1022-1042. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

From the Departments of Radiology (M.D.G., R.D.M., S.D.K., R.M.B., J.D.M., D.W.G., E.A.R.) and Cardiology (J.M.R.), Madigan Army Medical Center, 9040 Jackson Ave, Tacoma, WA 98431; and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Md (M.D.G., J.M.R., D.W.G., E.A.R.).

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the primary initial imaging modality in cardiac imaging. Advantages include portability, safety, availability, and ability to assess the morphology and physiology of the heart in a noninvasive manner. Because of this, many patients who undergo advanced imaging with CT or MRI will have undergone prior TTE, particularly when cardiac CT angiography or cardiac MRI is performed. In the modern era, the increasing interconnectivity of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) has made these images more available for comparison. Therefore, radiologists who interpret chest imaging studies should have a basic understanding of TTE, including its strengths and limitations, to make accurate comparisons and assist in rendering a diagnosis or avoiding a misdiagnosis. The authors present the standard TTE views along with multiplanar reformatted CT images for correlation. This is followed by examples of limitations of TTE, focusing on potential blind spots, which have been placed in seven categories on the basis of the structures involved: pericardium (thickening, calcification, effusions, cysts, masses), aorta (dissection, intramural hematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer), left ventricular apex (infarcts, aneurysms, thrombus, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), cardiac valves (complications of native and prosthetic valves), left atrial appendage (thrombus), coronary arteries (origins, calcifications, fistulas, aneurysms), and extracardiac structures (primary and metastatic masses). . RSNA, 2021.
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June 2021