Publications by authors named "Scott Clements"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Insight Into the Ontogeny of GnRH Neurons From Patients Born Without a Nose.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 05;105(5)

Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, North Carolina.

Context: The reproductive axis is controlled by a network of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons born in the primitive nose that migrate to the hypothalamus alongside axons of the olfactory system. The observation that congenital anosmia (inability to smell) is often associated with GnRH deficiency in humans led to the prevailing view that GnRH neurons depend on olfactory structures to reach the brain, but this hypothesis has not been confirmed.

Objective: The objective of this work is to determine the potential for normal reproductive function in the setting of completely absent internal and external olfactory structures.

Methods: We conducted comprehensive phenotyping studies in 11 patients with congenital arhinia. These studies were augmented by review of medical records and study questionnaires in another 40 international patients.

Results: All male patients demonstrated clinical and/or biochemical signs of GnRH deficiency, and the 5 men studied in person had no luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses, suggesting absent GnRH activity. The 6 women studied in person also had apulsatile LH profiles, yet 3 had spontaneous breast development and 2 women (studied from afar) had normal breast development and menstrual cycles, suggesting a fully intact reproductive axis. Administration of pulsatile GnRH to 2 GnRH-deficient patients revealed normal pituitary responsiveness but gonadal failure in the male patient.

Conclusions: Patients with arhinia teach us that the GnRH neuron, a key gatekeeper of the reproductive axis, is associated with but may not depend on olfactory structures for normal migration and function, and more broadly, illustrate the power of extreme human phenotypes in answering fundamental questions about human embryology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
May 2020

Reduction of Insulin Related Preventable Severe Hypoglycemic Events in Hospitalized Children.

Pediatrics 2016 07 17;138(1). Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz, Aurora, Colorado; and.

Objective: Insulin is a commonly used, high-risk medication in the inpatient setting. Incorrect insulin administration can lead to preventable hypoglycemic events, which are a significant morbidity in inpatient diabetes care. The goal of this intervention was to decrease preventable insulin-related hypoglycemic events in an inpatient setting in a tertiary care pediatric hospital.

Methods: Methods included the institution of several interventions such as nursing and physician education, electronic medical record order sets, electronic communication note templates, and the development of new care guidelines.

Results: After the institution of multiple interventions, the rate of preventable hypoglycemic events decreased from 1.4 preventable events per 100 insulin days to 0.4 preventable events per 100 insulin days.

Conclusions: Through the use of a multi-interventional approach with oversight of a multidisciplinary insulin safety committee, a sustained decreased rate of severe preventable hypoglycemic events in hospitalized pediatric patients receiving insulin was achieved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
July 2016

Use of Telemedicine to Improve Adherence to American Diabetes Association Standards in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2016 Jan 21;18(1):7-14. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

4 Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine , Aurora, Colorado.

Background: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) see a multidisciplinary team and have hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels measured every 3 months. Patients in rural areas may not follow guidelines because of limited specialty care access. We hypothesized that videoconferencing would result in equivalent A1C compared with in-person visits and increased compliance with ADA recommendations.

Materials And Methods: The Barbara Davis Center (BDC) (Aurora, CO) telemedicine program provides diabetes care to pediatric patients in Casper and Cheyenne, WY, via remote consultation with annual in-person visits. Over 27 months, 70 patients were consented, and 54 patients completed 1 year in the study.

Results: Patients were 70% male, with a mean age of 12.1 ± 4.1 years and T1D duration of 5.4 ± 4.1 years. There was no significant change between baseline and 1-year A1C levels for patients with data at both time points. Patients saw diabetes specialists an average of 2.0 ± 1.3 times per year in the year prior to starting telemedicine and 2.9 ± 1.3 times (P < 0.0001) in the year after starting telemedicine. Patients and families missed significantly less school and work time to attend appointments.

Conclusions: Our study suggests telemedicine is equivalent to in-person visits to maintain A1C, whereas families increase the number of visits in line with ADA recommendations. Patients and families miss less school and work. Decreased financial burden and increased access may improve overall diabetes care and compliance for rural patients. Further study is needed to detect long-term differences in complications screenings and the financial impact of telemedicine on pediatric diabetes care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
January 2016

Association of apolipoprotein B, LDL-C and vascular stiffness in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Acta Diabetol 2015 Jun 25;52(3):611-9. Epub 2014 Dec 25.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA,

Aims: LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is the current lipid standard for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-risk assessment in type 1 diabetes. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) may be helpful to further stratify CVD risk. We explored the association between apoB and pulse wave velocity (PWV) to determine if apoB would improve CVD-risk stratification, especially in type 1 diabetes adolescents with borderline LDL-C (100-129 mg/dL). We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes adolescents with borderline LDL-C and elevated apoB (≥90 mg/dL) would have increased PWV compared to those with borderline LDL-C and normal apoB (<90 mg/dL), and that apoB would explain more of the variability of PWV than alternative lipid indices.

Methods: Fasting lipids, including apoB, were collected in 267 adolescents, age 12-19 years, with diabetes duration >5 years and HbA1c 8.9 ± 1.6 %. Triglyceride to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C) and nonHDL-cholesterol (nonHDL-C) were calculated. PWV was measured in the carotid-femoral segment.

Results: ApoB, nonHDL-C and TG/HDL-C correlated with PWV (p < 0.0001). ApoB, nonHDL-C and TG/HDL-C remained significantly associated with PWV in fully adjusted models. In adolescents with borderline LDL-C (n = 61), PWV was significantly higher in those with elevated apoB than in those with normal apoB (5.6 ± 0.6 vs. 5.2 ± 0.6 m/s, p < 0.01) and also remained significant after adjustment for CVD-risk factors (p = 0.0002). Moreover, in those with borderline LDL-C, apoB explained more of the variability of PWV than nonHDL-C and TG/HDL-C.

Conclusion: Elevated apoB is associated with increased arterial stiffness in type 1 diabetes adolescents. Measurement of apoB in addition to LDL-C may be helpful in stratifying CVD risk in type 1 diabetes adolescents, especially in those with borderline LDL-C.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2015

Lower A1c among adolescents with lower perceived A1c goal: a cross-sectional survey.

Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2013 Oct 24;2013(1):17. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Utah Diabetes & Endocrinology Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, 615 Arapeen Dr, Suite 100, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA.

Background: The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) have established a hemoglobin A1c (A1c) target of less than 7.5% for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, many adolescents are unaware of their A1c target, and little data exist on how knowledge of this A1c target affects the actual A1c they achieve. We sought to evaluate the relationship between awareness of the A1c target and the actual A1c achieved in adolescents with T1D.

Methods: In a cohort of 240 adolescents with T1D age 13-19 years, we measured A1c and administered a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of the ISPAD guideline for A1c target.

Results: Of the total cohort, 42 subjects (18%) had an A1c below target and 198 subjects (82%) had an A1c above target. Almost all subjects (98%) reported that they were told their A1c target by a healthcare provider, and most of those (88%) claimed to know their A1c target, but few (8%) were correct. More subjects with actual A1c below 7.5% thought their A1c goal was lower than the ISPAD target, compared to subjects with A1c above target (75% vs. 59%, p = 0.07), although this did not achieve statistical significance.

Conclusion: In this cohort of adolescents with T1D, there was a trend toward a lower achieved A1c in those with a lower perceived A1c goal. Further studies should focus on identification of factors influencing an adolescent's ability to achieve a lower A1c.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
October 2013

Supraclavicular swelling in hypothyroidism.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2011 Aug;23(4):482-5

The Children's Hospital and The University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Hypothyroidism can have a variety of presentations. We report here a case of acquired hypothyroidism in a pediatric patient who first presented with bilateral supraclavicular swelling. Hypothyroidism and its presenting signs and symptoms are discussed with a focus on the less common findings that can be associated with hypothyroidism in children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
August 2011

Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a boy with macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.

Pediatrics 2011 Jun 2;127(6):e1605-9. Epub 2011 May 2.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a highly specialized parasitic bacterium that is a significant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Although most such respiratory infections are mild, a minor percentage of patients require hospitalization and, occasionally, intensive treatment for respiratory failure. A variety of extrapulmonary sequelae of M pneumoniae infections have been described, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Macrolide resistance in M pneumoniae has developed rapidly in Asia, particularly in China, over the past decade and is now appearing in the United States. Emerging resistance to macrolides creates a therapeutic conundrum, particularly for pediatricians caring for young children in whom absolute or relative contraindications exist for the use of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones, the 2 other main classes of drugs shown to be efficacious for M pneumoniae. We describe here the case of a child with a prolonged febrile illness associated with Stevens-Johnson-like mucocutaneous involvement who was found to have a respiratory infection with macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2011

Infant with failure to thrive.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2011 Apr 19;50(4):364-6. Epub 2010 Aug 19.

University of South Alabama Children's and Women's Hospital, Mobile, AL 36688, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2011