Publications by authors named "Scott C Cutmore"

68 Publications

Eight species of Lintonium Stunkard & Nigrelli, 1930 (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) in Australian tetraodontiform fishes.

Syst Parasitol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

We report eight species of Lintonium from tetraodontiform fishes from Australian waters and describe six of them as new. Two species are described from tetraodontids from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR): Lintonium kostadinovae n. sp. from Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider) and Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus); and Lintonium droneni n. sp. from A. nigropunctatus. Two species are described from temperate monacanthids: Lintonium crowcrofti n. sp. from Meuschenia hippocrepis (Quoy & Gaimard) and Meuschenia freycineti (Quoy & Gaimard) off Tasmania and from M. hippocrepis off Glenelg, South Australia and off Fremantle, Western Australia; and Lintonium blendi n. sp. from M. hippocrepis off Stanley, Tasmania. The final two new species are described from tropical monacanthids: Lintonium currani n. sp. from Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell) from Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia; and Lintonium madhaviae n. sp. from Amanses scopas (Cuvier) from the southern GBR. Two previously described species are reported from tetraodontids: Lintonium pulchrum (Johnston, 1913) Yamaguti, 1954 from Arothron stellatus (Anonymous), A. hispidus, A. manilensis (Marion de Procé) and Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider) from the GBR and southern Queensland; and Lintonium consors (Lühe, 1906) Crowcroft, 1950 from A. nigropunctatus from the southern GBR. Sequence data for three markers (ITS2 and 28S rDNA and cox1 mtDNA) for six of the eight species (L. crowcrofti n. sp., L. currani n. sp., L. droneni n. sp., L. kostadinovae n. sp., L. madhaviae n. sp. and L. pulchrum) are the first for the genus and distinguish each species unambiguously. Many records of species of Lintonium, especially widespread records of the type species, L. vibex (Linton, 1900) Stunkard & Nigrelli, 1930, remain to be clarified. A key finding of the present study is that three fish species (A. hispidus, A. nigropunctatus and M. hippocrepis) are identified as harbouring either two or three species of Lintonium at individual localities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-021-10000-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the problematic genus Cardicola (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) indicates massive polyphyly, dramatic morphological radiation and host-switching.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Aug 8;164:107290. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Novel multi-locus sequence data were used to assess the molecular phylogenetic relationships of fish blood flukes showing similarity to the genus Cardicola Short, 1953 (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae). Analyses of three ribosomal (ITS2, 28S & 18S) subregions and one mitochondrial (cox1) DNA subregion shows that the hitherto-monophyletic clade formed by species of Cardicola Short, 1953 also includes species of three other genera - Braya Nolan & Cribb, 2006, Elaphrobates Bullard & Overstreet, 2003 and Rhaphidotrema Yong & Cribb, 2011 - as well as a new, morphologically distinct species discovered from the heart of the yellowfin tripodfish, Tripodichthys angustifrons (Tetraodontiformes: Triacanthidae). In the context of conflicting morphological, molecular and ecological data, we argue that the recognition of seven genera produces a more satisfactory taxonomy for these parasites than considering them all as species of Cardicola. We thus recognise Cardicola (as an explicitly polyphyletic taxon) together with Braya, Elaphrobates, Rhaphidotrema and three new genera. We propose Allocardicola n. gen. for A. johnpagei n. sp. from T. angustifrons, Chanicola n. gen. for three species of Cardicola that infect the chanid Chanos chanos, and Spirocaecum n. gen. for six species of Cardicola that infect siganid fishes. We interpret the pattern of diversification seen in the clade of these seven genera as one of multiple host-switching events followed by diversification among closely-related hosts and differing levels of morphological divergence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107290DOI Listing
August 2021

Gastropod first intermediate hosts for two species of Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda): I can't believe it's not bivalves!

Int J Parasitol 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

The trematode superfamily Monorchioidea comprises three families of teleost parasites: the Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911, Lissorchiidae Magath, 1917, and Deropristidae Cable & Hunninen, 1942. All presently known lissorchiid and deropristid life cycles have gastropods as first intermediate hosts, whereas those of monorchiids involve bivalves. Here, we report an unexpected intermediate host for monorchiids; two species of Hurleytrematoides Yamaguti, 1954 use gastropods as first intermediate hosts. Sporocysts and cercariae were found infecting two species of the family Vermetidae, highly specialised sessile gastropods that form calcareous tubes, from two locations off the coast of Queensland, Australia. These intramolluscan infections broadly corresponded morphologically to those of known monorchiids in that the cercariae have a spinous tegument, oral and ventral suckers, a simple tail and distinct eye-spots. Given the simplified morphology of intramolluscan infections, genetic data provided a definitive identification. ITS2 rDNA and cox1 mtDNA sequence data from the gastropod infections were identical to two species of Hurleytrematoides, parasites of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae); Hurleytrematoides loi McNamara & Cribb, 2011 from Moreton Bay (south-eastern Queensland) and Heron Island (southern Great Barrier Reef) and Hurleytrematoides morandi McNamara & Cribb, 2011 from Heron Island. Notably, species of Hurleytrematoides are positioned relatively basal in the phylogeny of the Monorchiidae and are a sister lineage to that of species known to infect bivalves. Thus, the most parsimonious evolutionary hypothesis to explain infection of gastropods by these monorchiids is that basal monorchiids (in our analyses, species of Cableia Sogandares-Bernal, 1959, Helicometroides Yamaguti, 1934 and Hurleytrematoides) will all prove to infect gastropods, suggesting a single host switching event into bivalves for more derived monorchiids (17 other genera in our phylogenetic analyses). A less parsimonious hypothesis is that the infection of vermetids will prove to be restricted to species of Hurleytrematoides, as an isolated secondary recolonisation of gastropods from a bivalve-infecting lineage. Regardless of how their use arose, vermetids represent a dramatic host jump relative to the rest of the Monorchiidae, one potentially enabled by their specialised feeding biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2021.05.003DOI Listing
June 2021

A new genus of Bucephalidae Poche, 1907 (Trematoda: Digenea) for three new species infecting the yellowtail pike, Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier (Sphyraenidae), from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia.

Syst Parasitol 2020 10 13;97(5):455-476. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Three new species of the family Bucephalidae Poche, 1907 (Trematoda: Digenea) are described from the yellowtail pike, Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier (Sphyraenidae), from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. The three species are morphologically consistent with the present broad concept of the genus Bucephalus Baer, 1827, but significant phylogenetic and ecological differences relative to the type-species of Bucephalus require the proposal of a new genus. Aenigmatrema n. g. is proposed for A. undecimtentaculatum n. sp. (type-species), A. inopinatum n. sp. and A. grandiovum n. sp. In addition, based on morphological, ecological and biogeographical similarities, we recombine two existing species of Bucephalus as Aenigmatrema kaku (Yamaguti, 1970) n. comb. and Aenigmatrema sphyraenae (Yamaguti, 1952) n. comb. Although the three species described in this study are extremely morphologically similar, they can be differentiated from each other, and from A. kaku and A. sphyraenae, morphometrically on the basis of egg size, tentacle number and a combination of the caecum and vitelline field lengths. Complete ITS2 rDNA, partial 28S rDNA and partial cox1 mtDNA sequence data were generated for the three new species, which formed a well-supported clade in all 28S phylogenetic analyses. An expanded phylogenetic tree for the subfamily Bucephalinae Poche, 1907 is presented, demonstrating unresolved issues with the morphology-based taxonomy of the subfamily. The three largest genera, Bucephalus, Rhipidocotyle Diesing, 1858 and Prosorhynchoides Dollfus, 1929 remain extensively polyphyletic, indicating the need for significant further systematic revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-020-09931-7DOI Listing
October 2020

Retroporomonorchis pansho n. g., n. sp., an unusual monorchiid trematode exploiting an atypical host.

Syst Parasitol 2020 10 8;97(5):441-454. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

The Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911 are well represented in tropical and subtropical marine fishes worldwide but rarely reported from the Lutjanidae, an important family of tropical fishes that prey mainly on demersal fishes, decapods and cephalopods. Here, we report the first monorchiid from a lutjanid in Australian waters, Retroporomonorchis pansho n. g., n. sp. in Lutjanus fulvus (Forster), off Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef. It is morphologically and phylogenetically distinct among known monorchiids, resolves within the Monorchiinae Odhner, 1911, and is characterised by a relatively large ventral sucker, a sinistral genital pore immediately posterior to the ventral sucker, unfilamented eggs, a single testis, and vitelline follicles restricted to the level of the gonads. We assessed all previous records of monorchiids from lutjanid fishes and found only one to be convincing, that of Infundiburictus overstreeti (Gupta & Gupta, 1990) Wee, Cutmore, Pérez-del-Olmo & Cribb, 2020 from Lutjanus monostigma (Cuvier) in the Bay of Bengal. Another, Monorcheides xishaensis Shen, 1985, from Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) in the Paracel Islands, South China Sea, is here recognised as a cryptogonimid, and is synonymised with Siphoderina asiatica Gu & Shen, 1979. In the remaining reports, the identity of the host is either ambiguous or doubtful, or the identity of the worm is not supported with sufficient evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-020-09926-4DOI Listing
October 2020

Pseudohurleytrema yolandae n. sp., the first monorchiid trematode reported from the Triacanthidae (Tetraodontiformes).

Syst Parasitol 2020 10 31;97(5):491-500. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Prior to the present study, species of the trematode family Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911 had been reported from four of the ten families of tetraodontiform fishes: the Balistidae, Monacanthidae, Ostraciidae and Tetraodontidae. Here we report the first monorchiid from the family Triacanthidae, Pseudohurleytrema yolandae n. sp. infecting Tripodichthys angustifrons (Hollard), from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. The species conforms well to the morphological concept of the subfamily Hurleytrematinae Yamaguti, 1958, and the genus Pseudohurleytrema Yamaguti, 1954, in the possession of filamented eggs, a bipartite terminal organ, and a unipartite seminal vesicle. Relative to the other three recognised species of Pseudohurleytrema, the present species is distinctive in the size of the testis and eggs, position of the ovary, and the form of the vitellarium and excretory vesicle. We consider Pseudohurleytrema magnum Kaikabad & Bilqees in Bilqees, 1991 as a species inquirenda. Sequence data for the 28S ribosomal RNA gene and cox1 mitochondrial gene were generated for P. yolandae, providing the first molecular data for the genus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. yolandae does not form a clade with the other three hurleytrematine genera for which there are molecular data (Helicometroides Yamaguti, 1934, Hurleytrematoides Yamaguti, 1953 and Provitellus Dove & Cribb, 1998), forming a poorly-supported clade with Proctotrema addisoni Searle, Cutmore & Cribb, 2014 within the clade of the subfamily Monorchiinae Odhner, 1911. The four hurleytrematine genera resolved as four distinct clades, indicating that the current subfamilial classification requires comprehensive revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-020-09924-6DOI Listing
October 2020

First steps to restructuring the problematic genus Lasiotocus Looss, 1907 (Digenea: Monorchiidae) with the proposal of four new genera.

Parasitol Int 2020 Dec 24;79:102164. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Lasiotocus Looss, 1907 is the largest genus within the Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911, with 52 species currently considered valid. Species belonging to this genus exhibit wide morphological variation and it is likely that many of them belong in other genera; however, testing the validity of the group has been hampered by a lack of molecular sequence data, especially for the type-species. Here, we report the first DNA sequences for Lasiotocus mulli (Stossich, 1883) Odhner, 1911, the type-species of the genus, and only the sixth Lasiotocus species to be sequenced. Sequences were generated for three ribosomal DNA markers, the ITS2, 18S and 28S regions, and for one mitochondrial DNA marker, the cox1 region. Phylogenetic analyses show that the six sequenced species form four clearly distinct clades, each of which we argue require separate genera. On the basis of these relationships and review of the morphology of all species in the genus, we propose a system of six genera. Four genera, Lasiotocus, the resurrected concept of Ancylocoelium Nicoll, 1912, Infundiburictus n. gen., and Sinistroporomonorchis n. gen., represent the four molecular clades. Two genera, Paralasiotocus n. gen. and Alloinfundiburictus n. gen., are proposed on the basis of morphology only. Ancylocoelium is resurrected for Ancylocoelium typicum Nicoll, 1912, Infundiburictus is erected for Lasiotocus arrhichostoma Searle, Cutmore & Cribb, 2014, Sinistroporomonorchis is erected for Lasiotocus glebulentus Overstreet, 1971and Lasiotocus lizae Liu, 2002, Paralasiotocus is erected for Lasiotocus okinawaensis Machida, 2011, and Alloinfundiburictus is erected for Lasiotocus cacuminatus Nicoll, 1915. Of the 52 species presently recognised in Lasiotocus, 43 are distributed among these genera; nine are considered species inquirendae or are transferred to other genera. We think it likely that more genera will be required for the species reviewed here but more sequence data are essential to further refine the classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2020.102164DOI Listing
December 2020

Visual Opsin Diversity in Sharks and Rays.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 03;37(3):811-827

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia.

The diversity of color vision systems found in extant vertebrates suggests that different evolutionary selection pressures have driven specializations in photoreceptor complement and visual pigment spectral tuning appropriate for an animal's behavior, habitat, and life history. Aquatic vertebrates in particular show high variability in chromatic vision and have become important models for understanding the role of color vision in prey detection, predator avoidance, and social interactions. In this study, we examined the capacity for chromatic vision in elasmobranch fishes, a group that have received relatively little attention to date. We used microspectrophotometry to measure the spectral absorbance of the visual pigments in the outer segments of individual photoreceptors from several ray and shark species, and we sequenced the opsin mRNAs obtained from the retinas of the same species, as well as from additional elasmobranch species. We reveal the phylogenetically widespread occurrence of dichromatic color vision in rays based on two cone opsins, RH2 and LWS. We also confirm that all shark species studied to date appear to be cone monochromats but report that in different species the single cone opsin may be of either the LWS or the RH2 class. From this, we infer that cone monochromacy in sharks has evolved independently on multiple occasions. Together with earlier discoveries in secondarily aquatic marine mammals, this suggests that cone-based color vision may be of little use for large marine predators, such as sharks, pinnipeds, and cetaceans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz269DOI Listing
March 2020

An identity crisis in the Indo-Pacific: molecular exploration of the genus Koseiria (Digenea: Enenteridae).

Int J Parasitol 2019 11 16;49(12):945-961. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

We explore the growing issue of cryptic speciation in the Digenea through study of museum material and newly collected specimens consistent with the enenterid genus Koseiria from five species of the Kyphosidae and Chaetodontoplus meredithi Kuiter (Pomacanthidae) collected in the Indo-Pacific. We use an integrated approach, employing traditional morphometrics, principal components analysis (PCA), and molecular data (ITS2 and 28S rDNA). Our results support recombination of Koseiria allanwilliamsi Bray & Cribb, 2002 as Proenenterum allanwilliamsi (Bray & Cribb, 2002) n. comb. and transfer of Koseiria huxleyi Bray & Cribb, 2001 to a new genus as Enenterageitus huxleyi (Bray & Cribb, 2002) n. comb. Molecular data indicate the presence of four further species consistent with Koseiria, one from Western Australia (sequence data only) and three from eastern Australia. All three eastern Australian species are morphologically consistent with Koseiria xishaensis Gu & Shen, 1983, but distinct from all other previously described species. Although K. xishaensis has been reported from Australia, we conclude that the similarity of the present forms to the original description of K. xishaensis means records of this species from Japan, Palau and Australia are unreliable. Because the eastern Australian forms cannot be reliably ascribed to K. xishaensis, we describe Koseiria argalea n. sp., Koseiria laiphopharophora n. sp., and Koseiria pyknophora n. sp., following application of PCAs and iterative refinement of species concepts and type series. These analyses did not allow convincing identification hypotheses for all specimens examined. In this genus, both morphological and molecular data, together with reliable host identifications, are essential for species recognition, and thus we refrain from attempting to name samples lacking molecular data. The issues presented by these taxa encapsulate those of trematodes in the region as a whole. Many records require dramatically improved supporting data, leading to substantial uncertainly in the identification of this fauna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2019.07.001DOI Listing
November 2019

Four new monorchiids from the golden trevally, Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Carangidae), in Moreton Bay, Australia.

Syst Parasitol 2019 04 22;96(3):265-278. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Four new monorchiid trematodes are reported from Moreton Bay, Australia; three new species of Provitellus Dove & Cribb, 1998 and one species of Ovipusillus Dove & Cribb, 1998, are described from Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål) (Carangidae), the golden trevally. Provitellus chaometra n. sp., Provitellus infrequens n. sp. and Provitellus infibrova n. sp. differ significantly from the only other species of this genus, Provitellus turrum Dove & Cribb, 1998, in the structure of the eggs, vitelline follicles and terminal organ. The four species are united, however, in the possession of short caeca and a long genital atrium, a combination not reported previously. Ovipusillus geminus n. sp. strongly resembles its only congener, Ovipusillus mayu Dove & Cribb, 1998, but differs in the morphology of the diverticulum in the cirrus-sac and the shape of the pharynx. Complete ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA sequence data were generated for all four species, as well as for two known species of Hurleytrematoides Yamaguti, 1953, Hurleytrematoides galzini McNamara & Cribb, 2011 and Hurleytrematoides loi McNamara & Cribb, 2011. These sequences were analysed with those for other monorchiids available on GenBank, and phylogenetic analyses showed that the four species of Provitellus and two species of Ovipusillus each form strongly supported clades. As with previous monorchiid phylogenetic studies, however, the overall resolution of the phylogeny of the Monorchiidae is poor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-019-09851-1DOI Listing
April 2019

A new genus and species of the trematode family Gyliauchenidae Fukui, 1929 from an unexpected, but plausible, host, Kyphosus cornelii (Perciformes: Kyphosidae).

Parasitology 2019 06 13;146(7):937-946. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences,Brisbane, QLD 4072,Australia.

The Enenteridae Yamaguti, 1958 and Gyliauchenidae Fukui, 1929 exhibit an interesting pattern of host partitioning in herbivorous fishes of the Indo-West Pacific. Enenterids are known almost exclusively from fishes of the family Kyphosidae, a group of herbivorous marine fishes common on tropical and temperate reefs. In contrast, gyliauchenids are found in most of the remaining lineages of marine herbivorous fishes, but until the present study, had never been known from kyphosids. Here we report on the first species of gyliauchenid known from a kyphosid. Endochortophagus protoporus gen. nov., sp. nov. was recovered from the Western buffalo bream, Kyphosus cornelii (Whitley, 1944), collected off Western Australia. Kyphosus cornelii also hosts an enenterid, Koseiria allanwilliamsi Bray & Cribb, 2002, and is thus the first fish known in which enenterids and gyliauchenids co-occur. Molecular phylogenetic analyses place the new species close to those of Affecauda Hall & Chambers, 1999 and Flagellotrema Ozaki, 1936, but there is sufficient morphological evidence, combined with the unusual host, to consider it distinct from these genera. We discuss factors which may have contributed to the host partitioning pattern observed between enenterids and gyliauchenids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182019000118DOI Listing
June 2019

Intermediate host switches drive diversification among the largest trematode family: evidence from the Polypipapiliotrematinae n. subf. (Opecoelidae), parasites transmitted to butterflyfishes via predation of coral polyps.

Int J Parasitol 2018 12 24;48(14):1107-1126. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

Podocotyloides stenometra Pritchard, 1966 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) is the only trematode known to infect anthozoan corals. It causes disease in coral polyps of the genus Porites Link (Scleractinia: Poritidae) and its life-cycle depends on ingestion of these polyps by butterflyfishes (Perciformes: Chaetodontidae). This species has been reported throughout the Indo-Pacific, from the Seychelles to the Galápagos, but no study has investigated whether multiple species are involved. Here, we recollect P. stenometra from its type-host and type-locality, in Hawaiian waters, and describe four new species from examination of 768 butterflyfishes from French Polynesia. On the basis of morphology, phylogeny and life-history, we propose Polypipapiliotrema Martin, Cutmore & Cribb n. gen. and the Polypipapiliotrematinae Martin, Cutmore & Cribb n. subf., for P. stenometra (Pritchard) n. comb., P. citerovarium Martin, Cutmore & Cribb n. sp., P. hadrometra Martin, Cutmore & Cribb n. sp., P. heniochi Martin, Cutmore & Cribb n. sp., and P. ovatheculum Martin, Cutmore & Cribb n. sp. Given the diversity uncovered here and the ubiquity, abundance and diversity of butterflyfishes on coral reefs, we predict that Polypipapiliotrema will prove to comprise a rich complex of species causing disease in corals across the Indo-Pacific. The unique life-cycle of these taxa is consistent with phylogenetic distinction of the group and provides evidence for a broader basis of diversification among the family. We argue that life-cycle specialisation, in terms of adoption of disparate second intermediate host groups, has been a key driver of the diversification and richness of the Opecoelidae, the largest of all trematode families and the group most frequently encountered in coral reef fishes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.09.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Opistholobetines (Digenea: Opecoelidae) in Australian tetraodontiform fishes.

Syst Parasitol 2018 11 22;95(8-9):743-781. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Opistholebetine opecoelids are reported following examination of 1,041 individual tetraodontiform fishes, comprising 60 species and seven families, collected in Australian waters between 1986 and 2018. Nine species consistent with Opistholebes Nicoll, 1915, Heterolebes Ozaki, 1935 or Maculifer Nicoll, 1915 were recovered. However, phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, generated for some of these species, suggested that five genera, not three, are required to adequately accommodate these taxa. Thus, the concept and composition for each is revised, Pseudoheterolebes Yamaguti, 1959 nec Gupta, 1968 is resurrected and Parallelolebes n. g. is proposed. Of the nine species examined, five are new. Four new species are from fishes endemic to subtropical and temperate Australian waters for which no trematodes have previously been reported: Pa. australis n. sp. and Ps. corazonae n. sp. from the slender-spined porcupinefish Diodon nicthemerus Cuvier (Diodontidae) off Stanley, Tasmania; Pa. virilis n. sp. from the horse-shoe leatherjacket Meuschenia hippocrepis (Quoy & Gaimard) (Monacanthidae) off Stanley; and Ps. stellaglobulus n. sp. from the threebar pocupinefish Dicotylichthys punctulatus Kaup (Diodontidae) in Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. The fifth new species is M. diodontis n. sp., collected from the spotted porcupinefish Diodon hystrix Linnaeus and the blackblotched porcupinefish D. liturosus Shaw, in tropical waters on the Great Barrier Reef. Species reported previously include the type-species of Opistholebes, O. amplicoelus Nicoll, 1915 from the rough golden puffer Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider) (Tetraodontidae) and the common toadfish Tetractenos hamiltoni (Richardson) (Tetraodontidae) in Moreton Bay, and three species reported for the first time from fishes in Australian waters: H. maculosus Ozaki, 1935, Pa. elongatus Ozaki, 1937 n. comb. and Ps. diodontis (Cable, 1956) n. comb., each from both D. hystrix and D. liturosus on the Great Barrier Reef. Following the revisions, Opistholebes is recognised for two species, Heterolebes for five, Maculifer for eight, Pseudoheterolebes for five and Parallelolebes for three.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9826-9DOI Listing
November 2018

Lepotrema Ozaki, 1932 (Lepocreadiidae: Digenea) from Indo-Pacific fishes, with the description of eight new species, characterised by morphometric and molecular features.

Syst Parasitol 2018 11 15;95(8-9):693-741. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

We review species of the genus Lepotrema Ozaki, 1932 from marine fishes in the Indo-West Pacific. Prior to the present study six species were recognised. Here we propose eight new species on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analysis: Lepotrema acanthochromidis n. sp. ex Acanthochromis polyacanthus from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR); Lepotrema hemitaurichthydis n. sp. ex Hemitaurichthys polylepis and H. thompsoni from Palau and French Polynesia; Lepotrema melichthydis n. sp. ex Melichthys vidua from Palau and the GBR; Lepotrema amansis n. sp. ex Amanses scopas from the GBR; Lepotrema cirripectis n. sp. ex Cirripectes filamentosus, C. chelomatus and C. stigmaticus from the GBR; Lepotrema justinei n. sp. ex Sufflamen fraenatum from New Caledonia; Lepotrema moretonense n. sp. ex Prionurus microlepidotus, P. maculatus and Selenotoca multifasciata from Moreton Bay; and Lepotrema amblyglyphidodonis n. sp. ex Amblyglyphidodon curacao and Amphipron akyndynos from the GBR. We also report new host records and provide novel molecular data for two known species: Lepotrema adlardi Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1993 and Lepotrema monile Bray & Cribb, 1998. Two new combinations are formed, Lepotrema cylindricum (Wang, 1989) n. comb. (for Preptetos cylindricus) and Lepotrema navodonis (Shen, 1986) n. comb. (for Lepocreadium navodoni). With the exception of a handful of ambiguous records, the evidence is compelling that the host-specificity of species in this genus is overwhelmingly oioxenous or stenoxenous. This renders the host distribution in three orders and ten families especially difficult to explain as many seemingly suitable hosts are not infected. Multi-loci molecular data (ITS2 rDNA, 28S rDNA and cox1 mtDNA) demonstrate that Lepotrema is a good generic concept, but limited variability in sequence data and differences in phylogenies produced for different gene regions make relationships within the genus difficult to define.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9821-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6223840PMC
November 2018

Heterobucephalopsine and prosorhynchine trematodes (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from teleost fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, with the description of two new species.

Syst Parasitol 2018 11 3;95(8-9):783-806. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Eight species of the trematode family Bucephalidae Poche, 1907 are reported from teleost fishes in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Heterobucephalopsis yongi n. sp. is described from Gymnothorax eurostus (Muraenidae); the new form is distinguished from its congeners in the possession of a tiny cirrus-sac relative to body length, the length of the caecum, the position of the mouth and pharynx, and the position of the testes and ovary. Two known species of Dollfustrema Eckmann, 1934, D. durum Nolan, Curran, Miller, Cutmore, Cantacessi & Cribb, 2015 and D. gibsoni Nolan & Cribb, 2010, are reported from Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) (Muraenidae); although both species were described from Australian waters, this represents the first reports from Moreton Bay and G. pseudothyrsoideus. Four species of Prosorhynchus Odhner, 1905 are reported, including one new, P. brayi n. sp., which is described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); P. brayi n. sp. is distinguished from its congeners in the possession of vitelline follicles in a confluent arc distinctly posterior to a conical rhynchus, uterine coils that do not extend anterior to the vitelline arc, contiguous testes, a cirrus-sac that reaches anteriorly to at least the level of the posterior testis and a short excretory vesicle. Three known species of Prosorhynchus are reported from Australia, for the first time: P. luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and P. maternus Bray & Justine, 2006 from E. coioides and Prosorhynchus platycephali (Yamaguti, 1934) Srivastava, 1938 from Ambiserrula jugosa (McCulloch) and Inegocia japonica (Cuvier) (Platycephalidae). Skrjabiniella Issaitschikow, 1928 is re-recognised for new specimens of Skrjabiniella uniporus (Ozaki, 1924) n. comb. collected from Conger cinereus Rüppell (Congridae); three additional species of Prosorhynchus are considered members of this genus, two of which are synonymised with S. uniporus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9820-2DOI Listing
November 2018

Tetraphyllidean and onchoproteocephalidean cestodes of elasmobranchs from Moreton Bay, Australia: description of two new species and new records for seven described species.

Syst Parasitol 2018 11 28;95(8-9):807-827. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Veterinary Clinical Centre, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, VIC, 3030, Australia.

Parasitological examination of elasmobranchs of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, resulted in the discovery of cestodes belonging to several armed genera of the Tetraphyllidea and Onchoproteocephalidea. Two new tetraphyllideans, Yorkeria moretonensis n. sp. and Yorkeria williamsi n. sp., are described from Chiloscyllium cf. punctatum (Hemiscylliidae). Yorkeria moretonensis n. sp. differs from its congeners in the possession of vitelline follicles that are discontinuous in the region of the ovary and in the length of its pedicels. Yorkeria williamsi n. sp. is most similar to Y. parva Southwell, 1927, but has larger, oval bothridia, longer pedicels and differences in the sizes of the scolex hooks. Yorkeria longstaffae Caira, Jensen & Rajan, 2007 is reported from Moreton Bay for the first time, and Spiniloculus mavensis Southwell, 1925 is re-reported from the type-locality and likely type-host (Moreton Bay and Chiloscyllium cf. punctatum, respectively), over 90 years after its original description. Six known onchoproteocephalideans, Acanthobothrium cannoni Campbell & Beveridge, 2002, A. chisholmae Campbell & Beveridge, 2002, A. ocallaghani Campbell & Beveridge, 2002, A. margieae Fyler, 2011, Megalonchos shawae Caira, Reyda & Mega, 2007 and M. sumansinghai Caira, Reyda & Mega, 2007, are reported from Moreton Bay for the first time, representing significant range extensions for all species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9817-xDOI Listing
November 2018

Aporocotylids from batoid and elopomorph fishes from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, including a new genus and species of blood fluke infecting the Giant shovelnose ray, Glaucostegus typus (Rhinopristiformes: Glaucostegidae).

Parasitol Int 2018 Dec 14;67(6):768-775. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Fishes of the elasmobranch superorder Batoidea and the basal teleost superorder Elopomorpha were assessed for blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) during a parasitological survey conducted in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. A new blood fluke genus and species, Ogawaia glaucostegi n. gen., n. sp., is described from the Giant shovelnose ray, Glaucostegus typus (Anonymous [Bennett]) (Rhinopristiformes: Glaucostegidae). Ogawaia glaucostegi differs from species of all other aporocotylid genera in the combination of the absence of anterior caeca and oral sucker, having a pronounced distal oesophageal chamber, a strongly coiled testis and a common genital pore. The new species most closely resembles Myliobaticola richardheardi Bullard & Jensen, 2008, from which it differs in lacking an oral sucker and in possessing a straight (rather than coiled) oesophagus, longer caeca in proportion to the oesophageal and total body length, and a much longer testis relative to body length. Ogawaia glaucostegi is just the eighth aporocotylid described from chondrichthyans, of which four belong to monotypic genera. This is the first description of a blood fluke from the order Rhinopristiformes, and the first of a chondrichthyan-infecting aporocotylid from Australian waters. Elopicola bristowi Orélis-Ribeiro & Bullard, 2017 is reported from Australia for the first time, from the type-host, Elops hawaiensis Regan (Elopiformes: Elopidae). This species is identified by morphological and molecular data and distinctions between our specimens and those of the original description are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2018.08.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Molecular systematics of the digenean community parasitising the cerithiid gastropod Clypeomorus batillariaeformis Habe & Kusage on the Great Barrier Reef.

Parasitol Int 2018 Dec 25;67(6):722-735. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

A rich fauna of digenetic trematodes has been documented from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), yet little is known of the complex life-cycles of these parasites which occur in this diverse marine ecosystem. At Heron Island, a small coral cay at the southern end of the GBR, the intertidal marine gastropod Clypeomorus batillariaeformis Habe & Kusage (Cerithiidae) is especially abundant. This gastropod serves as an intermediate host for 12 trematode species utilising both fish and avian definitive hosts. However, 11 of these species have been characterised solely with morphological data. Between 2015 and 2018 we collected 4870C. batillariaeformis from Heron Island to recollect these species with the goal of using molecular data to resolve their phylogenetic placement. We found eight of the 12 previously known species and two new forms, bringing the total number of digenean species known to parasitise C. batillariaeformis to 14. The families of this trematode community now include the Atractotrematidae Yamaguti, 1939, Bivesiculidae Yamaguti, 1934, Cyathocotylidae Mühling, 1898, Hemiuridae Looss, 1899, Heterophyidae Leiper, 1909, Himasthlidae Odhner, 1910, Microphallidae Ward, 1901, and Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939. Molecular data (ITS and 28S rDNA) were generated for all trematode species, and the phylogenetic position of each species was determined. The digenean community parasitising C. batillariaeformis includes several common species, as well as multiple species which are uncommon to rare. Although most of those trematodes in the community which exploit fishes as definitive hosts have remained common, the composition of those which utilise birds appears to have shifted over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2018.07.008DOI Listing
December 2018

Two species of Neometadena Hafeezullah & Siddiqi, 1970 (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae) from Moreton Bay, Australia, including the description of Neometadena paucispina n. sp. from Australian Lutjanidae.

Syst Parasitol 2018 09 2;95(7):655-664. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

A survey of the trematode fauna of lutjanid fishes off the east coast of Queensland (QLD), Australia revealed the presence of two species of Neometadena Hafeezullah & Siddiqi, 1970 (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae). Neometadena paucispina n. sp. is described from the intestine and pyloric caeca of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskål) and L. russellii (Bleeker) from Moreton Bay, in southeast QLD. Specimens of the type- and only other species, N. ovata (Yamaguti, 1952) Miller & Cribb, 2008, were recovered from L. carponotatus (Richardson), L. fulviflamma, L. fulvus (Forster), L. russellii, and L. vitta (Quoy & Gaimard) off Lizard Island, on the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Neometadena paucispina is distinguished from N. ovata in having fewer oral spines (55-65 vs 67-80). Alignment of novel molecular data for these two taxa revealed that they differ consistently by 13 nucleotides (1.5%) over the partial large subunit (LSU), 34 nucleotides (6.6%) over the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 0 nucleotides over the 5.8S, and 21 nucleotides (7.3%) over the ITS2 rDNA regions. Despite relatively large samples of L. carponotatus, L. fulviflamma and L. russellii from three distinct locations along the east coast of QLD (i.e. Moreton Bay in the south, Heron Island in central QLD and Lizard Island in northern QLD), these two species have been found at only one site each with neither species at Heron Island. These distributions are discussed in the context of the wide distribution of other cryptogonomid species in the same hosts elsewhere in the Indo-West Pacific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9804-2DOI Listing
September 2018

Two new species of Bacciger Nicoll, 1914 (Trematoda: Faustulidae) in species of Herklotsichthys Whitley (Clupeidae) from Queensland waters.

Syst Parasitol 2018 09 2;95(7):645-654. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Two new species of Bacciger Nicoll, 1914 (Faustulidae) are described infecting clupeids collected from the waters off Queensland, Australia; Bacciger minor n. sp. is described from Herklotsichthys castelnaui (Ogilby) in Moreton Bay, southern Queensland and Bacciger major n. sp. is described from Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell) collected off Lizard Island, on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The two species both differ from previously described species of Bacciger in the combination of their generally elongate bodies, an entire rather than deeply lobed ovary, vitelline follicles that reach to at least the intestinal bifurcation, instead of restricted to further posteriorly but principally distributed in the hindbody, and intestinal caeca extending posteriorly well past the ventral sucker. The two new species have non-overlapping size ranges and differ in their sucker ratios, the distribution of the vitelline follicles and in the shape of the cirrus-sac. ITS2 and 28S rDNA sequence data distinguish the two new species unambiguously. Phylogenetic analysis of available 28S data show they are most closely related to Pseudobacciger cheneyae Sun, Bray, Yong, Cutmore & Cribb, 2014, also recorded off Lizard Island. These are the first faustulids reported from species of Herklotsichthys Whitley, but overall members of the Clupeidae undoubtedly harbours the richest faustulid fauna of any fish family. Baccigeroides ovatus (Price, 1934) n. comb. is proposed for Bacciger ovatus (Price, 1934) Bray & Gibson, 1980 (syn. B. opisthonema Nahhas & Cable, 1964) based on the position of the genital pore being far anteriorly removed from the ventral sucker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9807-zDOI Listing
September 2018

Redescription of Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in the abdominal cavity of the blackspotted puffer Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider) (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) off Australia and Japan.

Syst Parasitol 2018 09 2;95(7):665-671. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

The nematode Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) (Philometridae) is redescribed from female specimens obtained from the abdominal cavity of the marine tetraodontiform fish (blackspotted puffer) Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider) (Tetraodontidae) off Lizard Island, Australia and off Okinawa, Japan. This is just the second record of this parasite since its description 125 years ago. Light and scanning electron microscopical examination of these nematodes revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic papillae, presence of the oesophageal cell nucleus and the size of first-stage larvae in the uterus. This new report of P. pellucida infecting A. nigropunctatus off Australia and Japan represents new host and geographical records. A key to the species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitising tetraodontiform fishes is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9806-0DOI Listing
September 2018

Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Aephnidiogenidae Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Lepocreadioidea) of fishes from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, with the erection of a new family and genus.

Syst Parasitol 2018 07 31;95(6):479-498. Epub 2018 May 31.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Digeneans of the lepocreadioid families Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Aephnidiogenidae Yamaguti, 1934 from Moreton Bay, off southern Queensland, Australia, are recorded, along with the erection of a new family, Gibsonivermidae. Molecular data were generated for all representatives of these families collected during this study and a phylogram for members of the superfamily was generated based on the partial 28S rDNA dataset, placing these species in context with those previously sequenced. This phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the monotypic Gibsonivermis Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1997 is isolated from all other lepocreadioids and supports the erection of Gibsonivermidae n. fam., which is defined morphologically, based particularly on the uniquely elongated male terminal genitalia, the distribution of the uterus in the forebody and the presence of a uroproct. Mobahincia teirae n. g., n. sp. is reported from Platax teira (Forsskål) in Moreton Bay and off Heron Island and New Caledonia. Recognition of this new genus is based on molecular results and the combination of caeca abutting the posterior body wall and the lack of an anterior body scoop or flanges. The following lepocreadioid species are reported from Moreton Bay for the first time: Bianium arabicum Sey, 1996 in Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider), Diploproctodaeum cf. monstrosum Bray, Cribb & Justine, 2010 in Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus), Multitestis magnacetabulum Mamaev, 1970 and Neomultitestis aspidogastriformis Bray & Cribb, 2003 in Platax teira and Opechona austrobacillaris Bray & Cribb, 1998 in Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus). Bianium plicitum (Linton, 1928) is reported from Torquigener squamicauda (Ogilby) for the first time. Sequences of newly collected specimens of Austroholorchis sprenti (Gibson, 1987) indicate that the species forms a clade with other members of the Aephnidiogenidae, agreeing with its morphology. The phylogenetic status of all newly sequenced species is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9803-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993846PMC
July 2018

Two monorchiid species from the freckled goatfish, Upeneus tragula Richardson (Perciformes: Mullidae), in Moreton Bay, Australia, including a proposal of a new genus.

Syst Parasitol 2018 05 19;95(4):353-365. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Two monorchiid species are reported from the freckled goatfish, Upeneus tragula Richardson, from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Specimens of a species new to science were most morphologically similar to species of the genus Timonia Bartoli & Prevot, 1966, but significant differences in the arrangement of the testes (symmetrical vs oblique) and morphology of the terminal organ (bipartite vs unipartite) necessitate the proposal of a new genus; Madhavia n. g. is proposed for M. fellaminutus n. sp. Specimens of the second species are identified as Parachrisomon delicatus (Manter & Pritchard, 1964) Madhavi, 2008, extending its known range from Hawaii to Australia. Complete ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA sequence data were generated for both species and analysed with those for other monorchiids available on GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses of the 28S rDNA dataset showed that both genera are distinct from other sequenced monorchiids, but overall the resolution between genera is poor and more sequence data are required to elucidate relationships within the family. We propose to transfer Timonia stunkardi (Ahmad, 1985) and Timonia vinodae (Ahmad, 1987) to the genus Neotimonia Madhavi, 2008, as Neotimonia stunkardi (Ahmad, 1985) n. comb. and Neotimonia vinodae (Ahmad, 1987) n. comb. Additionally, we were unable to locate any literature on Parachrisomon brotulidorum (Toman, 1973) Madhavi, 2008 and consider this species as nomen nudum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9789-xDOI Listing
May 2018

The phylogenetic position of Choerodonicola Cribb, 2005 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) with a partial life-cycle for a new species from the blue-barred parrotfish Scarus ghobban Forsskål (Scaridae) in Moreton Bay, Australia.

Syst Parasitol 2018 05 12;95(4):337-352. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Choerodonicola Cribb, 2005 is a minor genus of opecoelid trematodes defined for species with exceptionally small eggs but otherwise generalised morphology. Four species are currently recognised, all from fishes collected in Japanese waters but each from different perciform families: a labrid, a scarid, a sparid and pinguipeds. We report on a new species, Choerodonicola arothokoros n. sp., from the blue-barred parrotfish Scarus ghobban Forsskål (Scaridae) collected in subtropical waters of Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia. Using genetic sequence data for the ITS2 rDNA marker, we matched adult C. arothokoros to intramollsucan stages discovered in an intertidal gastropod Herpetopoma atratum (Gmelin) (Vetigastropoda: Chilodontidae) collected in close proximity to the fish hosts. Notably, the cercariae lack a penetration stylet and are among the smallest known in the Opecoelidae. We provide the first assessment of the phylogenetic position of Choerodonicola based on sequence data generated for the phylogenetically informative 18S and 28S rRNA coding regions, for C. arothokoros and also C. renko Machida, 2014, which we recollected from the yellowback seabream Dentex hypselosomus Bleeker from the fish market in Minabe, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. In our analyses, species of Choerodonicola resolved to neither of the major marine Plagioporinae (sensu lato) clades, clustering instead with Trilobovarium parvvatis Martin, Cutmore & Cribb, 2017, Podocotyloides parupenei (Manter, 1963) Pritchard, 1966 and Macvicaria magellanica Laskowski, Jeżewski & Zdzitowiecki, 2013. This clade is phylogenetically distinctive such that it has the potential to be recognised as a new opecoelid subfamily, but further investigation is required to establish the bounds for such a grouping and to determine the morphological and/or life-history patterns reflected by the phylogeny. Finally, we propose C. interruptus (Manter 1954) n. comb. for a species previously recognised in Plagioporus Stafford, 1904 and known only from Pseudolabrus miles (Schneider & Forster), a labrid endemic to New Zealand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9785-1DOI Listing
May 2018

Two species of Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899 (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae) from Moreton Bay, Australia.

Syst Parasitol 2018 05 7;95(4):325-336. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

Two species of the trematode genus Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899 (Gorgoderidae) are reported infecting teleost fishes from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Phyllodistomum hyporhamphi n. sp. is described from two species of garfishes (Hemiramphidae), Hyporhamphus regularis ardelio (Whitley) and H. australis (Steindachner). The new species differs from other marine species of Phyllodistomum in possessing a forebody length less than half that of the body, a body length to width ratio < 4:1, an oral sucker width to ventral sucker width ratio > 1:1 and < 2:1, 7-9 strong, marginal undulations on each side of the body and large, slightly lobed vitelline masses. Phyllodistomum pacificum Yamaguti, 1951 is reported, for the first time in Australian waters, from Pantolabus radiatus (MacLeay) (Carangidae). The new material agrees closely with the original description of P. pacificum, in Carangoides equula (Temminck & Schlegel) off Hamazima, Mie Prefecture, Japan, although the specimens from Moreton Bay are larger than those of the original description (4,575-5,338 × 1,111-1,328 vs 2,200-3,100 × 570-930 μm). Cetiotrema carangis (Manter, 1947) Manter, 1970 is found to be a synonym of Cetiotrema carangis (MacCallum, 1913) Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1996 and the species is formally moved to Phyllodistomum as P. carangis (MacCallum, 1913) n. comb. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA data showed that the six marine species of Phyllodistomum for which molecular data are available form a strongly-supported clade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9784-2DOI Listing
May 2018

Two new species of Haplorchoides Chen, 1949 (Digenea: Heterophyidae) infecting an Australian siluriform fish, Neoarius graeffei Kner & Steindachner.

Syst Parasitol 2018 03 25;95(2-3):201-211. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4067, Australia.

Combined morphological and molecular analyses are used to characterise two new species of Haplorchoides Chen, 1949 (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from an Australian siluriform fish. Haplorchoides maiwariensis n. sp. and H. daguilarensis n. sp. are described from the intestine of the Blue salmon catfish, Neoarius graeffei (Kner & Steindachner) (Siluriformes: Ariidae) from tidal reaches of the Brisbane River and from a freshwater creek off Lake Wivenhoe, Kipper Creek, Australia. The two new species most obviously differ from all previously described species of Haplorchoides in possessing clearly and reliably tripartite seminal vesicles. The two new species differ in the size and distribution of vitelline follicles, the size of the pigment granules and the form of the ventral sucker. Previously described species of Haplorchoides have been reported from Africa and Asia, principally from bagrid, schilbeid, silurid and sisorid catfishes; these are the first species reported from an ariid catfish. Complete ITS2 and partial 28S ribosomal DNA data were generated for both new species. The two species differ from each other by eight base pairs in the ITS2 region, and by 13 bp for the 28S region. The 28S rDNA sequence of H. daguilarensis agrees with a previously reported sequence from an unidentified species of Haplorchoides collected from N. graeffei in Lake Wivenhoe, Australia; we identify this previous report as relating to H. daguilarensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9775-3DOI Listing
March 2018

Revision of Podocotyloides Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Opecoelidae), resurrection of Pedunculacetabulum Yamaguti, 1934 and the naming of a cryptic opecoelid species.

Syst Parasitol 2018 01 22;95(1):1-31. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Despite morphological and ecological inconsistencies among species, all plagioporine opecoelids with a pedunculate ventral sucker are currently considered to belong in the genus Podocotyloides Yamaguti, 1934. We revise the genus based on combined morphological and phylogenetic analyses of novel material collected from haemulid fishes in Queensland waters that we interpret to represent species congeneric with the type-species, Pod. petalophallus Yamaguti, 1934, also known from a haemulid, off Japan. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates polyphyly of Podocotyloides; prompts us to resurrect Pedunculacetabulum Yamaguti, 1934; and suggests that Pod. brevis Andres & Overstreet, 2013, from a deep-sea congrid in the Caribbean, and Pod. parupenei (Manter, 1963) Pritchard, 1966 and Pod. stenometra Pritchard, 1966, from mullids and chaetodontids, respectively, on the Great Barrier Reef, may each represent a distinct genus awaiting recognition. Our revised concept of Podocotyloides requires a pedunculate ventral sucker, but also a uterine sphincter prior to the genital atrium, a petalloid cirrus appendage, restriction of the vitelline follicles to the hindbody, and for the excretory vesicle to reach to the level of the ventral sucker. Of about 20 nominal species, we recognise just three in Podocotyloides (sensu stricto): Pod. petalophallus, Pod. gracilis (Yamaguti, 1952) Pritchard, 1966 and Pod. magnatestes Aleshkina & Gaevskaya, 1985. We provide new records for Pod. gracilis, and propose two new species of Podocotyloides, Pod. australis n. sp. and Pod. brevivesiculatus n. sp., and one new Pedunculacetabulum species, Ped. inopinipugnus n. sp., all from haemulids. Podocotyloides australis is morphologically indistinguishable from Pod. gracilis, and exploits the same definitive host, but is genetically and biogeographically distinct. It is thus a cryptic species, the first such opecoelid to be formally named.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9761-1DOI Listing
January 2018

Patterns of specificity and diversity in species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 (Cestoda: Phyllobothriidae) in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, with the description of four new species.

Syst Parasitol 2017 11 19;94(9):941-970. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

A survey of tapeworms of galeomorph sharks from Moreton Bay (Queensland, Australia) identified a complex of species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 infecting 11 carcharhiniform and two orectolobiform species. Combined morphological and multi-locus molecular analyses (based on the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and partial mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes) revealed the presence of 12 species of Paraorygmatobothrium; four species (Paraorygmatobothrium christopheri n. sp., P. harti n. sp., P. sinclairtaylori n. sp. and P. ullmanni n. sp.) are considered to be new to science and are formally described, four represent known species, and four lack sufficient morphological data to allow definitive identification. In contrast to previous records for the genus, four of the species found in this study exhibited low host specificity [P. orectolobi (Butler, 1987) Ruhnke, 2011, P. sinclairtaylori, P. ullmanni and Paraorygmatobothrium sp. 3], three stenoxenic species were each found in two closely-related sharks (P. orectolobi, P. ullmanni and Paraorygmatobothrium sp. 3) and one euryxenic species was found in five species from two shark families (P. sinclairtaylori). One species was found to exhibit mild morphologically plasticity (P. orectolobi), with size range being associated with different shark species. Conversely, collections of almost morphologically indistinguishable specimens from single shark species were found to represent multiple species of Paraorygmatobothrium. The findings of this study indicate that the description of species of this genus on the basis of morphological data alone is problematic and that the inclusion of multi-locus molecular data is essential for future work on Paraorygmatobothrium. Host specificity, morphology and phylogenetic relatedness of species of Paraorygmatobothrium are explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9759-8DOI Listing
November 2017

Two new and one known species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) with novel molecular characterisation for the genus.

Syst Parasitol 2017 10 2;94(8):861-874. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Combined morphological and molecular analyses are employed to characterise three species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) from fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Tergestia clonacantha Manter, 1963 is reported here for the first time from the halfbeak (Beloniformes: Hemiramphidae) species Arrhamphus sclerolepis krefftii (Steindachner), Hyporhamphus australis (Steindachner), H. quoyi (Valenciennes) and H. regularis ardelio (Whitley). Two new species, both infecting trevally (Perciformes: Carangidae) species, are described: T. maryae n. sp. from Alepes apercna Grant and T. henryi n. sp. from Pantolabus radiatus (MacLeay). Complete ITS2 and partial 28S ribosomal DNA data were generated for each of the new taxa. The three species differ from each other by 47-58 base pairs (bp) in the ITS2 rDNA region. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA supports Tergestia as a reliable generic concept, with our analyses showing that some species of the genus form a well-supported clade to the exclusion of all other fellodistomids for which sequence data are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-017-9749-xDOI Listing
October 2017

Evidence that blood flukes (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) of chondrichthyans infect bivalves as intermediate hosts: indications of an ancient diversification of the Schistosomatoidea.

Int J Parasitol 2017 11 12;47(13):885-891. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) of actinopterygians (bony fishes) have been shown to infect freshwater gastropods and marine polychaetes as intermediate hosts. However, no life cycle is known for any aporocotylid of chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and no adult aporocotylid has been linked to a cercaria infecting a bivalve. Here we report two novel infections that fill these gaps. Cercariae consistent with the family Aporocotylidae were found developing in sporocysts in the gonad of the surf pipi, Donax deltoides Lamarck, 1818 (Bivalvia: Donacidae), from Stockton Beach, central New South Wales, Australia. Adult aporocotylids were found in the heart of the giant shovelnose ray, Glaucostegus typus (Anonymous [Bennett], 1830), from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Phylogenetic analyses of the 28S rDNA region generated from the new specimens resulted in phylograms in which the two parasites form a strongly supported clade with Chimaerohemecus trondheimensis van der Land, 1967, the only aporocotylid known from a holocephalan and the only other chondrichthyan-infecting aporocotylid for which sequence data are available. Most marine aporocotylids of actinopterygians also form a strongly supported clade. These findings lead us to hypothesise that the aporocotylids of chondrichthyans are distinct from all other blood flukes in infecting bivalves as intermediate hosts. Putative cophyly between three major blood fluke clades and both definitive and intermediate host groups is consistent with diversification of the Schistosomatoidea over 400million years ago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2017.05.008DOI Listing
November 2017
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