Publications by authors named "Sayeed Ahmad"

104 Publications

Development of Synergy-Based Combination for Learning and Memory Using , and TLC-MS-Bioautographic Studies.

Front Pharmacol 2021 2;12:678611. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

The present study is aimed at developing a synergistic combination to enhance learning and memory in Alzheimer's patients with the help of eight common medicinal plants used in the AYUSH system. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of eight medicinal plants from the AYUSH system of medicine were prepared. These were subjected to anticholinesterase activity, to find out the combination index of synergistic combination. The synergistic combination and their individual extracts were subjected to total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity estimation. Further, neurobehavioral studies in rats were carried out followed by TLC-MS-bioautographic identification of bioactive metabolites. Out of the sixteen extracts, aqueous extracts of (L.) Dunal (WSA) and (L.) Dunal (MFA) were selected for the development of synergistic combination based on their IC value in anticholinesterase assay. The synergistic combination inhibited the anticholinesterase activity significantly as compared to the individual extracts of WSA and MFA. The synergistic combination also showed more phenolic and flavonoid contents with potential antioxidant activity. The TLC-bioautography showed four white spots in WSA, signifying sitoindosides VII, VIII, quercetin, isopelletierine and Withanolide S as AChE inhibitory compounds while showing five white spots of anti-cholinesterase active metabolites identified as eugenol, methyl eugenol, myristic acid, galbacin and β-sitosterol in MFA. The observation of neurocognitive behavior in amnesia induced subjects manifested that both the synergistic combinations showed comparable results to that of standard piracetam, though the synergistic combination containing a higher concentration of WSA showed more appreciable results in ameliorating dementia in rats. The study suggests that the synergy based combination successfully enhanced memory and learning by abating free radical and acetylcholine levels, and increased learning and memory in rats, providing a strong rationale for its use in the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.678611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283279PMC
July 2021

Analysis of polyphenols in Aegle marmelos leaf and ameliorative efficacy against diabetic mice through restoration of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jul 11:e13852. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, SPER, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

The biomedical survey reports edible plant Aegle marmelos has been utilized for centuries by tribal communities in India as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes. Herein, we have investigated cytotoxicity, cytoprotective and antidiabetic activity of characterized alkaloid-free hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos (AFEAM; 200 and 400 mg/kg). Identification of polyphenols and quantification of major compounds were done using UPLC-MS and HPTLC, respectively. AFEAM showed good cytocompatibility and cytoprotective potential against oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia in HepG cells. The AFEAM intake had significantly ameliorated the serum blood glucose level, state of dyslipidemia, level of pro-inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β), and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde) status in diabetic mice. Histological examination of the treated groups showed amelioration of damaged pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues. Conclusively, AFEAM intake might be promising dietary supplements for prediabetics as well as an adjuvant to modern treatment in diabetics. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Different reports have been published on Aegle marmelos but as per our understanding till date, no study has been reported on the amelioration of diabetes due to alkaloid free hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos /polyphenolic content in the animal model. The result of this study indicated that A. marmelos supplementation effectively ameliorates diabetes through the restoration of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status. This study has collated sufficient scientific evidence for the dietary application of A. marmelos in society especially for prediabetics, however, it can also be used as an adjuvant to modern treatments in diabetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13852DOI Listing
July 2021

Nutritional constituents of mulberry and their potential applications in food and pharmaceuticals: A review.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jul 31;28(7):3909-3921. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Mulberry is a fast growing deciduous plant found in wide variety of climatic, topographical and soil conditions, and is widely distributed from temperate to subtropical regions. Due to presence of valuable phytochemical constituents, mulberry as a whole plant has been utilized as a functional food since long time. Mulberry fruits are difficult to preserve as they have relatively high water content. Therefore for proper utilization, different value-added products like syrups, squashes, teas, pestil sand köme, pekmez (turkuish by-products), yogurts, jams, jellies, wines, vinegar, breads, biscuits, parathas, and many more are made. In overseas, these value-added products are commercially sold and easily available, though in India, this versatile medicinal plant is still missing its identity at commercial and industrial scale. Leaves of mulberry are economically viable due to their important role in the sericulture industry since ancient times. Mulberries or its extracts exhibit excellent anti-microbial, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer effects and is used to combat different acute and chronic diseases. Different parts of Morus species like fruits, leaves, twigs, and bark exhibit strong anti-tyrosinase inhibition activity that makes it a suitable candidate in cosmetic industries as a whitening agent. The current review provides a comprehensive discussion concerning the phytochemical constituents, functionality and nutraceutical potential of mulberry and as a common ingredient in various cosmetic products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241616PMC
July 2021

Pharmacological Evaluation of Safoof-e-Pathar Phori- A Polyherbal Unani Formulation for Urolithiasis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:597990. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, India.

Safoof-e-Pathar phori (SPP) is an Unani poly-herbomineral formulation, which has for a long time been used as a medicine due to its antiurolithiatic activity, as per the Unani Pharmacopoeia. This powder formulation is prepared using six different plant/mineral constituents. In this study, we explored the antiurolithiatic and antioxidant potentials of SPP (at 700 and 1,000 mg/kg) in albino Wistar rats with urolithiasis induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (AC). Long-term oral toxicity studies were performed according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for 90 days at an oral dose of 700 mg/kg of SPP. The EG urolithiatic toxicant group had significantly higher levels of urinary calcium, serum creatinine, blood urea, and tissue lipid peroxidation and significantly ( < 0.001 vs control) lower levels of urinary sodium and potassium than the normal control group. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of refractile crystals in the tubular epithelial cell and damage to proximal tubular epithelium in the toxicant group but not in the SPP treatment groups. Treatment of SPP at 700 and 1,000 mg/kg significantly ( < 0.001 vs toxicant) lowered urinary calcium, serum creatinine, blood urea, and lipid peroxidation in urolithiatic rats, 21 days after induction of urolithiasis compared to the toxicant group. A long-term oral toxicity study revealed the normal growth of animals without any significant change in hematological, hepatic, and renal parameters; there was no evidence of abnormal histology of the heart, kidney, liver, spleen, or stomach tissues. These results suggest the usefulness of SPP as an antiurolithiatic and an antioxidant agent, and long-term daily oral consumption of SPP was found to be safe in albino Wistar rats for up to 3 months. Thus, SPP may be safe for clinical use as an antiurolithiatic formulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.597990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081291PMC
April 2021

Antiurolithic efficacy of a phenolic rich ethyl acetate fraction of the aerial parts of Aerva lanata (Linn) Juss. ex Schult. in ethylene glycol induced urolithic rats.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Mar;73(4):560-572

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: The study was carried out to evaluate the in vivo antiurolithic efficaciousness of an ethyl acetate fraction of Aerva lanata (EAFAL) derived from the hydromethanolic extract of its aerial parts (HMEAL).

Methods: In vivo pharmacological potency of EAFAL was assessed by ethylene glycol (EG) induced urolithiasis model in male Wistar albino rats. Urine samples of the animals were analysed for physical parameters, stone promoters, inhibitors along with an evaluation of the biochemical parameters of serum and kidneys. Histopathological investigation of the kidneys was done. The fraction was further subjected to LC-MS and HPLC for its phytochemical evaluation.

Key Findings: EAFAL demonstrated a significant antiurolithic effect by a restoration of the balance between urinary promoters and inhibitors along with an amelioration of the urinary pH. The abnormally elevated levels of serum nitrogenous substances, calcium, albumin, globulin, total protein along with altered renal calcium, oxalate and uric acid were also alleviated significantly followed by an improvement of the histopathological aberrancies. Phytochemical analysis showed evidence of phenolic components and flavonoids.

Conclusions: The current findings prove the beneficial role of phenolic and flavonoid rich EAFAL in ameliorating urolithiasis induced abnormalities of urine, serum and kidneys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgaa071DOI Listing
March 2021

Indian Medicinal Plants and Formulations and Their Potential Against COVID-19-Preclinical and Clinical Research.

Front Pharmacol 2020 2;11:578970. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Surgery, School of Unani Medical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard (Deemed University), New Delhi, India.

The cases of COVID-19 are still increasing day-by-day worldwide, even after a year of its first occurrence in Wuhan city of China. The spreading of SARS-CoV-2 infection is very fast and different from other SARS-CoV infections possibly due to structural differences in S proteins. The patients with severe diseases may die due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by systemic inflammatory reactions due to the excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by the immune effector cells. In India too, it is spreading very rapidly, although the case fatality rate is below 1.50% (https://www.statista.com), which is markedly less than in other countries, despite the dense population and minimal health infrastructure in rural areas. This may be due to the routine use of many immunomodulator medicinal plants and traditional AYUSH formulations by the Indian people. This communication reviews the AYUSH recommended formulations and their ingredients, routinely used medicinal plants and formulations by Indian population as well as other promising Indian medicinal plants, which can be tested against COVID-19. Special emphasis is placed on Indian medicinal plants reported for antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic/anti-inflammatory activities and they are categorized for prioritization in research on the basis of earlier reports. The traditional AYUSH medicines currently under clinical trials against COVID-19 are also discussed as well as furtherance of pre-clinical and clinical testing of the potential traditional medicines against COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2. The results of the clinical studies on AYUSH drugs will guide the policymakers from the AYUSH systems of medicines to maneuver their policies for public health, provide information to the global scientific community and could form a platform for collaborative studies at national and global levels. It is thereby suggested that promising AYUSH formulations and Indian medicinal plants must be investigated on a priority basis to solve the current crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.578970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962606PMC
March 2021

Anticancer potential of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees and its mechanisms of action.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 18;272:113936. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Human Genetics Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025, India.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Synthetic drugs used for cancer treatment have side effects that may be immunosupressive, can cause liver, kidney and cardiac toxicity, and infertility and ovarian failure, among others. Thus, herbal drugs could be used in the cancer treatment as an adjuvant therapy. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees (AP) is one of the traditional herbs used in different alternative medicinal systems such as Ayurveda, Unani, Chinese, Malayi, Siddha, etc. for the treatment of various disorders and diseases including cancer.

Aim Of The Study: The aim of writing this review is to highlight the medicinal importance of AP and its main phytoconstituent andrographolide (AG). The main emphasis was given on the anticancer activity of AG, its proposed mechanisms of action, novel approaches used to improve its biopharmaceutical properties with the perspective of evidence-based research, and its development as an adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment in future.

Materials And Methods: Literature survey was conducted and research papers were retrieved from different databases such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, ACS, Wiley online library, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Scopus during 1970-2020. Research articles, review articles, and short communications, etc. were used for this purpose. The papers were selected on the basis of exclusion and inclusion criteria.

Results: Different anticancer mechanisms of AG have been reportedly proven such as cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, NF-κβ inhibition, antiangiogenesis, cytokine inhibition, etc. whereas its pharmacokinetic properties showed its highly protein bound nature, Cyt P400 (CYP) inhibition, low aqueous solubility, poor oral bioavailability, etc. Different novel formulations of AG have been investigated to increase its bioavailability for better efficacy.

Conclusion: This review can provide knowledge about the potential applicability of AP or AG as an adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment. Further research is needed before making any conclusion about the efficacy in humans as an adjuvant therapy in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113936DOI Listing
May 2021

GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extracts of and and their antioxidant activity.

Turk J Chem 2020 1;44(2):352-363. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Transformative Learning Solution Private Limited, New Delhi India.

L. (family Smilacaceae) and L. (family Salicaceae) are plants that have been traditionally used to treat various ailments in Indian and Chinese medicine. A quantitative estimation of the methanolic extracts of these plants was performed by GC-MS analysis to obtain insight into its phytoconstituents responsible for therapeutic action. The antioxidant potential of the methanol extracts of (MESC) and (MESA) were assessed with DPPH by using a UV spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 517 nm. The prevailing compounds found in MESC were lactam sugars including 2,5-dimethyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3(2H)-furanon (1.40%), 1,5-anhydro-6-deoxyhexo-2,3-diulose (4.33%), and alpha-methyl-1-sorboside (1.80%); the two alkaloids found were 1,4-methane-4,4a,5,6,7,8,9,9a-octahydro-10,10-dimethyl cyclohepta[d] pyridazine (0.87%) and 1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine(0.54%); terpenes included deltacadinene (0.39%), terpineol, (+)-cedrol (22.13%), 3-thujanol (0.77%), and 9,10-dehydro-cycloisolongifolene (0.34%); fatty acids included cis-vaccenic acid (4.98%) and telfairic acid (1.10%); esters included 1,2,3-propanetriol diacetate (7.56%), 7-hexadecenoic acid, methyl ester (1.77%), eicosanoic acid, and methyl ester (0.95%); and glycerol included 1,2,3-propanetriol (28.75%). The interesting compounds found in MESA were reducing sugars like D-allose (4.40%) and pyrogallol (10.48%), alkaloids like caffeine (63.49%), and esters like methyl octadecanoate (0.53%). Both fractions revealed considerable antioxidant activity. The reported existing phenolic compounds and terpenes are responsible for the antioxidant activity of the plant extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/kim-1907-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7671229PMC
April 2020

Bioactive components and anti-diabetic properties of Lam.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 6:1-25. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo-Ourense Campus, Ourense, Spain.

Lam. is a perennial tropical deciduous tree with high economic and pharmaceutical value. As an edible plant, Lam. is rich in nutrients, such as proteins, amino acids, mineral elements and vitamins. Besides, it also contains an important number of bioactive phytochemicals, such as polysaccharides, flavonoids, alkaloids, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. for long has been used as a natural anti-diabetic herb in India and other Asian countries. Thus, the anti-diabetic properties of Moringa plant have evolved highly attention to the researchers. In the last twenty years, a huge number of new chemical structures and their pharmacological activities have been reported in particularly the anti-diabetic properties. The current review highlighted the bioactive phytochemicals from . Moreover, evidence regarding the therapeutic potential of for diabetes including experimental and clinical data was presented and the underlying mechanisms were revealed in order to provide insights for the development of novel drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1870099DOI Listing
January 2021

TLC-MS Bioautography-Based Identification of Free-Radical Scavenging, α-Amylase, and α-Glucosidase Inhibitor Compounds of Antidiabetic Tablet BGR-34.

ACS Omega 2020 Nov 12;5(46):29688-29697. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India.

BGR-34 is a polyherbal formulation frequently used to combat diabetes around the globe especially in Asian countries. It provides an attractive treatment option to prediabetics, diabetics, and in metabolic disorders by controlling the altered blood glucose level. The lack of phytopharmacological studies on BGR-34 prompted as to reveal the compounds responsible for the antidiabetic and free-radical scavenging activity of BGR-34. An attempt was made to assess α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition of BGR-34 along with its free-radical scavenging potential via DPPH scavenging activity. Further, HPTLC profiling and quantitative analysis of berberine and palmatine in BGR-34 were carried out. Thereafter, the TLC-bioautographic-MS analysis was performed to identify the compounds responsible for antidiabetic and antioxidant activities in BGR-34. The results had shown a significant and dose-dependent inhibition potential of BGR-34 against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymatic reactions along with significant inhibition in DPPH free-radical scavenging activity. The HPTLC profiling and quantitative validation studies showed the presence of berberine and palmatine 44.926 ± 0.2907 and 10.507 ± 0.154 μg/g, respectively. The TLC-MS bioautography revealed a total of four DPPH-active, two α-amylase-active, and nine α-glucosidase-active compounds in BGR-34. It was observed from the study that BGR-34 possesses verities of bioactive compounds, which are reasonable not only for its antidiabetic effect but also for its antioxidant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c02995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689676PMC
November 2020

Effect of DC. on Apoptosis, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Induced by Doxorubicin in Wistar Rats.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 15;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India.

The study aimed to investigate the protective action of jatamansi ( DC.) against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Methanolic extract of jatamansi (MEJ) was prepared and standardized using HPTLC fingerprinting, GC-MS chemoprofiling, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity in vitro. Further in vivo activity was evaluated using rodent model. Animals were divided into five groups ( = 6) namely control (CNT) (Normal saline), toxicant (TOX, without any treatment), MEJ at low dose (JAT1), MEJ at high dose (JAT2), and standard desferrioxamine (STD). All groups except control received doxorubicin 2.5 mg per Kg intra-peritoneally for 3 weeks in twice a week regimen. After 3 weeks, the blood samples and cardiac tissues were collected from all groups for biochemical and histopathological evaluation. Treatment with MEJ at both dose levels exhibited significant reduction ( < 0.001 vs. toxicant) of serum CK-MB (heart creatine kinase), LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase) & HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) levels, and tissue MDA (melondialdehyde) level; insignificant difference was observed ( > 0.05) in TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor), IL-6 (interleukine-6) levels and caspase activity as compared to TOX. Histopathological evaluation of cardiac tissues of different treatment groups further reinforced the findings of biochemical estimation. This study concludes that jatamansi can protect cardiac tissues from oxidative stress-induced cell injury and lipid peroxidation as well as against inflammatory and apoptotic effects on cardiac tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734586PMC
November 2020

Effect of augmented glycation in mobilization of plasma free fatty acids in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Sep - Oct;14(5):1385-1389. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Biochemistry, HIMSR, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is known to be associated with an increase in total plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration. The present study was conducted to determine the changes in plasma fatty acids at different levels of glycation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: The study involved 50 subjects having different levels of glycation (HbA1c 4.9-15.0%) and further categorized in 5 groups [group 1 (HbA1c <6%), group 2 (HbA1c 6-7%), group 3 (HbA1c 7.1-9%), group 4 (HbA1c (9.1-12%) and group 5 (HbA1c >12%)] with 10 subjects in each group.

Results: A total of 19 free fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis in the plasma samples. The levels of lauric acid (C12:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were significantly raised at an advanced stage of glycation (HbA1c 9.1-15%). Long-chain fatty acids, pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and palmitic acid (C16:0) levels were elevated in hyperglycemia as compared to normoglycaemic subjects (HbA1c <6%). Moreover, levels of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2, w6) were significantly decreased in patients with increased levels of glycation (HbA1c 6-15%).

Conclusion: GC-MS is a novel way to study the plasma fatty acid profiling and findings of this study suggest that monitoring alterations in plasma FFA profile may be of prognostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.07.028DOI Listing
July 2021

Menopausal Remediation and Quality of Life (QoL) Improvement: Insights and Perspectives.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(10):1624-1636

Sun Pharma, R&D Center, Sarhaul, Gurugram-122015, India.

Cessation of menstruation, widely known as menopause is a significant transition period in women's life. It leads to the arrest of fertility and creates a depletion of the hormones causing physical, mental, sexual, and social problems which lead to a serious decline in their quality of life. The onset of menopause induces certain sudden changes, while others appear in a phasic manner, henceforth demanding an adequate understanding of its progression, adverse impact on life, and exploration of any remedial measures thereof. Menopause, despite being a natural occurrence, brings in significant changes to women's life, almost sometimes leading to severe debilitation. However, it is still not attended and remains an ignored health issue that warrants the immediate attention of researchers, practitioners, and health policymakers. The present review is an attempt to draw attention towards these women-centric health issues and diligently explores the causes, symptoms and also describes the various procedures for the management of menopausal and postmenopausal syndromes. The review tries to summarise the currently available pharmaceutical interventions and also dwells into herbal and complementary remedies which could ameliorate and provide respite from the etiolating menopausal symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530320666200730225830DOI Listing
January 2020

Ashwagandha in brain disorders: A review of recent developments.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Jul 16;257:112876. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Withania somnifera (Family: Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng is distributed widely in India, Nepal, China and Yemen. The roots of plant consist of active phytoconstituents mainly withanolides, alkaloids and sitoindosides and are conventionally used for the treatment of multiple brain disorders.

Aim Of The Review: This review aims to critically assess and summarize the current state and implication of Ashwagandha in brain disorders. We have mainly focussed on the reported neuroactive phytoconstituents, available marketed products, pharmacological studies, mechanism of action and recent patents published related to neuroprotective effects of Ashwagandha in brain disorders.

Materials And Methods: All the information and data was collected on Ashwagandha using keywords "Ashwagandha" along with "Phytoconstituents", "Ayurvedic, Unani and Homeopathy marketed formulation", "Brain disorders", "Mechanism" and "Patents". Following sources were searched for data collection: electronic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, Elsevier, PubMed, Wiley On-line Library, Taylor and Francis, Springer; books such as AYUSH Pharmacopoeia; authentic textbooks and formularies.

Results: Identified neuroprotective phytoconstituents of Ashwagandha are sitoindosides VII-X, withaferin A, withanosides IV, withanols, withanolide A, withanolide B, anaferine, beta-sitosterol, withanolide D with key pharmacological effects in brain disorders mainly anxiety, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Schizophrenia, Huntington's disease, dyslexia, depression, autism, addiction, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorders. The literature survey does not highlight any toxic effects of Ashwagandha. Further, multiple available marketed products and patents recognized its beneficial role in various brain disorders; however, very few data is available on mechanistic pathway and clinical studies of Ashwagandha for various brain disorders is scarce and not promising.

Conclusion: The review concludes the results of recent studies on Ashwagandha suggesting its extensive potential as neuroprotective in various brain disorders as supported by preclinical studies, clinical trials and published patents. However vague understanding of the mechanistic pathways involved in imparting the neuroprotective effect of Ashwagandha warrants further study to promote it as a promising drug candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112876DOI Listing
July 2020

Effect of Cichorium intybus seeds supplementation on the markers of glycemic control, oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double-blind placebo study.

Phytother Res 2020 Jul 5;34(7):1609-1618. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Biochemistry, HIMSR, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that aqueous extract of Cichorium intybus seeds (AECIS) would have add-on beneficial effect in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this double-blind randomized clinical study, 150 subjects were enrolled to assess the add-on efficacy and safety of AECIS in T2DM patients. The subjects were randomized (1:1) to the AECIS (n = 51) and placebo (n = 49) groups. The subjects in both groups continued to take prescribed doses of metformin. The standardization of AECIS was carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical analysis. The mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level in the AECIS and placebo groups at baseline was 8.6% and 8.5%, respectively. Mean values of HbA1c at the end of 12 weeks of intervention were 7.42% in the AECIS group (a reduction of 1.18% from baseline) and 8.4% in the placebo group (mean reduction of 0.1% from baseline). Besides, significant reduction in inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypertriglyceridemia was seen in the AECIS group (p < .05). The study shows for the first time that AECIS supplementation ameliorates the disease progression and it is beneficial as a potential adjunct dietary supplement for the management of T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6624DOI Listing
July 2020

Transcriptomic Validation of the Protective Effects of Aqueous Bark Extract of (Roxb.) on Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2019 10;10:1443. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Aqueous extract of the bark of (TA) is used by a large population in the Indian subcontinent for treating various cardiovascular conditions. Animal experiments have shown its anti-atherogenic, anti-hypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. It has several bioactive ingredients with hemodynamic, ROS scavenging, and anti-inflammatory properties. Earlier we have done limited proteomic and transcriptomic analysis to show its efficacy in ameliorating cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in rats. In the present study we have used high-throughput sequencing of the mRNA from control and treated rat heart to further establish its efficacy. ISO (5 mg/kg/day s.c.) was administered in male adult rats for 14 days to induce cardiac hypertrophy. Standardized aqueous extract TA bark extract was administered orally. Total RNA were isolated from control, ISO, ISO + TA, and TA treated rat hearts and subjected to high throughput sequence analysis. The modulations of the transcript levels were then subjected to bio-informatics analyses using established software. Treatment with ISO downregulated 1,129 genes and upregulated 204 others. Pre-treatment with the TA bark extracts markedly restored that expression pattern with only 97 genes upregulated and 85 genes downregulated. The TA alone group had only 88 upregulated and 26 downregulated genes. The overall profile of expression in ISO + TA and TA alone groups closely matched with the control group. The genes that were modulated included those involved in metabolism, activation of receptors and cell signaling, and cardiovascular and other diseases. Networks associated with those genes included those involved in angiogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, integrin binding, inflammation, drug metabolism, redox metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and organization of myofibril. Overlaying of the networks in ISO and ISO_TA group showed that those activated in ISO group were mostly absent in ISO_TA and TA group, suggesting a global effect of the TA extracts. This study for the first time reveals that TA partially or completely restores the gene regulatory network perturbed by ISO treatment in rat heart; signifying its efficacy in checking ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.01443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916006PMC
December 2019

HPTLC and UPLC-MS/MS Methods for Quality Control Analysis of Itrifal Formulations of Unani System of Medicine.

J AOAC Int 2020 Jun;103(3):649-658

Jamia Hamdard, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Department of Pharmacognosy and Photochemistry, Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, New Delhi 110062, India.

Background: Ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-tandem MS (MS/MS) and high-performance TLC (HPTLC) assay methods were developed for chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of bioactive constituents of a certain "Itrifal formulation," a traditional kind of Unani medicine.

Objective: In the present investigation, HPTLC and UPLC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for the detection and quantification of major metabolites present in itrifal formulation.

Methods: The metabolites present in the formulation were separated using modern chromatographic techniques, and a quantitative analysis was performed. Analytical performance of the proposed HPTLC and UPLC-MS/MS methods was validated as per the defined guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, and specificity.

Results: The developed UPLC-MS/MS and HPTLC methods were used for quantification of gallic acid, tannic acid, catechin, and quercetin. All four constituents were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS, while two constituents were quantified by HPTLC in the commercial itrifal formulation. The calibration plot was found to be linear, accurate, precise, robust, and specific for both HPTLC and UPLC-MS/MS.

Conclusions: The present methods were successfully applied for analysis of the given markers in itrifal formulations. The same can be used for QC and stability testing of itrifal formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.19-0231DOI Listing
June 2020

Quality Control and Stability Testing of Arq Formulations of Unani Pharmacopeia of India Using HPTLC and GC-MS.

J AOAC Int 2020 Jun;103(3):699-704

Jamia Hamdard, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, New Delhi, India 110080.

Background: There is an increasing global demand for traditional medicines because of their efficacy, ease of availability, and few or no side effects. The Unani medicines have long been used in India and abroad for various disorders and diseases. Arqiyat (Arq; distillate) is one of the most widely used Unani formulation prepared by simple distillation from single or combination drugs.

Objective: In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to generate data for quality control and stability testing of Arq formulations of the Unani Pharmacopeia of India that includes only three Arq formulations.

Method: Arq-e-Nana (AeN), Arq-e-Gazar (AeG), and Arq-e-Brinjasif (AeB) were prepared through hydrodistillation. Quality control and stability analysis were performed by using HPTLC and GC-MS.

Results: Dichloromethane extract of AeB showed maximum of 10 bands at different retardation factor values; however, there are 7 bands in AeN as well as in AeG. GC-MS analysis showed presence of 10 metabolites in AeG, 8 in AeN, and 9 in AeB. Stability studies showed that the shelf life of Arq formulations would be enhanced at refrigeration (5 ± 2°C) conditions.

Conclusions: The present study highlights quality control and stability analysis of Arq formulations of Unani Pharmacopeia of India using HPTLC and GC-MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.19-0230DOI Listing
June 2020

Analysis and Regulation of Traditional Indian Unani Medicines.

Authors:
Sayeed Ahmad

J AOAC Int 2020 Jun;103(3):607-608

Jamia Hamdard, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, New Delhi 110062, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.19-0320DOI Listing
June 2020

Isolation and Characterization of Four Terpenoidal Compounds with Potential Antimicrobial Activity from L. (Asteraceae).

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2019 Oct-Dec;11(4):373-379

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the isolation, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of isolated compounds from

Materials And Methods: Bioactive compounds such as trifloculoside, parthenolide (sesquiterpene lactones), lupeol, and erythrodiol (pentacyclic triterpens) were isolated from -hexane extract of , and their antimicrobial activity against , , , and was evaluated. The compounds were characterized using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

Results: Trifloculoside, lupeol, and erythrodiol are being reported for the first time from The isolated compounds sesquiterpens and lupeol exhibited prodigious antimicrobial activity against and with minimum inhibitory concentration values in the range of 25-1000 µg/mL but no activity was observed against other tested organisms, and erythrodiol showed no antimicrobial activity against any of the tested organisms.

Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the new compounds trifloculoside, parthenolide, and lupeol isolated from exhibited effective antimicrobial potential. It was inferred that can be effectively used in traditional medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_249_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791082PMC
October 2019

Fruit: Pharmacognostical Standardization, Detection of Contaminant, and Antioxidant Activity.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2019 Oct-Dec;11(4):355-363

Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, 1982, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The main objective of the current study was to perform pharmacognostical, physiochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Linn. (Family: Fabaceae) fruit.

Materials And Methods: The present study deals with pharmacognostical characters as identification parameters of the fruit, which were subjected to macro- and microscopical studies. Physiochemical analysis was performed as per World Health Organization-recommended parameters. Toxicological parameters such as heavy metals, aflatoxins, and pesticide residue and presence of microbial count were analyzed. This study also deals with the thin layer chromatography/high performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting and antioxidant activity.

Results: The microscopy study revealed the presence of epidermis, vascular bundles, parenchyma cells, mucilage fiber, starch grain, and nonlignified fibers. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, moisture content, ash value, and extractive value were also determined. Heavy metal, aflatoxin, total microbial load, and pesticide residues were found to be variable but under the permissible limits.

Conclusion: It is critical to analyze these parameters in each crude herbal drug before further processing to ensure their safety and efficacy for better approval at the international podium. This study revealed precise identification for the meticulous crude drug which will be valuable in detection and manage to adulterations of the raw material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_46_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791083PMC
October 2019

Vitamin D fortification of foods in India: present and past scenario.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 10 24;193:105417. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Food Technology, School of Interdisciplinary Sciences and Technology, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India. Electronic address:

India is a densely populated country known for its traditional, cultural and lingual diversity. In India Deficiency of vitamin D is seen in both the genders and among all the age groups. Micronutrient deficiencies are steadily adding to the increasing burden of health related co-morbidities with low dietary calcium and magnesium intake in Indian population. Despite lots of sunshine, vitamin D insufficiency is widespread in India according to the age and regions (50-90%). In order to increase vitamin D intake with normal diet, the food industry will have to find a more effective strategy to improve general health conditions. The breadth of widely used foods, including milk, cheese, margarine, dairy products, and various breakfast drinks, can improve the condition of vitamin D deficiency in Asian countries such as India. The requirements for calculating the necessary micronutrients and vitamin D fortification of foods and drinks, successful strategies should be developed and emphasized. There is need to improve the effectiveness of various fruit drinks through fortification of vitamin D, which can reduce vitamin D deficiency in the general population as well as in different age groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105417DOI Listing
October 2019

Chromatography Based Metabolomics and Screening of Leaf Extract for Its Antidiabetic Potential.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 6;2019:7523159. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Human Genetics Laboratory, Department of Bioscience, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.

, popularly known as gurmar, is extensively used in traditional systems of medicine for diabetes, stomach ailments, liver diseases, and cardiac disorders. Dried leaf powder of was extracted through soxhlation using 70% (v/v) alcohol. The hydroalcoholic extract was concentrated to 1/4th of its volume and basified to isolate gymnemic acid enriched extract using chloroform. The isolated extract was checked for its antioxidant potential against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), which showed scavenging activity of 82.31% at 80 g/mL of extract. Quality control analysis of the extract was carried out by TLC. Chloroform and methanol (9.5:0.5, v/v) were used as a solvent system and separated compounds were detected at 254 and 366 nm. A total of 13 metabolites were separated. However, major peaks were at R 0.12, 0.69, 0.79, and 0.85. Further, UPLC-MS fingerprinting of the extract was done using acetonitrile and 0.5% formic acid in water as mobile phase in gradient elution mode. A total of 21 metabolites were separated and tentatively identified from the database. Deacyl gymnemic acid and quercetin are the two major metabolites found in the extract. Gymnemic acid, deacyl gymnemic acid, and quercetin were docked with ten different proteins associated with glucose metabolism, transport, and glucose utilization. It has been observed that gymnemic acid was more potent than deacyl gymnemic acid in terms of binding affinity towards proteins and showed a favorable interaction with amino acid residues at the active site. Thus, the present study gives an insight of identified metabolites with protein interaction and a reason for the hypoglycemic potential of deacyl gymnemic acid enriched extract, which can be further explored for and studies to establish its phytopharmacological and therapeutic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7523159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339760PMC
January 2019

TLC-bioautography identification and GC-MS analysis of antimicrobial and antioxidant active compounds in Musa × paradisiaca L. fruit pulp essential oil.

Phytochem Anal 2019 May 4;30(3):332-345. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Nandini Nagar College of Pharmacy, Nawabganj, India.

Introduction: The absence of microbial growth and resistance to oxidative deterioration in fruits of Musa × paradisiaca L. (bananas) is an indication of the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant metabolites.

Objective: In order to investigate the secondary metabolomic spectrum as well as the active antimicrobial and antioxidants present in essential oils (EOs) from fruits of different geographical areas of M. × paradisiaca, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) principal component data correlation analysis is complemented with antimicrobial assays and phytochemical and bioautographic antioxidant fingerprints with thin layer chromatography (TLC).

Methodology: An EO was obtained by steam distillation and subjected to GC-MS and TLC for metabolomic profiling from fruit pulp. The antimicrobial potential was tested in both Escherichia coli as a gram negative and Bacillus subtilis as a gram positive microbe. Potential antioxidant metabolites were identified through TLC-bioautography and GC-MS analysis of active zones.

Results: A maximum of 0.56% v/w EO was isolated from fruit pulps of M. × paradisiaca. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against B. subtillis and E. coli were 0.25 and 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, 56 metabolites were identified through GC-MS. The major abundant antimicrobial metabolites found in EOs are α-thujene, γ-terpinene, α- and β-pinene, sabinene, β-myrcene, limonene, α-capaene, caryophyllene and (Z,E)-α farnesene. Aceteugenol, palmitic acid, stearic acid, palmitin, and stearin were identified as antioxidant metabolites. Principal component analysis of metabolite data reveals correlations and a clear separation based on metabolites obtained from various areas.

Conclusion: The data generated using metabolic profiling and cluster analysis helped to identify antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds in M. × paradisiaca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2816DOI Listing
May 2019

Trigonelline inhibits intestinal microbial metabolism of choline and its associated cardiovascular risk.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Sep 28;159:100-112. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India.

Gut microbiota based metabolism of choline produces trimethylamine (TMA) which is further converted to a pro-atherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by flavin monooxygenase (FMO). Trigonelline from the plant Trigonella foenum-graecum has been reported for the treatment of CVD. Aim of the present study was to check the effect of trigonelline on the gut microbiota based conversion of TMA to TMAO. Trigonelline was isolated from hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum. The isolated trigonelline was characterized through TLC and UPLC-MS. Anaerobic microbe responsible for the metabolism of choline to TMA was isolated by culturing the human gut microbiota in choline enriched medium. The isolated bacteria was identified at molecular level based on PCR amplification of 1500bp of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Isolated FMO was used for ex vivo conversion of TMA to TMAO. Further, we investigated the effect of trigonelline in isolated gut microbe based metabolism of choline, lipid profile and TMAO levels in mice with or without suppression of gut microbiota with antibiotics. Liquid-liquid purification and chromatographic analysis confirmed the trigonelline purity (87.26%) and which was also confirmed by mass spectroscopy with m/z 137.4 in positive ionization mode. A total of 30 anaerobic microbes responsible for TMA production were isolated and Citrobacter freundii was the superior among others for the production of TMA. In vitro culture of C. freundii in choline enriched medium supplemented with trigonelline resulted in significantly reduction TMA and followed by TMAO production. In ex vivo, a maximum of 85.3% TMAO production was reduced by trigonelline at concentration of about 300 μg/mL. Serum level of lipids and TMAO were significantly altered in choline fed animals with or without suppression of gut microbiota and this phenomenon was reversed upon the oral administration of trigonelline in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the effect of trigonelline on gut microbiota responsible for choline metabolism and this can be used as a model for evaluation of herbal drugs and its effect in gut microbiota prompted cardiovascular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2018.06.027DOI Listing
September 2018

Quantification of phenolic acids and antioxidant potential of inbred, hybrid and composite cultivars of maize under different nitrogen regimes.

J Environ Biol 2016 Nov;37(6):1273-79

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a multipurpose crop, which is immensely used worldwide for its nutritional as well as medicinal properties. This study evaluates the effect of varying concentrations of nitrogen (N) on accumulation of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in different maize cultivars, including inbreds, hybrids and a composite, which were grown in natural light under controlled temperature (30°C/20°C D/N) and humidity (80%), with sufficient (4.5mM) and low (0.05mM) nitrogen supply. Seeds of different cultivars were powdered and extracted in a methanol:water (80:20) mixture through reflux at 60-75°C, and the extracts obtained were subjected to high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), using ethyl acetate: acetic acid: formic acid: water (109:16:12:31) solvent system for the separation of phenolic acids. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and H2O2-scavenging activity assays. At sufficient nitrogen condition, the contents of different phenolic acids were higher in the composite cultivar (8.7 mg g-1 d.wt. in gallic acid to 39.3 mg g-1 d.wt. in cinnamic and salicylic acids) than in inbreds and hybrids. Under low nitrogen condition, the phenolic acids contents declined significantly in inbreds and hybrids, but remained almost unaffected in the composite. The antioxidant activity was also the maximum in the composite, and declined similarly as phenolic acids under low nitrogen supply, showing a significant reduction in inbreds and hybrids only. Therefore, the maize composite has a potential for being used as a nutraceutical in human-health sector.
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November 2016

Exploring the Cytotoxic Potential of Triterpenoids-enriched Fraction of by Implementing , , and Approaches.

Pharmacogn Mag 2017 Oct 11;13(Suppl 3):S595-S606. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Department of Bioscience, Human Genetics Laboratory, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

Background: (BM) is a herbaceous plant traditionally used from time immemorial in Ayurvedic and folklore medicines. We hypothesized that the extract of the whole plant might contain numerous molecules with having antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing of human cancer cells.

Objectives: This work investigated anticancer activity of bioactive fraction of BM.

Materials And Methods: The hydroalcoholic extract of BM was fractionated with different solvent, namely, hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), acetone, methanol, and water. The anticancer activity was performed against various Human Cancer Cell lines, namely, Colon (HT29, Colo320, and Caco2), Lung (A549), Cervix (HeLa, SiHa), and Breast (MCF-7, MDAMB-231). Further, DCM fraction was evaluated for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor-bearing mice since it showed the best cytotoxicity at 72 h (IC 41.0-60.0 µg/mL). The metabolic fingerprinting of these extract were carried out using high-performance thin-layer chromatography along with quantification of bacoside A, bacoside B, cucurbitacin B, cucurbitacin E, and bittulinic acid.

Results: Oral administration of DCM fraction at a dose of 40 mg/kg rendered prominent reduction of tumor regression parameters such as tumor weight, packed cell volume, tumor volume and viable tumor cell count as compared to the untreated mice of the EAC control group. The anticancer activity of DCM fraction may be due to the presence of large amount of bacoside A, B and cucurbitacins. The molecular docking studies of major metabolites with targeted proteins predicted the anticancer activity of DCM fraction which was in support of activity.

Conclusion: The , , analytical and in silico studies on DCM fraction of has proved its great potential for development of anticancer phytopharmaceuticals.

Summary: A new HPTLC method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacoside A, B, cucurbitacin B, D, E and bittulinic acid in Bacopa monnieri extract. Enrichment of active anticancer metabolites was done by polarity based fractionations of hydroalcoholic extract of Bacopa. DCM fraction of a hydroalcoholic extract of Bacopa showed anticancer potential against human cancer cell line (IC50 41.0-60.0 µg/mL) and in EAC treated mice (at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight). The anticancer activity of Bacopa may be due to the presence of bacosides and cucurbitacin and it was confirmed by in silico screening. DBM: DCM fraction of Bacopa monnieri; DCM: Dichloromethane; EAC: Ehrlich ascites carcinoma; HCT: Hematocrit; HGB: Hemoglobin; HPTLC: High performance thin layer chromatography; ICH: International council for Harmonisation; LOD: Limit of detection; LOQ: Limit of quantification; LYM: Lymphocytes; MCH: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin; MCHC: Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); MCV: Mean corpuscular volume; MTT: 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; PLT: Platelet; RBC: Red blood cell; RDW: Red blood cell distribution width; RSD: Relative standard deviation; WBC: White blood cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/pm.pm_397_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669103PMC
October 2017

Antimicrobial and wound healing potential of Marham-e-Aatshak (A Herb-o-Mineral formulation).

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Sep;30(5):1535-1543

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Marham-e-Aatshak (MA) is a Unani ointment, with wide use for treating chronic and infectious wounds since long time. This study was designed to screen the antimicrobial and wound healing potential of MA to validate the ethno-therapeutic claims. The agar diffusion method was used to study the antimicrobial action of MA as well as for all of its ingredients. Inhibition zone diameters were measured and MIC values were calculated. Wound healing activity was studied in models of both, excision and incision wounds. Wound contractibility was measured at different intervals in excision wound model; similarly tensile strength was measured in incision wound model. MA and its ingredients showed remarkable inhibitory activity against most of the organisms. In excision wound, a significantly enhanced wound contraction and significantly reduced epithelialization period was observed. In incision wound, significant increase in the mean breaking strength in the test group was observed. The results indicate that MA is capable of fighting against wound infections and able to potentiate the natural healing process.
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September 2017

Hypoglycemic Potential of Aqueous Extract of Leaf and GC-MS Metabolomics.

Front Pharmacol 2017 12;8:577. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia HamdardNew Delhi, India.

Lam. (family; Moringaceae), commonly known as drumstick, have been used for centuries as a part of the Ayurvedic system for several diseases without having any scientific data. Demineralized water was used to prepare aqueous extract by maceration for 24 h and complete metabolic profiling was performed using GC-MS and HPLC. Hypoglycemic properties of extract have been tested on carbohydrate digesting enzyme activity, yeast cell uptake, muscle glucose uptake, and intestinal glucose absorption. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) was used for the induction of type 1 diabetes. Aqueous extract of leaf was given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg to STZ-induced rats and 200 mg/kg in HFD mice for 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Aqueous extract remarkably inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and it displayed improved antioxidant capacity, glucose tolerance and rate of glucose uptake in yeast cell. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, it produces a maximum fall up to 47.86% in acute effect whereas, in chronic effect, it was 44.5% as compared to control. The fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, liver marker enzyme level were significantly ( < 0.05) restored in both HFD and STZ experimental model. Multivariate principal component analysis on polar and lipophilic metabolites revealed clear distinctions in the metabolite pattern in extract and in blood after its oral administration. Thus, the aqueous extract can be used as phytopharmaceuticals for the management of diabetes by using as adjuvants or alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5601078PMC
September 2017

Antithrombocytopenic and immunomodulatory potential of metabolically characterized aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves.

Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):2043-2056

a Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy , Jamia Hamdard University , New Delhi , India.

Context: Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) leaf (CPL) juice has long been traditionally used in ethnomedicine for dengue fever.

Objective: The study examines the effects of standardized CPL aqueous extract (SCPLE) on platelet count, extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH), and immunomodulation in cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced animal model of thrombocytopenia.

Materials And Methods: The extract was analyzed for myricetin, caffeic acid, trans-ferulic acid, and kaempferol using HPTLC for standardization followed by UPLC-qTOF/MS fingerprinting for metabolite signature. The effects of SCPLE (50 and 150 mg/kg p.o.) on proliferative response of platelet count and total leucocyte count (TLC) were observed up to 14 days in Wistar rat. However, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), haemagglutination titre (HT), and in vivo carbon clearance were examined as immunomodulatory parameters in albino mice at 150 mg/kg p.o. against CP.

Results: The quantitative HPTLC estimation of SCPLE showed the presence of myricetin, caffeic acid, trans-ferulic acid, and kaempferol up to 280.16 ± 5.99, 370.18 ± 6.27, 1110.86 ± 2.97, and 160.53 ± 2.48 (μg/g), respectively. Twenty-four metabolites were identified using UPLC-qTOF/MS. Oral administration of SCPLE (150 mg/kg) in thrombocytopenic rats exhibited significant (p < 0.01) increase in thrombocytes (1014.83 × 10 cells/mm), DTH response (0.16 ± 0.004), and phagocytic index (63.15% increase) as compared to CP-induced thrombocytopenia group. Histopathological studies showed minimal fibrosis in spleen histology.

Discussion And Conclusions: Results suggest CPL can mediate the release of platelets providing the means for the treatment and prevention of dengue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1346690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130488PMC
December 2017