Publications by authors named "Sayan Pan"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The burden of typhoid fever in Klang Valley, Malaysia, 2011-2015.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Nov 16;20(1):843. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Center of Communicable Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Typhoid fever causes global morbidity and mortality and is a significant health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The direct fecal-oral route is the main transmission mode, but indirect environmental transmission could occur, particularly in urban settings. This study aimed to investigate the burden and trend of typhoid fever, reporting the coverage system between government and private practice and pattern of multidrug-resistant (MDR) typhoid cases in the urban Klang Valley area from 2011 to 2015.

Methods: The data from a cross-sectional study retrieved from the e-Notifikasi System, a national reporting system for communicable diseases provided by the Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia and secondary data of all the typhoid cases were obtained from the public and private hospitals and laboratories in Klang Valley. Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the sociodemographic characteristics, spatial mapping was conducted to examine trends, and the crude incidence rates of confirmed typhoid cases and percentage of reporting coverage were calculated. Significant differences between MDR and non-MDR Salmonella typhi were determined in the patient's sociodemographic characteristics, which were analyzed using χ test. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: In total, 507 typhoid fever cases were reported in Klang Valley; however, only 265 cases were confirmed by culture tests. The crude incidence rates of confirmed cases were between 0.5 to 0.7 but peaked at 1.42 per 100,000 population in 2015. Most typhoid fever cases were observed among men (55.6%), individuals aged 21 to 30 years (27.6%), Malaysians (86.3%) and individuals of Malay ethnicity (52.1%). The reporting coverage of confirmed cases was 78.9% and non-reporting coverage of unconfirmed typhoid cases was 79.5%. The predictive value positive (PVP) was 89.3, and 7.5% were detected as MDR Salmonella typhi. Statistical significance was found in gender, citizenship and ethnicity regarding MDR Salmonella typhi (p = 0.004, p = 0.008 and p = 0.034, respectively).

Conclusions: The local transmission of typhoid is still prevalent in the Klang Valley despite rapid urbanization and development in recent years. These findings are essential for policy makers to plan and implement focused and effective preventative activities to curb typhoid infection in urban areas.
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November 2020

Source of cigarettes among youth smokers in Malaysia: Findings from the tobacco and e-cigarette survey among Malaysian school adolescents (TECMA).

Tob Induc Dis 2018 5;16:51. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Hospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, Malaysia.

Introduction: Understanding how and where youth obtain tobacco products are major factors in the development of suitable intervention programs to reduce youth smoking. This study aimed to determine the source of cigarettes and the associated factors among Malaysian school adolescent smokers.

Methods: Our sample consisted of 1348 youth aged 10-17 years who were current smokers (having smoked at least once in the last 30 days). The source of cigarettes (commercial, over-the-counter purchases; or social, borrowing or obtaining from someone else) was the dependent variable, and multivariable logistic regression was employed to determine its association with independent variables (i.e. sociodemographics, smoking behavior, and knowledge of laws prohibiting sales of cigarettes to youth).

Results: Over half (54.3%) of current smokers obtained cigarettes from commercial sources, with a proportion nearly two times higher (84.2% vs 43.7%) among frequent smokers (i.e. those smoking more than 20 days per month) compared to less-frequent smokers, and among young males (56.5% vs 32.0%) compared young females. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that in urban areas, young females (AOR=12.5, 95% CI: 1.38-99.8) frequent smokers (AOR=4.41, 95% CI: 2.05-9.46), and those studying in lower (AOR=3.76, 95% CI: 1.41-10.02) and upper secondary (AOR=4.74, 95% CI: 1.72-13.06) school students were more likely to obtain cigarettes from a commercial source. On the other hand, in rural areas, only frequent smokers were more likely to get their cigarettes from commercial sources, whilst other variables were not significant.

Conclusions: The proportion of youth smokers who obtained cigarettes from commercial sources appeared to be high, suggesting that law enforcement and health promotion activities should be enhanced to reduce the rate of smoking among Malaysian youth.
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November 2018

Support for smoke-free policy among Malaysian adults: findings from a population-based study.

BMJ Open 2019 02 12;9(2):e020304. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objective: Public opinion and support can be powerful mandates for smoke-free policy. However, the scarcity of evidence on public opinion among Malaysians necessitates further investigation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the level of support for smoke-free policy at various public domains and its associated factors among Malaysian adults.

Design: Data were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Malaysia (GATS-M). GATS-M is a nationwide study that employed a multistage, proportionate-to-size sampling strategy to select a representative sample of 5112 Malaysian adults aged 15 years and above. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with support for smoke-free policy in selected public domains that is, workplaces, restaurants, bars, hotels, casinos, karaoke centres, public transport terminals and shopping centres.

Results: The level of support for enactment of a smoke-free policy at selected public domains varied from 37.8% to 94.4%, with the highest support was for gazetted smoke-free domains, namely, shopping centres (94.4%, 95% CI: 93.2% to 95.3%) and public transport terminals (85.2%, 95% CI: 83.3% to 86.9%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that non-smokers were more likely to support smoke-free policy at all domains. In addition, respondents who worked in workplaces with total or partial smoking restrictions were more likely to support a smoke-free policy ((total restriction adjusted OR (AOR): 14.94 (6.44 to 34.64); partial restriction AOR: 2.96 (1.138 to 6.35); non-restriction was applied as a reference).

Conclusion: A majority of the Malaysian adult population supported the smoke-free policy, especially at gazetted smoke-free domains. Therefore, expansion of a total smoking ban to workplaces, restaurants, bars, hotels, casinos and karaoke centres is strongly recommended to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and to denormalise smoking behaviour.
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February 2019

Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

Tob Induc Dis 2018 26;16:01. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Hospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.

Introduction: The continuous monitoring of smoking prevalence and its associated factors is an integral part of anti-smoking programmes and valuable for the evaluation of the effectiveness of anti-smoking measures and policies. This study aimed at determining prevalence of smoking and identifying socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia aged 15 years and over.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 21 445 adults in Malaysia, aged 15 years and over, selected via a stratified, two-stage proportionate-to-size sampling method. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews by trained research assistants, using a standard validated questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among Malaysians.

Results: The overall prevalence of smoking was 22.8% (95% CI: 21.9-23.8%), with males having a significantly higher prevalence compared to females (43.0%, 95% CI: 41.1-44.6 vs 1.4%, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). The highest smoking prevalence was observed among other ethnicities (35.7%), those aged 25-44 years (59.3%), and low educational attainment (25.2%). Males, those with lower educational attainment and Malays were significantly associated with smoking.

Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among Malaysians, aged 15 years and over, remains high despite the implementation of several anti-smoking measures over the past decades. Specially tailored anti-smoking policies or measures, particularly targeting males, the Malays, younger adults and those with lower educational attainment, are greatly warranted to reduce the prevalence of smoking in Malaysia.
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January 2018

Exposure to tobacco secondhand smoke and its associated factors among non-smoking adults in smoking-restricted and non-restricted areas: findings from a nationwide study in Malaysia.

BMJ Open 2018 01 8;8(1):e017203. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Hospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, Pahang, Malaysia.

Objectives: Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aims of the paper are to assess SHS exposure among non-smoking adults in Malaysia attending various smoking-restricted and non-restricted public areas according to the Control of Tobacco Product Regulations (CTPR) as well as its relationship with various sociodemographic variables.

Design: Data were extracted from a cross-sectional study, the Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2011 which involved 3269 non-smokers in Malaysia. Data was obtained through face-to-face interviews using a validated pre-tested questionnaire. Factors associated with exposure to SHS were identified via multivariable analysis.

Results: The study revealed that almost two-thirds of respondents were exposed to SHS in at least one public area in the past 1 month, with a significantly higher exposure among males (70.6%), those with higher educational attainment (81.4%) and higher income (quintile 1%-73.9%). Besides, the exposure to SHS was almost four times higher in non-restricted areas compared with restricted areas under the CTPR (81.9% vs 22.9). Multivariable analysis revealed that males and younger adults at non-restricted areas were more likely to be exposed to SHS while no significant associated factors of SHS exposure was observed in restricted areas.

Conclusions: The study revealed the prevalence of SHS exposure was higher among Malaysian adults. Although smoke-free laws offer protection to non-smokers from exposure to SHS, enforcement activities in restricted areas should be enhanced to ensure strict public abidance. In addition, legislation of restricted areas should also be extended to greatly reduce the SHS exposure among non-smokers in Malaysia.
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January 2018