Publications by authors named "Sawai Singh Rathore"

18 Publications

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Association of Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome with Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Dec 31. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives: Motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR) is a recently proposed predementia syndrome characterized by subjective cognitive impairment and slow gait. We aim to assess the cardiovascular and noncardiovascular factors associated with MCR.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Setting And Participants: Studies comparing patients with MCR to those without MCR, and identifying the factors associated with MCR.

Methods: We used databases, including PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Embase, to identify studies evaluating the factors associated with MCR. Mean differences, odds ratios (ORs), risk ratios (RRs), and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using Review Manager.

Results: Meta-analysis revealed that all cardiovascular factors, including diabetes (21 studies; OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.37, 1.64), hypertension (21 studies; OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08, 1.33), stroke (16 studies; OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.70, 2.42), heart disease (7 studies; OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.13, 1.86), coronary artery disease (5 studies; OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.16, 1.91), smoking (13 studies; OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04, 1.58), and obesity (12 studies; OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13, 1.59) were significantly higher in the MCR than the non-MCR group. Noncardiovascular factors, including age (22 studies; MD = 1.08, 95% CI 0.55, 1.61), education (8 studies; OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.25), depression (17 studies; OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.65, 2.91), prior falls (9 studies; OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.17, 1.80), arthritis (6 studies; OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07, 1.70), polypharmacy (5 studies; OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.07, 2.54), and sedentary lifestyle (11 studies; OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.59, 2.52), were significantly higher in the MCR than in the non-MCR group. Alcohol consumption (6 studies; OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72, 0.98), however, favored the MCR over the non-MCR group. Additionally, there was no significant association of MCR with gender (22 studies; OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94, 1.15) and cancer (3 studies; OR 2.39, 95% CI 0.69, 8.28). MCR was also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of incident dementia (5 studies; HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.77, 4.56; P < .001), incident cognitive impairment [2 studies; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.76, 95% CI 1.44, 2.15], incident falls (4 studies; RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.17, 1.60), and mortality (2 studies; aHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.35, 1.85).

Conclusions And Implications: MCR syndrome was significantly associated with diabetes, hypertension, stroke, obesity, smoking, low education, sedentary lifestyle, and depression. Moreover, MCR significantly increased the risk of incident dementia, cognitive impairment, falls, and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.11.035DOI Listing
December 2021

A systematic review of acute telogen effluvium, a harrowing post-COVID-19 manifestation.

J Med Virol 2021 Dec 20. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

This systematic review focuses on the clinical features, physical examination findings, outcomes, and underlying pathology of acute telogen effluvium (TE), a type of diffuse hair loss, occurring in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovered patients. MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases were queried till October 2021 to identify studies reporting acute TE occurring after COVID-19 recovery. Data were obtained from 19 studies, which included 465 patients who were diagnosed with acute TE. The median age of these patients was 44 years and 67.5% were females. The most common trichoscopic findings were decreased hair density, the presence of empty follicles, or short regrowing hair. The mean duration from COVID-19 symptom onset to the appearance of acute TE was 74 days, which is earlier than classic acute TE. Most patients recovered from hair loss, while a few patients had persistent hair fall. Our results highlight the need to consider the possibility of post-COVID-19 acute TE in patients presenting with hair fall, with a history of COVID-19 infection, in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Despite being a self-limiting condition, hair loss post-COVID-19 is a stressful manifestation. Identifying COVID-19 infection as a potential cause of acute TE will help the clinicians counsel the patients, relieving them from undue stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27534DOI Listing
December 2021

A Case of Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient Receiving High-Dose Steroids for Optic Neuritis.

Cureus 2021 Oct 29;13(10):e19132. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Hospital Medicine, Franciscan Health, Lafayette, USA.

Although rare, drug-induced pancreatitis is an important cause of acute pancreatitis. The diagnosis of drug-induced pancreatitis remains a challenge for clinicians. Steroids are one of the frequently used drugs in hospitals for many acute illnesses. Patients presenting with signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis, with a recent history of steroid use, in the absence of other potential causes, should be approached with a high suspicion for steroid-induced pancreatitis to ensure a timely diagnosis. We describe a case of a 57-year-old female treated for optic neuritis of the left eye with high doses of Methylprednisolone for five days, who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal pain within 24 hours of discharge. A detailed evaluation of the patient's medical history and exclusion of other probable etiologies confirmed the diagnosis of steroid-induced pancreatitis. Withdrawal of the offending agent and supportive care resolved the underlying acute pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.19132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8614170PMC
October 2021

Risk factors for blood transfusion in Cesarean section: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transfus Clin Biol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, 74200 Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: The current study has been conducted to identify the risk factors associated with blood transfusion in women undergoing cesarean section (C-section). A detailed account of the risk factors associated withblood transfusion will ultimately prevent unnecessary crossmatching in hospitals , leading to the conservation of declining blood supplies and resources without subjugating the quality of care.

Material And Methods: We performed a rigorous literature search using electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Embase, for studies evaluating the risk factors for blood transfusion in C-section published until March 31, 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was deployed to assess the methodologic quality of the included studies. Mean differences (MD) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Review Manager version 5.3.

Results: The search yielded 1563 records, 22 of which were eligible for inclusion, representing 426,094 women (10,959 in the transfused group and 415,135 in the non-transfused group). Participants in the transfused group had lower mean preoperative hematocrit (MD=-3.71 [-4.46, -2.96]; p<0.00001; I=88%). Placenta previa (OR=9.54 [7.23, 12.59]; p<0.00001; I=88%), placental abruption (OR=6.77 [5.25, 8.73]; p<0.00001; I=72%), emergency C-section (OR=1.92 [1.42, 2.60]; p<0.0001; I=75%), general anesthesia (OR=8.43 [7.90, 9.00]; p<0.00001; I=72%), multiple gestations (OR=1.60 [1.24, 2.06]; p=0.0003; I=85%), preterm labor (OR=3.34 [2.75, 4.06]; p<0.00001; I=85%), prolonged labor (OR=1.68 [1.44, 1.96]; p<0.00001; I=78%), unbooked cases (OR=2.42 [1.22, 4.80]; p=0.01; I=80%), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (OR=1.81 [1.72, 1.90]; p<0.00001; I=71%), and fibroids (OR=2.32 [1.55, 3.47]; p<0.0001; I=72%) were significantly higher in the transfused group compared to the non-transfused group. Chronic hypertension (OR=0.67 [0.29, 1.55]; p=0.36; I=90%), maternal age (MD=0.09 [-0.27, 0.45]; p=0.62; I=50%), maternal body mass index (MD=-0.14 [-0.81, 0.53]; p=0.67, I=86%), diabetes (OR=0.93 [0.75, 1.15]; p=0.51; I=52%), and malpresentation (OR=0.65 [0.38, 1.11]; p=0.13; I=64%) were not significantly associated with an increased risk of blood transfusion in C-section in the two groups.

Conclusion: Placenta previa, placental abruption, emergency C-section, booking status, multiple gestations, and preoperative hematocrit were the risk factors most significantly associated with blood transfusion, while a prior C-section did not increase the risk of transfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tracli.2021.09.010DOI Listing
October 2021

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever-induced liver injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Nov 12;75(11):e14775. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Our Lady of Fatima University College of Medicine, Valenzuela City, Philippines.

Background: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal acute tick-borne viral infection and substantial emerging global public health threat. This illness has a high case fatality rate of up to 40%. The liver is one of the important target organs of the CCHF virus.

Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between CCHF and liver injury and draw more generalised inferences about the abnormal serum markers of liver injury such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in CCHF patients.

Methods: A literature search was accomplished for published eligible articles with MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases. All eligible observational studies and case series were included from around the world. The inclusion criteria were articles describing liver injury biomarkers amongst patients diagnosed with CCHF.

Results: Data from 18 studies, consisting of 1238 patients with CCHF were included in this meta-analysis. Overall pooled incidence of at least one raised liver injury biomarker was 77.95% (95% CI, I  =  88.50%, P < .0001). Similarly, pooled incidence of elevated AST and ALT was 85.92% (95% CI, I  = 85.27%, P < .0001) and 64.30% (95% CI, I  =  88.32%, P < .0001), respectively. Both Egger and Begg-Mazumdar's tests detected no apparent publication bias in all three meta-analyses (P > .05).

Conclusion: Our study shows that CCHF has a very detrimental effect on liver function. Abnormal liver function may lead to poor prognosis and increased morbidity and mortality in CCHF patients. Hence, Physicians must recognise and continuously monitor these biomarkers, since these markers may aid in early stratification of prognosis and the prevention of severe outcomes in infection with such a high case fatality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14775DOI Listing
November 2021

Prevalence and clinical outcomes of pleural effusion in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Med Virol 2022 01 1;94(1):229-239. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Our Lady of Fatima University College of Medicine, Valenzuela City, Philippines.

Observational studies indicate that pleural effusion has an association with risk and the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 disease; however, the available literature on this area is inconsistent. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the correlation between COVID-19 disease and pleural effusion. A rigorous literature search was conducted using multiple databases. All eligible observational studies were included from around the globe. The pooled prevalence and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the random effect model. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were produced to report overall effect size using random effect models for severity and mortality outcomes. Funnel plots, Egger regression tests, and Begg-Mazumdar's rank correlation test were used to appraise publication bias. Data from 23 studies including 6234 COVID-19 patients was obtained. The overall prevalence of pleural effusion in COVID-19 patients was 9.55% (95% CI, I = 92%). Our findings also indicated that the presence of pleural effusions associated with increased risk of severity of disease(OR = 5.08, 95% CI 3.14-8.22, I = 77.4%) and mortality due to illness(OR = 4.53, 95% CI 2.16-9.49, I = 66%) compared with patients without pleural effusion. Sensitivity analyses illustrated a similar effect size while decreasing the heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was evident in the meta-analysis. The presence of pleural effusion can assist as a prognostic factor to evaluate the risk of worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients hence, it is recommended that hospitalized COVID-19 patients with pleural effusion should be managed on an early basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8662249PMC
January 2022

Myocarditis associated with Covid-19 disease: A systematic review of published case reports and case series.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Nov 7;75(11):e14470. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Covid-19 is an extremely contagious illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The cardiac involvement in such a public health emergency disease has not been well studied and a conflicting evidence exists on this issue.

Objective: This systematic review article aimed to compile and illustrate clinical characteristics, diagnostic findings, management, and outcomes manifesting in myocarditis linked with Covid-19.

Methods: A literature search was accomplished for published eligible articles with MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases. All eligible case reports and case series were included from around the world without any language restrictions. For this review, inclusion criteria were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection cases reporting a diagnosis of acute myocarditis.

Results: Data from 41 studies describing myocarditis in 42 Covid-19 patients was obtained. The median age of these patients was 43.4 years, with 71.4% of them being men. Fever was the most prevalent presenting symptoms seen in 57% of patients. Hypertension was the most pervasive comorbidity accompanying these patients. Cardiac biomarkers troponin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were raised in almost 90% and 87% of patients, respectively. Electrocardiogram findings were nonspecific and included ST-segment and T-wave changes. Echocardiogram commonly showed left ventricular systolic dysfunction with increased heart size. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) exhibited myocardial edema and injury. The most prevalent histopathological feature appreciated was diffuse lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates. Antivirals and corticosteroids were the most frequently used medications. About 38% of patients also needed vasopressor assistance. Out of 42 patients, 67% recovered, and eight died.

Conclusion: Because of the risk of a sudden worsening of patients conditions and myocarditis association with considerable mortality and morbidity, a knowledge of this cardiac complication of Covid-19 disease is crucial for healthcare professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14470DOI Listing
November 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Dotinurad in Hyperuricemic Patients With or Without Gout: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Cureus 2021 Apr 12;13(4):e14428. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Anesthesiology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction A systematic review and meta-analysis of the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of dotinurad in hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. Dotinurad is a novel selective urate reabsorption inhibitor (SURI) that increases uric acid excretion by selectively inhibiting urate transporter 1 (URAT1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis conducted to gauge the efficacy and safety of dotinurad.  Methods Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched from inception till March 2, 2021, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of dotinurad with placebo- or active (febuxostat or benzbromarone) control were included. The eligible studies were analyzed with RevMan 5.3 Software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen). Results Four eligible studies, consisting of 684 hyperuricemic patients were included. The number of patients who achieved serum uric acid (sUA) levels ≤ 6.0 mg/dl favoured dotinurad 1 mg group as compared to placebo group (risk ratio {RR} = 39.27, 95% onfidence interval {CI}, 5.59 to 275.65; p = 0.0002), dotinurad 2 mg group compared with placebo group (RR = 45.36, 95% CI, 6.48 to 317.38; p= 0.0001), and dotinurad 4 mg group compared with placebo group (RR = 54.16, 95% CI, 7.76 to 377.77; p < 0.0001). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the number of patients who achieved the target sUA levels between dotinurad 2 mg and active control (RR = 1.00, 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.08; p = 0.91). Moreover, the percentage change in sUA levels from baseline to final visit favoured dotinurad 1 mg vs. placebo ((RR = 36.51, 95% CI, 33.00 to 40.02; p < 0.00001), dotinurad 2 mg vs. placebo (RR = 46.70, 95% CI, 42.53 to 50.87; p < 0.00001), and dotinurad 4 mg vs. placebo (RR = 63.84, 95% CI, 60.51 to 67.16; p < 0.00001), while no significant difference was seen in dotinurad 2 mg vs. active control (RR = -0.08, 95% CI, -4.27 to 4.11; p= 0.97). Compared with active or placebo control, dotinurad 2 mg showed no significant difference in the number of events of gouty arthritis (RR= 1.31, 95% CI, 0.47 to 3.71; p = 0.60), the number patients with adverse events (RR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.30; p = 0.36), and the number of patients who experienced adverse drug reactions (RR = 1.00, 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.47; p = 0.99). Conclusion Dotinurad shows significant improvement in serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic individuals with or without gout. Its urate-lowering effect is comparable to the commonly available anti-hyperuricemic agents. Moreover, it is effective at doses 1 mg, 2 mg, and 4 mg and well-tolerated at a dose of 2 mg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114961PMC
April 2021

Mortality Benefit of Convalescent Plasma in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 9;8:624924. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

With a scarcity of high-grade evidence for COVID-19 treatment, researchers and health care providers across the world have resorted to classical and historical interventions. Immunotherapy with convalescent plasma (CPT) is one such therapeutic option. A systematized search was conducted for articles published between December 2019 and 18th January 2021 focusing on convalescent plasma efficacy and safety in COVID-19. The primary outcomes were defined as mortality benefit in patients treated with convalescent plasma compared to standard therapy/placebo. The secondary outcome was pooled mortality rate and the adverse event rate in convalescent plasma-treated patients. A total of 27,706 patients were included in the qualitative analysis, and a total of 3,262 (2,127 in convalescent plasma-treated patients and 1,135 in the non-convalescent plasma/control group) patients died. The quantitative synthesis in 23 studies showed that the odds of mortality in patients who received plasma therapy were significantly lower than those in patients who did not receive plasma therapy [odds ratio (OR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.80, < 0.0001, = 15%). The mortality benefit remains the same even for 14 trials/prospective studies (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43-0.81, = 0.001, = 22%) as well as for nine case series/retrospective observational studies (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65-0.94, = 0.01, = 0%). However, in a subgroup analysis for 10 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), there was no statistically significant reduction in mortality between the CPT group compared to the non-CPT group (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53-1.08, = 0.13, = 7%). Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of 10 RCTs, excluding the study with the highest statistical weight, displayed a lower mortality rate compared to that of non-CPT COVID-19 patients (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.97, = 0.04, = 0%). The observed pooled mortality rate was 12.9% (95% CI 9.7-16.9%), and the pooled adverse event rate was 6.1% (95% CI 3.2-11.6), with significant heterogeneity. Our systemic review and meta-analysis suggests that CPT could be an effective therapeutic option with promising evidence on the safety and reduced mortality in concomitant treatment for COVID-19 along with antiviral/antimicrobial drugs, steroids, and other supportive care. Future exploratory studies could benefit from more standardized reporting, especially in terms of the timing of interventions and clinically relevant outcomes, like days until discharge from the hospital and improvement of clinical symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.624924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062901PMC
April 2021

The Association of Acute Kidney Injury With Disease Severity and Mortality in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cureus 2021 Mar 15;13(3):e13894. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Internal Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, PAK.

Background and objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global healthcare emergency. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, has a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from subclinical infection to multi-organ failure. In addition to the respiratory system, COVID-19 also adversely affects the kidneys. In this study, we aimed to measure the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 and its association with the disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods We conducted our study by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive literature search using four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and clinicaltrial.gov) was performed. Our initial search returned 2,771 articles. After excluding review articles, duplicates, and non-relevant studies, we included 20 articles that reported an association between COVID-19 and AKI. We subsequently performed a random effect analysis to find the pooled prevalence, pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates, and 95% confidence intervals for severe COVID-19 and mortality outcomes in AKI using Cochrane RevMan (version 5.4) and R programming language (version 4.16-2). Results A total of 14,415 patients from various countries were included. Among the 20 cohorts, the median age was 55.8 ±8.39 years (range: 43-72 years), and 43.78% of the subjects were female. Out of a total of 14,415 patients, 3,820 developed AKI with a pooled prevalence of 11% (95% CI: 0.07-0.15; p<0.01; I=98%). AKI was found to have a significant association with severe COVID-19 disease, with a pooled OR of 8.45 (95% CI: 5.56-12.56; p<0.00001; I=0%). AKI was associated with significantly higher mortality in patients with COVID-19 with an OR of 13.52 (95% CI: 5.43-33.67; p<0.00001; I=88%). Conclusion AKI manifests as a common COVID-19 complication, and COVID-19 patients with AKI generally have poor outcomes in terms of disease severity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045562PMC
March 2021

Association of Gastrointestinal System With Severity and Mortality of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cureus 2021 Feb 12;13(2):e13317. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Critical Care, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA.

At present, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is causing a major pandemic. COVID-19 is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In COVID-19, the patient usually presents with fever, dry cough, and respiratory manifestations. However, the involvement of other systems has also been reported in the literature. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea are the predominant gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations underlined in the literature. We conducted a literature search using four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrials.gov). Our search strategy included Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and keywords for COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and GI system from inception to October 2020. After excluding duplicates, review articles, and non-relevant articles, we included 20 studies out of 842 articles reporting GI manifestations in COVID-19 patients. Using Cochrane RevMan version 5.4 (Cochrane, London, UK), a compute pooled analysis using a random-effect model was performed. Our study included 6,022 patients with a median age of 49.5 years. Pooled analysis via random effect model revealed an increased risk of severe COVID-19 in patients manifesting GI symptoms with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.07 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.34-3.18) with I=41%). Odds of mortality in COVID-19 with GI manifestation and hepatic abnormalities included 0.92 (95% CI: 0.50-1.69) (I=57%) and 1.26 (95% CI: 0.67-2.37) (I=0%), respectively. Severe COVID-19 may have a strong association with GI manifestations and have a significant impact on GI practice. Holistic knowledge of the spectrum of the GI consequences in COVID-19 is crucial to get a hold of virus spread. In this article, we have summarized the association of GI manifestations in severe COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957843PMC
February 2021

Maculopapular skin eruptions associated with Covid-19: A systematic review.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Mar 2;34(2):e14788. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Internal Medicine, Ziauddin Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan.

In this systematic review, we anticipated in summarizing clinical features, histopathological hallmarks, and possible pathology behind the maculopapular skin eruptions occurring in Covid-19 patients. A literature search was executed using MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases for articles published till 20 November 2020. All eligible articles including observational studies, case reports, and case series reporting the maculopapular skin lesion in Covid-19 patients were included. Data were obtained for 354 Covid-19 patients presenting with maculopapular lesions from 40 studies. The mean age of these patients was 53 years, and with 42% of them being male. These maculopapular lesions differed considerably in terms of distribution and appearance, ranging from diffuse erythematous maculopapular lesions to scattered erythematous macules coalescing into papules to maculopapular lesions in plaques. The mean duration of the lesion was 8 days. These lesions were frequently localized on trunks and extremities. Superficial perivascular dermatitis with lymphocytic infiltrate was a histopathological hallmark of these lesions. As these skin lesions may have a possible association with diagnosis, management, prognosis, and severity of the disease, all health practitioners need to be well acquainted with these Covid-19 skin lesions. Also, in the middle of this worldwide pandemic, early identification of this eruption may help manage this infection's further spread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995033PMC
March 2021

Silicosis With Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax in the Western Rajasthan.

Cureus 2020 Nov 30;12(11):e11811. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Psychiatry, Griffin Memorial Hospital, Norman, USA.

Objective Silicosis is one of the common occupational lung diseases caused by crystalline silica respiration. Pneumothorax is one of the most common and morbid complications of silicosis involving lung pleura. It is commonly seen unilaterally in chronic silicosis and can often be lethal. The purpose of this study is to report secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) in critically ill patients with silicosis. Methods A cross-sectional study was done between January 2019 and June 2019 at Sawai Man Singh (SMS) Medical College in Jaipur, India. A cohort of 50 patients with dyspnea and a history of silicosis were studied. A chest X-ray and sputum for acid fast bacilli were checked on all suspected cases. Results The present study showed that the mean age of patients was 38.7 years, all silicosis patients had dyspnea, and 96% of patients had severe chest pain. The results of chest X-rays concluded the evidence of silicosis. Bilateral pneumothorax was seen in three cases, right-sided pneumothorax in eight cases, and left-sided pneumothorax in 11 cases. The rate of pneumothorax incidence in silicosis patients was about 44%, which is higher than the current evidence. Six patients were managed conservatively with oxygen and bronchodilators, and 16 patients underwent through tube thoracostomy. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of considering spontaneous pneumothorax in patients who are presenting with shortness of breath and/or chest pain especially with a known history of silicosis, as the timely diagnosis can alter the management of this morbid condition which carries a high mortality rate if left untreated, compromising the lung expansion, venous return, cardiac output, oxygenation and eventually leading to death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781496PMC
November 2020

The Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children: A Hospital-Based Prospective Study in Western Rajasthan.

Cureus 2020 Oct 18;12(10):e11020. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Psychiatry, Griffin Memorial Hospital, Norman, USA.

Objective  Rotaviruses are the prime cause of gastroenteritis amongst infants and young children worldwide. In India, the mortality and economic impact caused by rotavirus are high. The objective of this is to understand the burden of rotavirus in acute watery diarrhea and its circulating genotypes in hospitalized children less than five years of age for acute gastroenteritis in western Rajasthan. Methodology This is a hospital-based prospective study conducted in the pediatrics department of Dr. Sampurnanand (S.N.) Medical College of Jodhpur in India for one year during 2018. The study included 399 children less than five years old, presenting with acute gastroenteritis who needed to be admitted for at least six hours. We enrolled subjects after obtaining informed consent from the guardian. Stool samples of 5 gm or ml were collected in a sterile container and stored at minus 20 degrees centigrade while transporting to Christian Medical College (CMC) virology lab in Vellore, India. The stool samples were subjected to Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) testing, followed by genotype determination. We investigated data through statistical analysis from all collected data. Results A total of 399 patients fulfilled the enrollment criteria; out of them, 92 (23.05%) were positive for rotavirus, and maximum cases were seen in the age group of six months to two years (78.26%). Rotavirus positivity was more in males (64.13%) than females (35.86%). The rotavirus infection was seen throughout the year, with a peak in cases from November to February (73.91%). G3P8 (55.43%) was the most common strain causing rotavirus diarrhea, followed by G1P8 (9.72%) and G3+G12P8 (8.69%). Based on the Vesikari clinical severity score, 70.65% of patients had severe diarrhea. Conclusion This prospective study highlights the healthcare and economic burden of rotavirus, especially in children of less than five years. The incidence of rotavirus is observed in winter months, and its prevalence in all cases of acute diarrhea in our study is 23.05%. G3P8 was the most common genotype causing rotavirus diarrhea in our region in both non-vaccinated and vaccinated children, followed by G1P8 and G3+G12P8, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7671170PMC
October 2020

Secondary Postpartum Hemorrhage Presenting With Bombay Blood Group: A Case Report.

Cureus 2020 Aug 15;12(8):e9758. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Internal Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital, Jaipur, IND.

Bombay blood group is a rare blood group. Due to its rarity and limitations for transfusions, it is often challenging to manage individuals with Bombay groups in emergencies. Here, we present a case of a 26-year-old woman with the Bombay blood group who had premature rupture of membranes at the 39th week of pregnancy while delivering a male child vaginally. The patient suffered from postpartum hemorrhage due to retention of the placenta and needed an immediate blood transfusion. During the antenatal screening, she was noted to have the O-positive blood group. Cross-matching of her blood was incompatible with O-positive blood and was identified as the Bombay blood group after having tested for anti-H antibodies. The patient underwent transfusion by identifying individuals with the O-positive Bombay blood group. As a result of this, we emphasize the diagnosis and identification of the individuals with the Bombay blood group and make blood available especially in medical emergencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489786PMC
August 2020

Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome: Multi-Organ Involvement Highlighting Its Diverse Clinical Spectrum in Two Adult Cases.

Cureus 2020 Jul 26;12(7):e9402. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Neurology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, USA.

There is an assortment of disorders that have multisystem involvement. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disease, falls in that category. VHL syndrome is associated with the formation of benign and malignant tumors in the central nervous system (CNS), adrenal gland, kidney, and eyes. In this report, we present two unusual cases of VHL syndrome presenting with multisystem engagement. The first case is of a 27-year-old male exhibiting multiple manifestations, which included hemangioblastoma of the spine, pheochromocytoma, pancreatic cyst, and retinal hemangioblastoma. The second case pertains to a 25-year-old male with various presentations ranging from retinal hemangioblastoma and pancreatitis to spinal and cerebellar hemangioblastoma. These cases emphasize the value of radiologic imaging and genetic assessment early in life when the presentation of the disease is in its preliminary stage. When an individual presents with a condition characterized by unexplained multifarious organ involvement of CNS, adrenal glands, and kidneys in the span of a few years, a differential diagnosis of VHL syndrome should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449644PMC
July 2020

Neuropsychiatric Atypical Manifestation in Wilson's Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Cureus 2020 Jul 20;12(7):e9290. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Psychiatry, Griffin Memorial Hospital, Norman, USA.

Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism that often manifests several clinical signs at the time of diagnosis. Typically it affects the liver in the early stages of the disease course and tends to show neuropsychiatric involvement in the later stages. Early diagnosis of WD holds a prognostic value, and an atypical presentation of the disease adds complexities in diagnosis. Even though we need to consolidate further the treatment guidelines for managing psychiatric and neurological symptoms optimally in the patients of WD, identifying signs at the early stages of the disease is crucial to avoid its detrimental effects on the human body. In this case presentation, a patient with no family history of psychiatric condition showed an early onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms without any other clinical signs of WD. Through this clinical case, we emphasize the importance of ruling out WD in patients that predominantly presents with psychiatric symptoms as a lone symptom. It also highlights the possible diagnostic value and significance of the ceruloplasmin level in identifying WD disease in early stages, when other clinical signs are absent, including liver abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437118PMC
July 2020

Metastatic Pancreatic-Biliary Cancer Presenting as Intramuscular Fluid Collections: A Case Report.

Cureus 2020 Jul 1;12(7):e8943. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Psychiatry, Griffin Memorial Hospital, Norman, USA.

At a certain juncture, when clinicians are unable to gather information about a particular disease especially due to patient's unobtrusive findings, the presence of an aberrant connection might yield a diagnosis. Herein we present the findings of an unusual enlightening case of an 81-year-old Caucasian male with a history of bowel resection, poor appetite, generalized weakness, ptosis, and two weeks of weight loss. The computerized tomography scan revealed several sets of an abdominal intramuscular fluid collection with enhancements in the surrounding, indicative of several abscesses, and brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging indicated right-orbital metastasis in the superior rectal muscles. A biopsy of the cystic lesion of the anterior abdominal wall revealed poorly differentiated metastatic adenocarcinoma, most consistent with the primary pancreaticobiliary origin. This case report sums up this innovative portrayal of metastatic cancer as an intramuscular fluid collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398690PMC
July 2020
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