Publications by authors named "Savita Kumari"

73 Publications

Acute febrile illness with choreoathetosis: a rare presentation of brucellosis.

Postgrad Med J 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2021-140351DOI Listing
September 2021

Nephroprotective effect of Vanillic acid in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2021 Jun 3;20(1):571-582. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Pharmacognosy, R&D, AIMIL Pharmaceuticals (India) Ltd, New Delhi, 110008 India.

Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of vanillic acid (VA) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats.

Methods: Experimental diabetes mellitus in rats was induced by intraperitoneally administration of single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg). The animals were divided into 5 groups viz., normal control, diabetic control, glimepiride (0.5 mg/kg, orally) and VA treatment (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally) groups. The treatment was started after the confirmation of hyperglycemia (> 250 mg/dl) and continued for 6 weeks. Serum glucose level, and body weight were measured weekly. At the end of study, HbA1c in whole blood, insulin, lipid profile, urea, creatinine and albumin in serum. Creatinine and albumin were measured in urine along with creatinine clearance. In addition, kidney weight and histopathology were assessed.

Results: Treatment with VA markedly attenuated STZ-induced body weight loss and hyperglycemia, along with improved lipid profile and HbA1c, without significant alteration of serum insulin levels. It also decreased urea, creatinine and increased albumin in serum. Moreover, VA, significantly reduced urine volume, urinary albumin along with marked improvement in creatinine clearance. Further, the VA treatment significantly reverse the raised levels of oxidative stress markers, pro-inflammatory and fibrotic markers viz. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β1 and NFκB activity in kidney tissue. These effects are associated with amelioration of histopathological alterations compared to diabetic control rats. While glimepiride produced similar antihyperglycemic effect but the effect on albuminuria, oxidative stress markers and cytokine levels were less significant as compared to VA (100 mg/kg).

Conclusions: In conclusion, VA exhibited nephroprotective effect through amelioration of kidney dysfunction and damage in diabetic rats. The observed nephroprotective effect of VA may be ascribed to inhibition of hyperglycemia induced oxido-inflammatory stress and necroptosis of renal tissue possibly due to its antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-021-00782-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212202PMC
June 2021

Normal and reconstituted high-density lipoprotein protects differentiated monocytes from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis.

ARYA Atheroscler 2020 Nov;16(6):269-277

Professor, Department of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: The progression of atherosclerosis is an ongoing struggle between cell division and cell death. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), a novel receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), mediates ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of monocytes. The anti-atherogenic function of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) includes the ability to inhibit apoptosis of macrophage, although the exact mechanism and consequences of apoptosis in the development and progression of this disease are still controversial. Thus, in the present study, the effect of normal HDL (nHDL) and reconstituted HDL (rHDL) on ox-LDL-induced cellular responses in differentiated monocytes in view of apoptosis and LOX-1 receptor expression was investigated.

Methods: The expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), caspase-3, and cytochrome c (cyt c) was assessed and substantiated in 30 hyper-LDL and control subjects. To assess the expression of LOX-1 on differentiated THP-1 cells, western blotting was carried out, followed by statistical analysis in 30 patients and control subjects.

Results: nHDL/rHDL inhibited the ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in the differentiated human monocytic cells, THP-1 cells, and differentiated monocytes of patient and control subjects. Enhanced expression of scavenger receptor, LOX-1, in the differentiated monocytes was also downregulated in presence of nHDL/rHDL. nHDL/rHDL could inhibit the ox-LDL-induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and aberrant expression of LOX-1 in patients. Double immunostaining using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated ox-LDL and LOX-1 in apoptotic cells indicates its significant role in the differentiated monocytes.

Conclusion: It was observed that nHDL/rHDL could promote macrophage survival by preserving mitochondrial integrity from ox-LDL-induced apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v16i6.1582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172238PMC
November 2020

Hesperidin Interacts With CREB-BDNF Signaling Pathway to Suppress Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Convulsions in Zebrafish.

Front Pharmacol 2020 11;11:607797. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, India.

Hesperidin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavanone 7-rhamnoglucoside) is a β-7-rutinoside of hesperetin (4'-methoxy-3',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone), abundantly found in citrus fruits and known to interact with various cellular pathways to show a variety of pharmacological effects. The present study was envisaged to understand the anticonvulsant effect of hesperidin in a zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, with the support of docking. Healthy zebrafish larvae were preincubated with hesperidin (1, 5, and 10 µM) for 1 h, before PTZ exposure. Hesperidin treatment significantly increased the seizure latency and minimized PTZ-induced hyperactive responses. A significant reduction in expression further supported the suppression of neuronal excitation following hesperidin incubation in the larvae exposed to PTZ. The treatment also modulated larval expression and reduced the expression of . The results of studies were further supported by docking analysis, which showed the affinity of hesperidin for the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, Interleukin 10 and the TrkB receptor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The results concluded that hesperidin suppresses PTZ-mediated seizure in zebrafish larvae through interaction with the central CREB-BDNF pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.607797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832091PMC
January 2021

Splenic abscess in a tertiary care centre in India: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors.

ANZ J Surg 2021 09 28;91(9):1819-1825. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Splenic abscess has been an uncommon entity which is now being encountered more frequently due to increased prevalence of immunodeficiency disorders and chronic illnesses. This study was aimed to audit our experience with splenic abscesses at a tertiary care centre in India highlighting usefulness of an algorithmic approach.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of data of patients (January 2014 to December 2019) with splenic abscess was done. Data were retrieved for clinical characteristics, radiological findings, organism spectra, abscess characteristics, therapeutic measures and clinical outcome.

Results: The mean age of the study population (n = 36) was 41.3 ± 19.0 years with 50% males. Comorbidities were identified in 17 (47.2%) patients, with diabetes mellitus being the commonest. Fever and abdominal pain were the most common presenting features. Multiple splenic abscesses were present in 21 (58.3%) patients. Extra-splenic abscesses in liver were seen in five (13.9%) patients while nine (25%) patients had ruptured splenic abscess. Microorganisms were identified in 24 (66.7%) patients, with Salmonella typhi being the commonest (n = 9, 25%) followed by Escherichia coli (n = 7, 19.4%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 4, 11.1%). Six patients received only antimicrobials, 24 were managed with percutaneous aspiration or catheter drainage and six required surgery. Five (13.9%) patients died, with highest mortality being seen in those who received only antimicrobial (50%), compared to percutaneous aspiration or catheter drainage (8.3%) and surgery (0%), P = 0.017.

Conclusion: Using percutaneous aspiration or drainage in conjunction with antibiotics, followed by surgery in non-responder, patients with splenic abscesses can be managed successfully with acceptable mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.16517DOI Listing
September 2021

Eosin Y-Catalyzed Synthesis of 3-Aminoimidazo[1,2-]Pyridines via the HAT Process under Visible Light through Formation of the C-N Bond.

ACS Omega 2020 Nov 12;5(46):29854-29863. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India.

A comfortable, environment-friendly, and metal-free approach for synthesizing the biologically important moiety aminoimidazopyridine through the multicomponent reaction of benzylamine, 2-aminopyridine, and -butyl isocyanide under visible light using eosin Y as a photocatalyst has been developed. Inexpensive, nontoxic, the effortless accessibility of starting materials, and nonparticipation of particular glassware and a photoreactor system are important qualities of the current approach. Strangely, the mild conditions, environment-friendly, and enumerating tolerance of an extensive range of both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are additional features of the approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c03941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689671PMC
November 2020

Uric acid as a predictor of endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2020 Oct 21. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Objective: We conducted a study to examine the association of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress with uric acid levels in patients of metabolic syndrome.

Methods: One hundred and two patients of Metabolic Syndrome (International Diabetes Federation definition) were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements, serum uric acid levels, fasting blood sugar levels and lipid levels, as well as malondialdehyde and reactive nitrogen intermediates were measured after an 8-hour fasting period. Flow mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured and endothelial dysfunction was defined as an increase in diameter < 10% post compression.

Results: A total of 102 patients were included in the study. Mean uric acid level was 5.49 ± 1.61 mg%. A total of 59 patients in the study had endothelial dysfunction, defined by an abnormal FMD. Patients with an abnormal FMD had higher levels of serum uric acid which was statistically significant (p value = 0.010). Serum RNI and MDA levels were negatively correlated with uric acid, but did not reach statistical significance. Patients with an abnormal FMD had a lower RNI level, but this did not reach statistical significance. Serum MDA levels were significantly higher in patients with an abnormal FMD (p value = 0.038).

Conclusion: Uric acid was significantly associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome in our study. It was inversely correlated with serum RNI and MDA levels, but this did not reach statistical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20945/2359-3997000000298DOI Listing
October 2020

The epidemiology and clinical spectrum of infections of the central nervous system in adults in north India.

Trop Doct 2021 Jan 6;51(1):48-57. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Professor and Head, Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Nehru Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a leading cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We studied the spectrum, aetiology and outcome of CNS infections in 401 consecutive patients aged ≥12 years admitted at the medical emergency centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. An aetiological diagnosis was made in 365 (91.0%) patients, with 149 (40.8%) microbiologically confirmed cases. CNS tuberculosis was the most prevalent cause (51.5%), followed by viral meningoencephalitis (13.9%), community-acquired bacterial meningitis (9.7%), cryptococcal meningitis (6.2%), scrub typhus meningoencephalitis (1.7%), neurocysticercosis (1.7%) and fungal brain abscess (1.7%). Human immunodeficiency virus (11.0%) and diabetes mellitus (6.2%) remained the usual predisposing conditions. We found a mortality rate of 27.9%, highest in cases without an aetiology (64.5%). Tuberculosis remained the most common cause; however, an increasing number of scrub typhus, dengue, fungal infections and non-classical bacterial pathogens may indicate a change in the epidemiology of community-acquired CNS infections in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475520959905DOI Listing
January 2021

Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tubercular liver abscess. A case series.

Infez Med 2020 Sep;28(3):420-424

Department of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Hepatic involvement is an infrequent manifestation of abdominal tuberculosis and could occur in form of granulomatous hepatitis, nodular involvement or abscess formation. Tubercular liver abscess (TLA) is uncommon, and diagnosing this entity is a challenge. Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) assay has been widely used for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and lymph nodal tuberculosis. Its utility in some forms of other extrapulmonary TB has also been studied. The role of Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tubercular liver abscess is not known. Here we present a series of four 4 cases of TLA, where the diagnosis was made on the basis of positive Xpert MTB/RIF assay tested on liver drained pus.
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September 2020

Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in a young adult with seizures.

Cytopathology 2021 Mar 13;32(2):270-273. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Cytology and Gynecologic Pathology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cyt.12908DOI Listing
March 2021

How to Use a Prioritised Approach for Treating Hematological Disorders During the COVID-19 Pandemic in India?

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2020 Jun 6:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, 160012 India.

The current pandemic coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is known to cause severe infection (COVID-19) in patients with comorbidities, particularly cancer or an immunosuppressed state. Most healthcare systems in the country are likely to be overwhelmed soon if the pandemic moves to a stage of community transmission. Currently, limited evidence is available for managing patients with hematological disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current review summarises the possible challenges clinicians are likely to face, key considerations to guide decision making, and possible solutions to the anticipated challenges. Disease specific recommendations and possible guidance for decision making have been suggested for most hematologic diseases that are feasible in our health setup. It is not meant to replace individual clinical judgment, but to provide a template to formulate local policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-020-01300-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274942PMC
June 2020

Development and validation of chemical kindling in adult zebrafish: A simple and improved chronic model for screening of antiepileptic agents.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 12 18;346:108916. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Background: Zebrafish has emerged as a potential animal model of acute convulsion for early screening of antiepileptic agents. There is a need for alternative chronic zebrafish models of epilepsy with more correlation to the clinical condition.

New Method: Adult zebrafish were repeatedly exposed to subeffective concentrations of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), until appearance to tonic-clonic seizures, considered as kindled. Valproic acid (VPA) exposure was given during kindling and in kindled fish in 2 different groups. The neurotransmitters level and expression of the genes associated with kindling were studied in the fish brain.

Results: There was an increase in seizure severity score at 1.25 mM concentration of PTZ, and 66.66 % of fish achieved kindling after 22 days' exposure. A marked increase in c-fos, crebbpa and crebbpbexpression, and glutamate/GABA level was observed in the brain of kindled fish. VPA inhibited the induction of PTZ-mediated kindling and reduced seizure severity in kindled fish.

Comparison With Existing Method: In contrast to an existing adult zebrafish kindling method, the present protocol is of longer duration, with more similarity to clinical epilepsy. Moreover, the induction of kindling involves a simple non-invasive technique without the use of anesthesia. The protocol can be used for evaluation of both antiepileptic and antiepileptogenic agents.

Conclusion: Repeated exposure of 1.25 mM PTZ induced kindling in zebrafish, altering the brain neurotransmitter levels and gene expression. Inhibition of kindling induction and decrease in seizures in normal and kindled fish, respectively by VPA validated application of the model for preclinical testing of agents against epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108916DOI Listing
December 2020

Aetiology of pyrexia of unknown origin in north India.

Trop Doct 2021 Jan 17;51(1):34-40. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Associate Professor, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

The aetiology of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) varies dramatically according to epidemiology. We studied the cause and spectrum of PUO in Indian adults. A total of 152 patients (112 prospectively and 40 retrospectively) met Petersdorf and Beeson's criteria. The diagnostic evaluation was guided by potentially diagnostic clues, based on a 'step-wise' approach. The five main categories, i.e. infectious, neoplastic, non-infectious inflammatory, miscellaneous and undiagnosed comprised 43.4%, 21.5%, 19.7%, 2.0% and 12.5%, respectively. The top three causes were tuberculosis (n = 43, 28.3%), lymphoma (n = 19, 12.5%) and adult-onset Still's disease (n = 12, 7.9%). Tuberculosis predominated in all age groups, and about 70% of cases had the extrapulmonary form, the most common being gastrointestinal. Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas were equally distributed, but solid malignancies were uncommon. Adult-onset Still's disease was the second commonest cause in adults aged ≤ 40 years. Fever resolved spontaneously in 12/19 cases of undiagnosed cause. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis remains the most prevalent PUO in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475520947907DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of mild cognitive impairment and metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension.

Asian J Psychiatr 2020 Oct 30;53:102185. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India. Electronic address:

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in patients with hypertension and to evaluate the association of MCI with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methodology: 186 subjects with hypertension were evaluated on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for cognitive decline and depression, respectively and MetS was diagnosed as per the Consensus definition.

Results: The prevalence of MCI was 65.6 % and that of MetS was 45.7 %. Compared to those without MetS, those with MetS had significantly poorer cognitive functioning on the all cognitive domain of the MoCA, even after controlling for age, education, severity of the depression and duration of illness. Low High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) was found to have a positive correlation with MoCA. Higher age, lower education, higher duration of illness and use of higher numbers of medications were associated with significantly lower score on MoCA.

Conclusion: Presence of MetS among persons with hypertension is associated with cognitive decline. Hence, there is a need to monitor and manage other parameters of MetS among patients with hypertension, to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and future dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102185DOI Listing
October 2020

An Unusual Case of Fungating Chest Wall Mass.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2020 Jan 11;36(1):211-212. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, 160012 India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-019-01183-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042449PMC
January 2020

A facile and efficient multicomponent ultrasound-assisted "on water" synthesis of benzodiazepine ring.

Mol Divers 2021 Feb 10;25(1):131-142. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 221005, India.

A facile and efficient multicomponent synthesis of benzodiazepine ring in water under ultrasound irradiation is reported first time. The current procedure escapes traditional chromatography and purification process and provided the product in excellent yields of 95% as compared to conventional methods. The approach was also validated on gram-scale synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-019-10031-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Anticonvulsant action of a selective phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 in pentylenetetrazole-mediated convulsions in zebrafish.

Epilepsy Res 2019 11 17;157:106207. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

The role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway has been widely deciphered in pathogenesis of epilepsy. LY294002 is a selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). The present study was designed to explore the anticonvulsant potential of LY294002 in a zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-mediated convulsions. Zebrafish larvae at 7dpf (days post fertilization) were pre-incubated with varying concentrations of LY294002, prior to PTZ exposure. The adult zebrafish were also exposed to PTZ after intraperitoneal injection with different concentrations of LY294002, followed by gene expression studies in the brain. The hyperactive responses indicated by total distance travelled and the mean speed of larva was drastically decreased, whereas latency to first clonic-like seizure was increased following LY294002 pre-treatment. Additionally, a marked decrease in c-fos expression was also observed in the larvae group exposed to LY294002 in comparison to control. Furthermore, PTZ evoked seizure severity was considerably decreased, while latency to clonic-like seizure was increased in adult zebrafish group treated with 100 nM of LY294002. Furthermore, the occurrence of tonic-like seizures was also reduced in the adult zebrafish treated with LY294002. The mRNA levels of PIK3CA, PIK3R1, AKT1, mTOR, Rps6 and Rps6kb1 in adult zebrafish brain was significantly reduced as compared to vehicle control group. Our results provided conclusive support for the anticonvulsant potential of LY294002.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.106207DOI Listing
November 2019

A rare case of malignant metastatic tumor diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration of cervical lymph node.

Cytojournal 2019 25;16:15. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Address: Department of Pathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_26_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683415PMC
July 2019

Dengue: Uncommon Neurological Presentations of a Common Tropical Illness.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2019 Jun;23(6):274-275

Department of Internal Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Dengue is a common arthropod-borne flavivirus and commonly manifests as fever, bleeding diathesis, and capillary leak syndrome. Neurological manifestations are uncommon except for encephalopathy. We have recently had the opportunity of observing two patients with rare neurological complications of dengue, transverse myelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Both the cases had good neurological recovery with steroid and intravenous immunoglobulin, respectively. Singh H, Pannu AK, Bhalla A, Suri V, Kumari S. Dengue: Uncommon Neurological Presentations of a Common Tropical Illness. Indian J Crit Care Med 2019;23(6):274-275.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698357PMC
June 2019

Lemon juice catalyzed C-C bond formation via C-H activation of methylarene: a sustainable synthesis of chromenopyrimidines.

Mol Divers 2020 Aug 2;24(3):717-725. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, U.P., 221005, India.

An economical and proficient approach has been developed for the synthesis of chromenopyrimidines via three-component reaction of thiobarbituric acid/barbituric acid, methylarenes and dimedone/1,3-cyclohexanedione by using lemon juice as a natural, biodegradable catalyst and TBHP as an oxidant. This transformation involves metal-free C-C bond formation via C-H activation of methylarenes under mild reaction conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-019-09980-1DOI Listing
August 2020

Target identification, screening and in vivo evaluation of pyrrolone-fused benzosuberene compounds against human epilepsy using Zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.

Sci Rep 2019 05 27;9(1):7904. Epub 2019 May 27.

Structural Bioinformatics Laboratory, Biotechnology division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR-IHBT), Palampur, HP, 176061, India.

Pyrrolone-fused benzosuberene (PBS) compounds were semi-synthesized from α,β,γ-Himachalenes extracted from the essential oil of Cedrus deodara following amino-vinyl-bromide substituted benzosuberenes as intermediates. These PBSs compounds classified as an attractive source of therapeutics. The α-isoform of PI3K which is a pivotal modulator of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, responsible for neurological disorders like epilepsy, found as a potential target molecule against these 17 semi-synthesized PBS compounds using in silico ligand-based pharmacophore mapping and target screening. The compounds screened using binding affinities, ADMET properties, and toxicity that were accessed by in silico docking simulations and pharmacokinetics profiling. Ultimately two compounds viz., PBS-8 and PBS-9 were selected for further in vivo evaluation using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced clonic convulsions. Additionally, gene expression studies performed for the genes of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway which further validated our results. In conclusion, these findings suggested that PBS-8 is a promising candidate that could bedeveloped as a potential antiepileptic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44264-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6536720PMC
May 2019

Patterns of geriatric anemia: A hospital-based observational study in North India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Mar;8(3):976-980

Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab, India.

Background: Geriatric anemia is a global health problem because of its high prevalence and associated significant morbidity and mortality.

Aim: The objectives of this study were to estimate the pattern of anemia in the elderly patients and the underlying etiology of anemia.

Research Design And Methods: This was a hospital-based prospective observational study, conducted in patients aged 60 years and above at PGIMER, Chandigarh, a tertiary care center of North India. Anemia is defined as hemoglobin level less than 13 g/dl in men and 12 g/dl in women.

Results: Among the 105 older patients with anemia, the mean value of hemoglobin was 8.8 ± 2.3 g/dl. The etiological distribution of anemia was iron deficiency in 26 patients (24.8%), chronic disease in 24 patients (22.9%), hematological disorders in 21 (20%), chronic kidney disease in 13 (12.4%), multifactorial in 8 (7.6%), vitamin B12 deficiency in 2 (1.9%), folate deficiency in 1 (0.9%), and hypothyroidism in 1 patient (0.9%). No etiology could be found in 9 patients (8.6%). 57.6% of the iron-deficient patients had upper gastrointestinal lesions and 30.7% had a nutritional cause. Common chronic diseases causing anemia were malignancy (36.6%) and liver disease (29.1%). The myelodysplastic syndrome was the commonest hematological disorder. 53.35% of the patients had normocytic anemia, 40% had microcytic anemia, and 6.6% had macrocytic anemia.

Conclusions: In most of the cases, anemia in the elderly had a treatable cause. Thus, a thorough investigation including gastrointestinal endoscopy is warranted. Unexplained progressive or unresponsive anemia requires bone marrow examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_450_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482803PMC
March 2019

A review on biochar modulated soil condition improvements and nutrient dynamics concerning crop yields: Pathways to climate change mitigation and global food security.

Chemosphere 2019 Jul 29;227:345-365. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

The beneficial role of biochar on improvement of soil quality, C sequestration, and enhancing crop yield is widely reported. As such there is not much consolidated information available linking biochar modulated soil condition improvement and soil nutrient availability on crop yields. The present review paper addresses the above issues by compilation of world literature on biochar and a new dimension is introduced in this review by performing a meta-analysis of published data by using multivariate statistical analysis. Hence this review is a new in its kind and is useful to the broad spectrum of readers. Generally, alkalinity in biochar increases with increase in pyrolysis temperature and majority of the biochar is alkaline in nature except a few which are acidic. The N content in many biochar was reported to be more than 4% as well as less than 0.5%. Poultry litter biochar is a rich source of P (3.12%) and K (7.40%), while paper mill sludge biochar is higher in Ca content (31.1%) and swine solids biochar in Zn (49810 mg kg), and Fe (74800 mg kg) contents. The effect of biochar on enhancing soil pH was higher in Alfisol, Ferrosol and Acrisol. Soil application of biochar could on an average increase (78%), decrease (16%), or show no effect on crop yields under different soil types. Biochar produced at a lower pyrolysis temperature could deliver greater soil nutrient availabilities than that prepared at higher temperature. Principal component analysis (PCA) of available data shows an inverse relationship between [pyrolysis temperature and soil pH], and [biochar application rate and soil cation exchange capacity]. The PCA also suggests that the original soil properties and application rate strongly control crop yield stimulations via biochar amendments. Finally, biochar application shows net soil C gains while also serving for increased plant biomass production that strongly recommends biochar as a useful soil amendment. Therefore, the application of biochar to soils emerges as a 'win-win strategy' for sustainable waste management, climate change mitigation and food security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.170DOI Listing
July 2019

Early α-linolenic acid exposure to embryo reduces pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in zebrafish larva.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2019 04 1;143:15-20. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous increase in interest of general population toward food-based therapies for management of chronic clinical conditions due to their lesser adverse effects with prolonged use over pharmacotherapies. Foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids have shown some promising results in case of epilepsy. The present study was envisioned to investigate the effect of early exposure of α-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential omega-3 fatty acid in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos toward pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure susceptibility. The healthy wild-type zebrafish embryos were incubated in system water or system water containing different ALA concentrations (1-20 µM) till 7 dpf (days post fertilization). Each larva at 7 dpf was placed in 8 mM PTZ solution and seizure event was recorded. ALA incubation at 10 µM and 20 µM concentrations showed a dose-dependent reduction in PTZ-mediated hyperactive responses in larvae indicated by a marked decrease in total distance travelled and speed, as compared to vehicle control. Furthermore, both the treated groups showed increase in the latency to PTZ-induced clonus-like seizures in larvae, as compared to vehicle control. ALA incubated larvae at 10 µM and 20 µM concentrations also showed a significant reduction in c-fos mRNA level. A marked increase in the level of ALA and docosahexaenoic acid was also observed in the larvae incubated at highest effective concentration of ALA. The present study concluded that embryonic exposure of ALA reduced PTZ-induced seizures in zebrafish larva.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2019.02.002DOI Listing
April 2019

Assessment of functional status and daily life problems faced by elderly in a North Indian city.

Psychogeriatrics 2019 Sep 5;19(5):419-425. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: The increase in proportion of elderly implies that their problems demand more attention of the administrators. The current study was carried out to assess the functional status of the elderly and to explore the extent and pattern of routine daily life problems faced by them.

Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative research design was employed. A stratified multistage random sampling technique was used to select the respondents from various areas of Chandigarh. The houses were selected randomly from where elderly persons (> 60 years) were identified. Katz Index of Independence in activities of daily living (ADL) was used to evaluate functional ability of the respondents. Instrumental ADLs (IADLs) were assessed using Lawton and Brody scale. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted among the elderly to explore their problems using an interview guide.

Results: One thousand and eighty elderly were enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 67.22 ± 7.54 years. (range 60-102 years). The majority (70%) were independent in carrying out their daily life activities. Financially, around one-third were completely dependent and around half were partially dependent. Major dependence was in food preparation, housekeeping and laundry. From the qualitative data, four main themes were formulated, that is general personal problems of elderly; family problems; problems faced by elderly in hospitals and at public places. A feeling of purposelessness, financial insecurity, physical dependency, problems in hospitals and so on, emerged as the main problems.

Conclusions: Majority of the elderly considered their lives as problematic because they were dependent physically as well as financially. The main domains of dependency were problems related to bowel continence, food preparation, housekeeping and laundry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12406DOI Listing
September 2019

Hypothyroid Cardiac Tamponade.

J Emerg Med 2019 Apr 23;56(4):452-454. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2018.12.024DOI Listing
April 2019

Poncet's disease: Uncommon musculoskeletal manifestation of tuberculosis.

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Nov-Dec;7(6):1589-1590

Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_288_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6293919PMC
January 2019

Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterisation of E. coli from poultry in Eastern India.

Vet Ital 2018 Sep 30;54(3):197-204. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Bihar Veterinary College, Bihar Animal Sciences University, Patna, Bihar 800014, India.

In this study 252 poultry samples comprised of poultry meat (n = 228) and poultry eggs (n = 24) were screened for the isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 62 E. coli isolates were recovered from poultry meat. The E. coli isolates belonged to different serogroups based on ‘O’ serotyping of the isolates viz O29 (10.8%), O8 (7.7%), O40 (6.15%), O2 (4.61%), O60 (3.08%), O106 (3.08%), 42 (1.54%), O 87 (1.54%), and 01 serotypes of O1, O7, O30, O45, O59, O66, O105, O1116, O136, O141, O147, O148, O166, and O172. Sixteen (24.62%) of the isolates were UT (untypable) and 6 (9.23 %) were rough types. Molecular characterisation of the isolates was performed, targeting stx1 and stx2 virulence gene fragment. Out of 62 E. coli isolates, 10 (16.12%) were carrying virulence gene stx2, whereas none of the isolate was carrying stx1 gene. The E. coli isolates showed wide variation in resistance pattern against the antimicrobial agents that we used (9-90%). Among E. coli isolates, maximum resistance was observed against cefuroxime (89.1%) and penicillin (89.4%), followed by ampicillin (80.43%), vancomycin (74.1%), co-trimoxazole (73.1%), cephalothin (60.8%), ceftriaxone (28.2%), tetracycline (17.4%), gentamicin (13%), amikacin (13.04%), ofloxacin (13%), and ciprofloxacin (6.5%). A high degree of susceptibility was observed against amikacin (84.7%) and ciprofloxacin (76%) followed by gentamicin (71.73) and ofloxacin (60.86%). High multiple antibiotic resistances were observed and a total of 34 resistance patterns were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.330.1382.2DOI Listing
September 2018

Epitrochlear lymphadenopathy.

Korean J Intern Med 2019 Nov 6;34(6):1396. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2018.218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823563PMC
November 2019

Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis: a case series from a non-endemic region in North India.

Intest Res 2019 Jan 16;17(1):149-152. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5217/ir.2018.00111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361026PMC
January 2019
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