Publications by authors named "Saulo Petinatti Pavarini"

36 Publications

Pathological and immunohistochemical aspects of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia in a cat - Short communication.

Acta Vet Hung 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

1Department of Veterinary Pathology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 91540-000, Brazil.

An adult, mixed-breed, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV-) positive female cat was presented with mucosal jaundice and a history of anorexia and constipation for three days. Physical examination revealed splenomegaly, cachexia, and dehydration. Humane euthanasia was conducted, followed by postmortem examination. Grossly, the cat was icteric, and presented hepatomegaly with multifocal white spots and splenomegaly. Histologically, the bone marrow was nearly completely replaced by a proliferation of megakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts, and there was a proliferation of fibrous connective tissue. Similar neoplastic proliferation was observed infiltrating the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, skeletal muscle, and lungs. Immunohistochemistry was performed for von Willebrand Factor (VWF), CD79α, CD3, feline immunodeficiency virus, FeLV, and CD61. Marked cytoplasmic labelling was observed in the neoplastic cells for FeLV, VWF and CD61, corroborating the diagnosis of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/004.2021.00025DOI Listing
July 2021

Naegleria fowleri-associated meningoencephalitis in a cow in Southern Brazil-first molecular detection of N. fowleri in Brazil.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9090, Bairro Agronomia, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000, Brazil.

Naegleria fowleri, a free-living and thermophilic ameba, is the etiological agent of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is a rare and highly fatal neurologic disease in humans, and has been rarely documented in animal species. This report describes the pathological and etiological findings of a fatal case of N. fowleri-associated meningoencephalitis in a cow in Southern Brazil. Microscopic findings were consistent with severe, multifocal, hemorrhagic, and necrosuppurative meningoencephalitis associated with a large number of amebic trophozoites compatible with N. fowleri. Brain samples subjected to molecular assays generated a 315 bp fragment, which presented 99% identity with a N. fowleri sequence previously deposited in GenBank. This is the first study reporting the molecular detection of N. fowleri in a case of cattle meningoencephalitis in Latin America, and the obtained sequence represents the first GenBank deposit of N. fowleri identified in Brazil to this day. Additionally, the case reported is the second occurrence of N. fowleri-associated disease in the same city, drawing attention to the local importance of infection by this ameba and potential risk for human infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07209-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Swine polioencephalomyelitis in Brazil: identification of Teschovirus A, Sapelovirus A, and Enterovirus G in a farm from Southern Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Porcine encephalomyelitis can be associated with many etiologies, including viral agents, such as Porcine teschovirus (PTV), Porcine sapelovirus (PSV), and Porcine astrovirus (PoAstV). In this study, we investigated the presence of these viruses in a neurological disease outbreak in a swine farm in Southern Brazil. The piglet production farm unity had 1200 weaning piglets, and 40 piglets with neurological signs such as motor incoordination, paresis, and paralysis of hind limbs, with an evolution time of approximately 4 days. Among these, 10 piglets were submitted to postmortem examination. Gross lesions were restricted to a mild enlargement of the nerve roots and ganglia of spinal cord segments. The microscopic lesions were characterized by nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis and ganglioneuritis with evident neuronal degeneration and necrosis. Samples of the central nervous system (CNS), cerebrospinal fluid, and feces were collected and submitted to molecular analysis. PTV was identified in all samples of the CNS, while eight of the piglets were also positive for PSV, and seven were positive for Porcine enterovirus (EV-G). PoAstV was identified in a pool of feces of healthy animals used as controls. This study demonstrates the occurrence of encephalomyelitis associated with PTV on a swine farm in Southern Brazil, as well as the presence of other viruses such as PSV, EV-G, and PoAstV in the swineherd. Sequences of the fragments that were previously amplified by PCR showed a high similarity to PTV 6. Herein, we describe the first case report of severe swine polioencephalomyelitis associated with PTV in South America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00509-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Rangelia vitalii molecular and histological quantification in tissues comparing crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) and domestic dogs.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 May 2;12(5):101731. Epub 2021 May 2.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FAVET), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Rangeliosis is a condition transmitted by the tick Amblyomma aureolatum and caused by the protozoan parasite Rangelia vitalii in canids. In domestic dogs, the disease causes a severe hemolytic disease, while in wild canids the piroplasm is often detected without any clinical abnormality. This study aimed to detect and quantify the number of copies of the R. vitalii Hsp70 gene (indirect parasite burden) in several organs of domestic and South American wild canids (Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus) to elucidate distinct clinical presentations of rangeliosis in these species. A total of seven domestic dogs that died due to rangeliosis and 38 wild foxes were initially included, with all dogs presenting histological and molecular features of rangeliosis, while eight C. thous were positive at the molecular analysis for R. vitalii. Fragments of 22 organs collected from domestic (n = 7) and wild foxes (n = 8) were employed for histological and molecular quantification using real-time polymerase chain reaction aiming at the Hsp70 gene. Histologically, parasitophorous vacuoles were constantly detected in the dogs, while these were detected only in two C. thous. Parasitic burden was significantly higher in the digestive, cardiorespiratory, endocrine, genitourinary, and skeletal-muscle systems of domestic dogs when compared to wild foxes. In the hematopoietic system of wild canids, some organs, such as the lymph nodes and tonsils, presented significantly lower amounts of R. vitalii, while other organs (spleen, bone marrow, and blood) had results similar to those of domestic dogs. Additionally, the central nervous system of both domestic and wild canids presented a similar quantity of R. vitalii. The etiological agent is possibly maintained through an asexual reproductive process (merogony) in both domestic and wild species. Nonetheless, a limited or short-duration schizogony phase occurs in C. thous, which would designate this species as a possible reservoir host for the agent. Dogs, in contrast, would most likely act as accidental hosts, presenting a severe and more pathogenic schizogony phase, resulting in characteristic clinical and pathological rangeliosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101731DOI Listing
May 2021

Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis due to Sarcocystis neurona infection in Brazilian horses.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Nov 4;52(6):3809-3817. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42.505, Bairro Agronomia, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 91540-000, Brazil.

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is an important neurologic disease of horses in the American continent caused by Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi infection. This study describes the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings of fatal cases of EPM in southern Brazil. A review was performed on a total of 13 cases compatible with EPM, which were diagnosed by postmortem examination in the period of 2010-2017. Epidemiological information was obtained from necropsy reports. Gross and histological lesions were characterized, and cases were subjected to immunohistochemistry anti-Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora spp. Molecular search was performed using ITS-1 gene PCRs. Microscopic lesions were multifocal in all cases, and more frequently observed in the spinal cord segments and in the rhombencephalon. Intralesional protozoans were histologically detected in five horses, while a positive immunostaining for S. neurona was observed in eleven cases (11/13). Through molecular techniques, six positive cases for the ITS-1 gene were detected, and obtained sequences presented highest similarity with S. neurona. EPM due to S. neurona infection represents an important neurologic disease of horses in Brazil and this disease should be considered as a main differential diagnosis in horses presenting neurologic signs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02419-yDOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical and pathological aspects of first report of Tunga penetrans infestation on southern brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

J Med Primatol 2020 12 14;49(6):315-321. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Laboratório de Protozoologia e Rickettsioses Vetoriais (Protozoovet), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Tungiasis is a neglected neotropical disease caused by penetration of Tunga spp. into the skin of the host.

Methods: Two primates were rescued from nearby different indigenous villages, and the clinical, pathological, and parasitological features of tungiasis were described. Flea identification occurred through their morphometry and was confirmed with the use of a dichotomous key.

Results: Monkey 1 was parasitized by 23 sand fleas and, after treatment, was assigned to the animal rehabilitation center. Monkey 2 was in poor body condition and died shortly after clinical examination. At necropsy, this primate was parasitized by 26 specimens of sand fleas.

Conclusions: Both animals altered their tree behavior by staying on the ground for long periods. This parasitic relationship implies the possibility of enlargement of the sand flea dispersion. Thus, this is the first record of Tunga penetrans occurrence in wild Alouatta guariba clamitans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmp.12491DOI Listing
December 2020

Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. tuberculosis infection in two captive black capuchins (Sapajus nigritus) in Southern Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Dec 22;51(4):2169-2173. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Rio Grande do Sul, 91540-000, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Tuberculosis is a common zooanthroponosis in humans with a high incidence in Brazil, but it may also affect non-human primates (NHPs), of which Old World primates are most commonly involved. Nonetheless, its occurrence in New World primates is unknown, and therefore, this study aimed to describe the infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis variant tuberculosis in two captive black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) in Southern Brazil. The primates were housed in the same enclosure, wherein close contact with humans frequently occurred, and presented apathy, anorexia, and death in a clinical course of 15 days to 2 months. At the necropsy, the tracheobronchial lymph nodes were markedly enlarged and firm to hard and on the cut surface had a caseous aspect. The lungs exhibited two injury patterns: multifocal and disseminated. Microscopically, the lungs exhibited multifocal to coalescing necrotic granulomas and non-necrotic granulomas, with multiple acid-fast bacilli within the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Bacilli were also labeled upon immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbiological culture of lung samples from both cases yielded colonies compatible with M. tuberculosis. The isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis var. tuberculosis through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although tuberculosis is poorly described in New World primates, M. tuberculosis var. tuberculosis may cause a highly contagious and progressive disease with high mortality in black capuchin monkeys (S. nigritus).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00339-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688760PMC
December 2020

Ophthalmopathologic characterization of multicentric or metastatic neoplasms with an extraocular origin in dogs and cats.

Vet Ophthalmol 2020 Sep 20;23(5):814-827. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Objective: To characterize the frequency and distribution of secondary ocular neoplasms in dogs and cats identified during necropsy.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of necropsy records of dogs and cats was conducted, and cases with metastatic/multicentric neoplasms with an extraocular origin, involving the eyes, were selected.

Results: From January 2015 to January 2019, we identified a total of 233 dogs and 100 cats with metastatic disease. Of these, 11.6% (27/233) of the dogs and 13% (13/100) of the cats had ocular metastases. Lymphoma was the most common multicentric neoplasm involving the eyes of both species. In dogs, these neoplasms occurred bilaterally, predominantly in the anterior uvea, and were diffuse large B-cell, T-lymphoblastic, peripheral T-cell not otherwise specified, and lymphocytic B-cell lymphomas. In cats, feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated T-cell lymphoma was the most common. Mammary carcinoma was the second most common ocular metastatic neoplasm in bitches, with a predominantly unilateral involvement of the uveal tract. In cats, following lymphoma, pulmonary and squamous cell carcinomas were the most common multicentric/metastatic neoplasms of the eyes. Individual cases of cholangiocarcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, and chemodectoma in dogs, as well as mammary gland cribriform carcinoma, salivary gland carcinoma, and histiocytic sarcoma in cats were detected.

Conclusions: The eyes of dogs were mostly affected by lymphoma or mammary gland carcinoma, while those of cats mostly had lymphoma, pulmonary carcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma as the main metastatic/multicentric neoplasm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify intraocular metastatic cholangiocarcinoma and chemodectoma in dogs, aside from identifying salivary gland carcinoma in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vop.12803DOI Listing
September 2020

Atypical parasitic lesions in slaughtered cattle in Southern Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 10;29(3):e001720. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

In this study, we described the morphological features and unusual presentations of hydatidosis, fasciolosis, and eosinophilic myositis caused by Sarcocystis species diagnosed at the slaughterhouse lines. Twenty-seven samples of atypical parasitic lesions from distinct cattle were evaluated, of which 12 corresponded to hydatidosis, 11 to fasciolosis, and 4 to eosinophilic sarcocystosis. Hydatid cysts were observed mainly in the heart, with all cases involving the left ventricle. Fasciolosis lesions involved mainly the lungs, and were characterized by a focal nodular elevated area involving the edges of the lobes. Intralesional trematodes were observed in three cases. Sarcocystosis lesions were observed in four cases, and lesions were primarily located in the skeletal and cardiac muscles. Grossly, they presented as focal or focally extensive streaks, patches, or numerous nodules that were greenish to mildly yellowish. Histologically, all the cases had intralesional ruptured cysts of Sarcocystis that were associated with severe eosinophilic myositis and myocarditis. Parasitic lesions in atypical locations and/or with aberrant responses should be promptly identified because it may mistakenly diagnosed as other potentially zoonotic diseases, such as cysticercosis and tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1984-29612020043DOI Listing
August 2020

Sudden Death by Ovarian Hemorrhage and Hemoperitoneum in a Pregnant Miniature Mare.

J Equine Vet Sci 2020 07 15;90:102996. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

REPROLAB- Faculdade de Veterinária, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

This report describes a case of sudden death of a pregnant miniature mare due to an acute ovarian hemorrhage leading to fatal hemoperitoneum. The miniature horse was a 12-year-old female, 60 days pregnant, with a body condition score of 7 (1-9), with a history of obesity and laminitis. Necropsy revealed hemoperitoneum due to an ovarian capsule rupture and hemorrhage after a physiological supplementary ovulation and luteinization. Ovarian rupture after ovulation is uncommon in mares.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2020.102996DOI Listing
July 2020

Bovine abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death associated with Babesia bovis and Anaplasma sp. infections in southern Brazil.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2020 07 15;11(4):101443. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Veterinary Pathology Department, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases widely disseminated in cattle herds in many parts of the world. These diseases represent important causes of death and economic losses in several countries, including Brazil, and are characterized by hemolytic disease and anemia. Animals of all ages may be affected. Although transplacental infections are known to occur, abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death directly associated with Anaplasma marginale and especially Babesia spp. infections have rarely been documented in cattle. The objective of the present study is to describe the pathological and molecular findings of two cases of bovine abortion, two cases of stillbirth and two cases of neonatal death associated with intrauterine anaplasmosis and/or babesiosis in southern Brazil. All cases occurred in beef farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, between 2017 and 2019. Angus and crossbred calves were affected. At the necropsy, the main gross lesions observed included different degrees of splenomegaly, enlarged and yellow liver, thick and grumous bile, pallor or jaundice of mucous membranes and carcass, and dark kidneys. Four calves also presented cherry-pink discoloration of the central nervous system. Cytological slides enabled the observation of intraerythrocytic organisms consistent with Babesia bovis (3/6) and A. marginale (2/6). Through PCR assays, it was possible to detect three cases of Babesia sp. infection alone, and one case of Anaplasma sp. infection alone. Co-infections with Anaplasma sp. and Babesia sp. were detected in two cases. These findings reaffirm that anaplasmosis and babesiosis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis of fetal loss, stillbirth and neonatal death in cattle in areas where these diseases occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2020.101443DOI Listing
July 2020

segmental enteritis in a cow.

Med Mycol Case Rep 2020 Jun 6;28:20-22. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FAVET), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil.

A ten year-old Holstein cow had an intermittent bloody diarrhea, evolving to anorexia and recumbency, followed by death. Mycotic segmental enteritis was diagnosed based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings. was identified as the causal agent through fungal culture and PCR analysis. Intestinal mucormycosis is poorly described in cattle and should, therefore, be included as a differential diagnosis in cases of diarrhea and death in ruminants, especially when there is disruption of the normal balance of the alimentary microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mmcr.2020.04.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152686PMC
June 2020

First molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona causing meningoencephalitis in a domestic cat in Brazil.

Parasitol Res 2020 Feb 4;119(2):675-682. Epub 2020 Jan 4.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9090, Bairro Agronomia, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000, Brazil.

Sarcocystis neurona is the main agent associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Apart from horses, S. neurona has been occasionally described causing neurologic disease in several other terrestrial animals as well as mortality in marine mammals. Herein, we describe the clinical, pathological, and molecular findings of a fatal case of S. neurona-associated meningoencephalitis in a domestic cat. The causing agent was analyzed by multilocus genotyping, confirming the presence of S. neurona DNA in the tissue samples of the affected animal. Significant molecular differences were found in relation to S. neurona isolates detected in other regions of the Americas. In addition, the parasite was identical to Sarcocystis sp. identified in opossum sporocysts in Brazil at molecular level, which suggests that transmission of. S. neurona in Brazil might involve variants of the parasite different from those found elsewhere in the Americas. Studies including more samples of S. neurona would be required to test this hypothesis, as well as to assess the impact of this diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06570-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7088143PMC
February 2020

Molecular and pathological characterization of teat papillomatosis in dairy cows in southern Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Mar 23;51(1):369-375. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Faculdade de Veterinária, Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, |Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 91540-000, Brazil.

Teat papillomatosis is caused by different bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types and is especially important for dairy cows, because it results in severe damage to the health and structure of the mammary gland. This work describes the molecular and pathological aspects of teat papillomatosis in dairy cows in southern Brazil. Samples of teat papillomas were collect from 73 slaughtered dairy cows. Fragments of the lesions were collected in individual pools per animal and subjected to PCR using the FAP primer pair and sequencing of the amplification products. Teats with the remaining lesions were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, routinely processed for histopathology, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Papillomatous lesions were characterized by three macroscopic patterns, namely exophytic (5 [6.9%]), flat (29 [39.7%]), and mixed (39 [53.4%]). Histologically, all samples were identified as squamous papillomas. Partial sequencing of the L1 gene resulted in the detection of 8 classical BPV types (BPVs 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12) in 27 samples, 6 previously reported putative BPV types in 17 samples, and 10 putative new BPV types in 15 samples. Four sequences could not be classified, and 10 were negative in the PCR. There was no correlation between the gross pattern and the BPV type identified, and all the samples were characterized by squamous papillomas under histological examination. However, 24 different BPV types were identified, demonstrating high genetic diversity among BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis in dairy cows in southern Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00175-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058819PMC
March 2020

Hypertrophic osteopathy in a cat with cardiac interventricular septal defect.

J Vet Sci 2019 Sep;20(5):e52

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária (FAVET), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil.

A 3-year-old mixed-breed female cat was diagnosed with a ventricular septal defect of the heart through an echocardiogram. After a 9-month treatment, progressive and diffuse hard thickening of all limbs was observed, which on radiographic examinations, revealed a marked thickening of the long bones. The necropsy findings were limited to the appendicular skeleton and thoracic vertebrae, in addition to a severe cardiac interventricular septal defect and lung edema. The histological evaluation revealed severe replacement of the cortical bone by spongy bone in all bone fragments examined. This is the first report of hypertrophic osteopathy occurring in association with a cardiac malformation in a cat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e52DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769326PMC
September 2019

Fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis in horses in Southern Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Aug 1;28(3):443-450. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

Diseases related to the alimentary system are the main cause of death in horses. This retrospective study aimed to describe the pathological findings of fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis caused by cyathostominae, Eimeria leuckarti, Balantidium coli, and Strongyloides westeri in horses. The records of parasite-induced intestinal lesions in horses necropsied in Southern Brazil between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed. Ten horses had fatal parasitic enteritis and/or typhlocolitis, and the main causes were: cyathostominae typhlocolitis (6/10), E. leuckarti enteritis (1/10), S. westeri enteritis (1/10), B. coli colitis related to cyathostominae (1/10), and infection by multiple agents (1/10). Cyathostominae typhlocolitis showed marked mucosal thickening, with multifocal elevated nodules containing tangled filiform parasites. Microscopic examination revealed that the mucosa and submucosa had encysted parasitic structures surrounded by eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation. E. leuckarti enteritis was microscopically characterized by macrogamonts, microgamonts, and oocysts inside the host cells. S. westeri enteritis showed microscopic atrophy of the villi with numerous mucosal encysted parasitic structures. B. coli typhlocolitis showed severe diffuse mucosal reddening, with microscopic superficial mucosal necrosis associated with multiple protozoan trophozoites. Fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis are important causes of death in horses in Southern Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019056DOI Listing
August 2019

Meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri in cattle in southern Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Jun 6;28(3):514-517. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba commonly found in the environment, mainly in fresh water and soil. This protozoon is occasionally involved in cases of fatal central nervous system disease in humans and other animal species. We describe here a case of meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri in cattle, in southern Brazil. A four-year-old Angus cow presented a clinical history of initial mild neurological signs that progressed to paddling movements, opisthotonus and lateral recumbency after five days. This animal had been kept in an irrigated rice stubble paddock. Grossly, the main lesions consisted of multiple areas of malacia in the right olfactory bulb, piriform lobes, hippocampus, frontal lobe cortex and fornix, along with severe thickening of the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon leptomeninges. Microscopically, severe multifocal necrosuppurative and hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis associated with a large quantity of amoebic trophozoites was present. The latter were confirmed to be Naegleria spp., through immunohistochemistry. Based on the strong congruence with the histopathological data of known cases reported in the literature, a probable association with Naegleria fowleri was established. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of Naegleria fowleri-associated meningoencephalitis in cattle in South America, and it is the first in southern Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019021DOI Listing
June 2019

Detection of enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) in a sheep flock in southern Brazil.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Sep 17;51(7):2095-2098. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Enzootic nasal tumor (ENT) is a contagious neoplasm associated with enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV), which may induce disease in sheep (ENTV-1) and goats (ENTV-2). This study aimed to describe the occurrence of ENT in two Texel sheep (Ovis aries) from a 75-sheep flock, located in the city of Gravataí, southern Brazil. Animals used to be purchased from different origins, and no specific tests for disease monitoring or quarantine procedure were performed. Affected animals presented respiratory distress, anorexia with severe weight loss, and mucopurulent unilateral nasal discharge. Necropsy was performed in both animals and nasal cavity masses were observed. Histopathological analysis demonstrated an epithelial neoplasm compatible with nasal adenocarcinoma. PCR using a protocol that amplifies a 591 bp sequence of 5'LTR-gag region of ENTV1 was performed followed by DNA sequencing. Both samples were positive, and the sequences obtained presented highest identity (97%) with ENTV strain TN28 (GenBank accession number MH899613) detected in a Texel sheep from Scotland. This is the first report of ENTV-1 leading to enzootic nasal tumor in sheep in Latin America, which confirms the presence of the retrovirus in sheep flocks in the Brazilian territory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01897-zDOI Listing
September 2019

Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in cats and a literature review of feline histiocytic diseases.

J Feline Med Surg 2020 04 12;22(4):305-312. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to report the clinical, radiographic and pathological features of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in four cats, and carry out a literature review of feline histiocytic diseases.

Methods: Necropsy reports archived at the Department of Veterinary Pathology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul were reviewed. The clinical information was then obtained from the clinical records at the Veterinary Hospital. Routine samples had been collected during necropsy, fixed in 10% formalin, routinely processed for histology, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Samples of lung were submitted for bacterial and fungal culture. Tissue sections of lung underwent immunohistochemical testing for vimentin, pancytokeratin, CD18, CD3, CD79αcy, E-cadherin and Iba1.

Results: This disease affected mixed breed cats aged 7-14 years. Clinical signs consisted of severe mixed inspiratory and expiratory restrictive dyspnea, lethargy and anorexia. Thoracic radiographs revealed different lesion profiles, predominantly of an interstitial and alveolar pattern. Grossly, the lungs were diffusely firm and did not collapse. The pleural surface was bright and irregular due to multifocal-to-coalescent, well-demarcated, white, firm nodules that also extended into and obliterated the pulmonary parenchyma. Histological changes were characterized by poorly demarcated infiltration with histiocytic cells arranged in cohesive groups within the alveolar, bronchiolar and bronchial spaces. Histiocytic cells had intense cytoplasmic immunolabeling for vimentin and Iba1, and robust membrane immunolabeling with CD18 and E-cadherin; these cells were negative for CD3, CD79αcy and pancytokeratin in all cases.

Conclusions And Relevance: This article confirms that pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease that occurs in middle-aged to older cats and causes widespread involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma, inducing acute or chronic, progressive respiratory disease characterized by mixed restrictive dyspnea that eventually leads to death. While a definitive clinical diagnosis is challenging, the nodular appearance of the pulmonary changes, together with the histological and immunohistochemistry findings, suffice for diagnostic confirmation of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X19842384DOI Listing
April 2020

Outbreak of toxoplasmosis in a flock of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).

Parasitol Res 2019 Mar 6;118(3):991-997. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42505, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000, Brazil.

Toxoplasmosis is a disease with a worldwide distribution that affects a wide variety of animal species, though with rare descriptions in chickens. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of a toxoplasmosis outbreak in domestic chickens and guinea fowl in southern Brazil. The flock was composed of 47 domestic chickens and 29 guinea fowl. Of these, 22 birds showed clinical signs of lethargy, anorexia, and neurological signs over a clinical course of 24-72 h, and 15 died. Epidemiological data were obtained through fieldwork performed at the chicken farm and necropsies of six birds. Gross lesions were absent at necropsy, and histopathological findings included inflammatory infiltrate of macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells and necrosis in several tissues associated with intralesional Toxoplasma gondii. Immunohistochemistry for T. gondii was positive. Additionally, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3) and microsatellite (MS) analysis with 15 markers (TUB2, W35, TgMA, B18, B17, M33, IV.1, XI.1, N60, N82, AA, N61, N83, M48, and M102) were performed. PCR-RFLP revealed T. gondii genotype ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #280, and MS analysis also showed a unique genotype. This is the first description of this genotype in chickens and adds to the evidence suggesting considerable genotypic diversity of T. gondii in Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06233-wDOI Listing
March 2019

Pathological and virological features of skin lesions caused by BVDV in cattle.

Braz J Microbiol 2019 Jan 30;50(1):271-277. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Faculdade de Veterinária, Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 91540-000, Brazil.

Dermatitis might occur in mucosal disease (MD) caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). This study describes the pathological and virological features of skin lesions associated with BVDV infection in four persistently infected (PI) cattle. Skin samples were reprocessed for histopathology and IHC. BVDV isolates were obtained and were genetically characterized. In addition to upper alimentary system ulcerative lesions, all cattle (one outbreak and three individual cases) presented focal crusty and ulcerative lesions affecting the mucocutaneous and skin-horn junctions, interdigital clefts, pastern, and areas surrounding the dewclaws and diffuse thickened skin within 7-20 days of infection. Microscopic analysis revealed parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and single-cell keratinocyte death, accompanied by ballooning degeneration and spongiosis in the epidermis, as well as intraepithelial and subcorneal pustules. IHC showed BVDV antigen in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes undergoing individual cell death. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates from cattle #1, #2, and #4 belonged to BVDV-1a, whereas that from cattle #3 belonged to BVDV-1d. Cytopathic BVDV was isolated from cattle #2 and #3 (MD), and non-cytopathic BVDV was isolated from cattle #1 and #4. Thus, BVDV infection might cause acute disease, characterized by skin and upper alimentary system ulcerative lesions, in both MD and PI cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-018-0019-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863298PMC
January 2019

Pathological and molecular characterization of avian malaria in captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in South America.

Parasitol Res 2019 Feb 19;118(2):599-606. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42505, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000, Brazil.

Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that affects multiple avian species and is caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium. An avian malaria infection caused by Plasmodium sp. in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) with high mortality is described in a zoo in Southern Brazil. Clinically, three birds presented signs of inappetence, anorexia, pale mucosa, dyspnea, and opisthotonus, with death in a clinical course of 5-8 h. At the necropsy, all birds exhibited pale mucosa, marked splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, in addition to moderate leptomeningeal blood vessels ingurgitation in the brain. Microscopically, multiple exoerythrocytic meronts were observed in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells in the spleen, liver, heart, lungs, brain, kidneys, and pancreas. The spleen had a multifocal perivascular inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages, which also exhibited hemosiderosis and erythrophagocytosis. The liver had a multifocal periportal inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells, in addition to marked hemosiderosis in the hepatic sinusoids. Fragments of spleen, liver, brain, skeletal muscle, and lung were tested by the polymerase chain reaction technique for the detection of a fragment of the cytochrome B gene from haemosporidians, which resulted positive for Plasmodium spp. After sequencing, the samples were phylogenetically associated to Plasmodium sp. detected in Turdus albicollis (KU562808) in Brazil and matched to the lineage TURALB01 previously detected in T. albicollis. Avian malaria infections caused by Plasmodium sp. of lineage TURALB01 may occur in S. magellanicus with high mortality, and, thus, it is essential to detect and characterize the agent involved to obtain the differential diagnosis of the condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-6155-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Bacterial endocarditis and increased cardiac troponin I levels in a brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) with an interventricular septal defect.

J Med Primatol 2019 Apr 8;48(2):129-132. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Clinical Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

A brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) was presented with lethargy, hyporexia, cough and heart murmur. The complementary tests and necropsy revealed pleuropneumonia, bacterial endocarditis and interventricular septal defect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of increased cardiac troponin I levels in this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmp.12390DOI Listing
April 2019

Identification of bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 4, and 17 co-infections in sheep flocks during outbreaks in Brazil.

Res Vet Sci 2017 Aug 5;113:87-93. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária - Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9090, Porto Alegre CEP 91540-000, Brazil.

Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne viral disease caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus from the Reoviridae family, affecting domestic and wild ruminants. BTV circulation in Brazil was first reported in 1978, and several serological surveys indicate that the virus is widespread, although with varied prevalence. In 2014, BT outbreaks affected sheep flocks in Rio Grande do Sul state, causing significant mortality (18.4%; 91/495) in BTV-infected sheep. In total, seven farms were monitored, and one or two sheep from each farm that died due to clinical signs of BT were necropsied. Apathy, pyrexia, anorexia, tachycardia, respiratory, and digestive disorders were noted. Additionally, an abortion was recorded in one of the monitored farms. The main gross lesions observed were pulmonary edema, anterior-ventral pulmonary consolidation, muscular necrosis in the esophagus and in the ventral serratus muscle, and hemorrhagic lesions in the heart. The blood and tissue samples were tested for BTV RNA detection by RT-qPCR targeting the segment 10. Positive samples were used for viral isolation. The isolated BTVs were typed by conventional RT-PCR targeting the segment 2 of the 26 BTV serotypes, followed by sequencing analysis. BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-17 were identified in the analyzed samples. Double or triple BTV co-infections with these serotypes were detected. We report the occurrence of BT outbreaks related to BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-17 infections and co-infections causing clinical signs in sheep flocks in Southern Brazil, with significant mortality and lethality rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.09.001DOI Listing
August 2017

Genome sequencing of two Bacillus anthracis strains: a virulent strain and a vaccinal strain.

Braz J Microbiol 2018 Jan - Mar;49(1):18-19. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Centro de Ciências Rurais, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Bacillus anthracis strain SPV842_15 was isolated from bovine fetus, while B. anthracis strain Brazilian vaccinal was recovered from a commercial vaccine. We report here the genome sequences of both strains. The SPV842_15 genome is composed of a single circular chromosome with a length of 5,228,664 base pairs, and comprises 5911 coding sequences. In turn, the Brazilian vaccinal genome remains in 201 contigs with 5733 coding sequences. Both genomes have an overall C+G content of 35.4%, and 11 genes encoding the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) 5S, 16S and 23S. Only the plasmid pX01 sequence, which carries genes for toxins synthesis, was detected and completely assembled for both strains. These plasmids have a length of 181,684 base pairs and a C+G content of 32.5%. These genomic data generate insights about vaccinal B. anthracis virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2017.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790590PMC
July 2018

Chromobacterium violaceum Infection in a Horse.

J Comp Pathol 2017 May 17;156(4):334-338. Epub 2017 Mar 17.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9090 Pr. 42505, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Chromobacterium violaceum is an opportunistic pathogen of mammals that produces characteristic violet pigment in bacterial culture. We report pneumonia and septicaemia caused by C. violaceum in a horse. Necropsy examination was performed on a 3-year-old Quarter Horse stallion with a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia, fever, dyspnoea and sanguineous nasal discharge. The lungs were not collapsed, but they contained dark red foci mixed with white areas, and multiple nodules of firm consistency. Within the liver and kidney there were randomly distributed, multifocal, white pinpoint lesions (0.1-0.5 cm diameter) in the capsule and extending into the parenchyma. The brain and spinal cord contained numerous petechiae. Microscopically, the lung had severe multifocal to coalescing infiltration of degenerate neutrophils within the alveoli and parenchyma associated with extensive areas of necrosis and haemorrhage. Rod-shaped bacteria were often present in the centre of the lesions. There was intense intra-alveolar exudation of fibrin and fibrinoid degeneration of blood vessels associated with thrombosis and ischaemic necrosis adjacent to areas of severe haemorrhage. Similar lesions were present in the liver and kidneys. A pure culture of C. violaceum was obtained from samples of the lung and liver. The identity of the organism was confirmed by amplifying and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene with subsequent analysis of sequence similarity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2017.02.004DOI Listing
May 2017

Cutaneous Pythiosis in calves: An epidemiologic, pathologic, serologic and molecular characterization.

Med Mycol Case Rep 2016 Dec 26;14:24-26. Epub 2016 Nov 26.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil.

This study reports the epidemiological, pathological and mycological findings of cutaneous pythiosis in cattle in southern Brazil. 23 calves, that were kept next to a river with extensive marshy regions, presented ulcerated cutaneous lesions in thoracic and pelvic limbs, sometimes extending to the ventral thoracic region. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomas in the superficial and deep dermis. The Grocott-Methenamine silver, immunohistochemistry anti-, ELISA serology and molecular characterization demonstrated the agent in these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mmcr.2016.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5192245PMC
December 2016

Equine salmonellosis in southern Brazil.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Mar 24;49(3):475-482. Epub 2016 Dec 24.

Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves, no. 9090, 91540-000, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

The Salmonella sp. genus is identified in several species, and the zoonosis it causes is one of the most important types worldwide. The specifics of salmonellosis vary according to the function of the serovar involved, the species affected, age and predisposing factors. However, few cases of equine salmonellosis have been reported. This study presents ten confirmed salmonellosis cases in equines in southern Brazil. Six were adult animals with stress factors preceding the disease, while four were foals, three of which presented with hyperacute manifestations. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, and hyperthermia. Lesions varied in distribution and severity, although fibrinonecrotic or necrohemorrhagic enteritis was observed in all animals, mainly in the large intestine (large colon and cecum-8/10) and small intestine (3/10). Substantial liquid content, mainly hemorrhagic, was observed in all animals. The most characteristic microscopic lesion was mucosa necrosis, which is often accompanied by fibrin deposition, followed by necrosis of follicular centers and vascular changes. Bacterial isolation revealed seven isolates. Five were serotyped, and the serovars Typhimurium and Anatum were associated with two cases each, while Muenster was associated with a case whose lesion pattern varied. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in all cases. All diagnoses were based on the clinical history, macroscopic and histological lesions, and the bacterial isolation and/or immunostaining associated with histological lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1216-1DOI Listing
March 2017

Necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by Sarcocystis falcatula in bare-faced ibis (Phimosus infuscatus).

Parasitol Res 2017 Feb 3;116(2):809-812. Epub 2016 Dec 3.

Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42505, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000, Brazil.

The infection by S. falcatula is commonly associated with respiratory disease in captive psittacine birds, with a few case reports of this protozoan causing encephalitis in wild birds. We describe the clinical, pathological, and molecular aspects of an infection by S. falcatula in a bare-faced ibis (Phimosus infuscatus). Clinically, wing paralysis and mild motor incoordination were observed. At necropsy, the telencephalic cortex showed multifocal to coalescing yellowish soft areas. Histologically, multifocal to coalescent nonsuppurative necrotizing meningoencephalitis of telencephalic cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem was observed. Necrotic areas showed multiple protozoan organism characteristics of Sarcocystis sp. schizonts in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells or lying free in the neuropil. Partial genetic sequences of the gene encoding cytochrome b (CYTB), the gene encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase (RPOB) and the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) from Sarcocystis sp. schizonts revealed that the parasite had ITS-1 sequences that were 100% identical to the homologous alleles from Sarcocystis sp. shed by Didelphis albiventris in Brazil. RPOB and CYTB sequences were 100% identical to homologous of S. falcatula available in Genbank. Thus, this is the first report of necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by S. falcatula in bare-faced ibis (P. infuscatus).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5341-6DOI Listing
February 2017

Congenital cutaneous melanoma in a dog.

Vet Dermatol 2017 Apr 4;28(2):228-e56. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias da Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9090, Agronomia Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Background: Melanocytic tumours are derived from melanocytes and are common in older dogs with dark pigmented skin. Primary congenital cutaneous melanoma has been described in domestic mammals although there are no reports in the dog.

Hypothesis/objective: We describe a case of canine congenital cutaneous melanoma with rapid progression to metastasis and death.

Animal: A male, mixed breed dog was born with a circular ulcerated lesion near the left ear. By 12 days of age the lesion had grown significantly, with multiple soft, round nodules located at the outer base of the ear.

Methods And Results: Histopathological examination showed the proliferation of round and elongated neoplastic cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm that occasionally contained granules of melanin. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for melan A, S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and vimentin, confirming the diagnosis of melanoma. The tumour progressed rapidly and at six months the dog died suddenly. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary, cardiac and lymph node metastases.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a primary congenital melanoma in the dog. The neoplastic condition showed malignant behaviour and high metastatic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12391DOI Listing
April 2017
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