Publications by authors named "Saturnin Ombinda-Lemboumba"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Exploring optical spectroscopic techniques and nanomaterials for virus detection.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 27;28(1):78-89. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.

Viral infections pose significant health challenges globally by affecting millions of people worldwide and consequently resulting in a negative impact on both socioeconomic development and health. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a clear example of how a virus can have a global impact in the society and has demonstrated the limitations of detection and diagnostic capabilities globally. Another virus which has posed serious threats to world health is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which is a lentivirus of the retroviridae family responsible for causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Even though there has been a significant progress in the HIV biosensing over the past years, there is still a great need for the development of point of care (POC) biosensors that are affordable, robust, portable, easy to use and sensitive enough to provide accurate results to enable clinical decision making. The aim of this study was to present a proof of concept for detecting HIV-1 pseudoviruses by using anti-HIV1 gp41 antibodies as capturing antibodies. In our study, glass substrates were treated with a uniform layer of silane in order to immobilize HIV gp41 antibodies on their surfaces. Thereafter, the HIV pseudovirus was added to the treated substrates followed by addition of anti-HIV gp41 antibodies conjugated to selenium nanoparticle (SeNPs) and gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). The conjugation of SeNPs and AuNCs to anti-HIV gp41 antibodies was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta potential while the surface morphology was characterized by fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The UV-vis and zeta potential results showed that there was successful conjugation of SeNPs and AuNCs to anti-HIV gp41 antibodies and fluorescence microscopy showed that antibodies immobilized on glass substrates were able to capture intact HIV pseudoviruses. Furthermore, AFM also confirmed the capturing HIV pseudoviruses and we were able to differentiate between substrates with and without the HIV pseudoviruses. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of biomolecules related to HIV and therefore this system has potential in HIV biosensing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449958PMC
January 2021

A Review of Chemotherapy and Photodynamic Therapy for Lung Cancer Treatment.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 ;21(2):149-161

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa.

Cancer is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Among the different types of cancers, lung cancer is considered to be the leading cause of death related to cancer and the most commonly diagnosed form of such disease. Chemotherapy remains a dominant treatment modality for many types of cancers at different stages. However, in many cases, cancer cells develop drug resistance and become nonresponsive to chemotherapy, thus, necessitating the exploration of alternative and /or complementary treatment modalities. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has emerged as an effective treatment modality for various malignant neoplasia and tumors. In PDT, the photochemical interaction of light, Photosensitizer (PS) and molecular oxygen produces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which induces cell death. Combination therapy, by using PDT and chemotherapy, can promote synergistic effect against this fatal disease with the elimination of drug resistance, and enhancement of the efficacy of cancer eradication. In this review, we give an overview of chemotherapeutic modalities, PDT, and the different types of drugs associated with each therapy. Furthermore, we also explored the combined use of chemotherapy and PDT in the course of lung cancer treatment and how this approach could be the last resort for thousands of patients that have been diagnosed by this fatal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520620666200403144945DOI Listing
January 2021

Laser-enhanced drug delivery of antiretroviral drugs into human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected TZMbl cells.

J Biophotonics 2019 10 15;12(10):e201800424. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Biophotonics, National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa.

The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly increased life expectancy and improved management of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disease globally. This well-established treatment regime has shown to reduce viral capacity to undetectable limits when using traditional clinical assays. The establishment of viral reservoirs during the early stages of infection are the major contributors to failure of the current regimens to eradicate HIV-1 infection since the reservoirs are not affected by antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). Therefore, advanced modification of the present treatment and investigation of novel antiretroviral drug delivery system are needed. The aim of this study was to use femtosecond (fs) laser pulses to deliver ARVs into HIV-1 infected TZMbl cells. Different ARVs were translocated into TZMbl cells using fs pulsed laser (800 nm) with optimum power of 4 μW and 10 ms laser to cell exposure time. Changes in cellular processes were evaluated using cellular morphology, viability, cytotoxicity and luciferase activity assays. Cells treated with the laser in the presence of ARVs showed a significant reduction in viral infectivity, cell viability and an increase in cytotoxicity. This study demonstrated that fs laser pulses were highly effective in delivering ARVs into HIV-1 infected TZMbl cells, causing a significant reduction in HIV-1 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201800424DOI Listing
October 2019

Label-free differentiation of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected from uninfected cells using transmission measurement.

J Biophotonics 2019 07 1;12(7):e201800349. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Biophotonics, National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa.

Transmission measurement has been perceived as a potential candidate for label-free investigation of biological material. It is a real-time, label-free and non-invasive optical detection technique that has found wide applications in pharmaceutical industry as well as the biological and medical fields. Combining transmission measurement with optical trapping has emerged as a powerful tool allowing stable sample trapping, while also facilitating transmittance data analysis. In this study, a near-infrared laser beam emitting at a wavelength of 1064 nm was used for both optical trapping and transmission measurement investigation of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected and uninfected TZM-bl cells. The measurements of the transmittance intensity of individual cells in solution were carried out using a home built optical trapping system combined with laser transmission setup using a single beam gradient trap. Transmittance spectral intensity patterns revealed significant differences between the HIV-1 infected and uninfected cells. This result suggests that the transmittance data analysis technique used in this study has the potential to differentiate between infected and uninfected TZM-bl cells without the use of labels. The results obtained in this study could pave a way into developing an HIV-1 label-free diagnostic tool with possible applications at the point of care .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201800349DOI Listing
July 2019

The effects of low level laser therapy on both HIV-1 infected and uninfected TZM-bl cells.

J Biophotonics 2017 Oct 27;10(10):1335-1344. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Building 46A, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection remains a major health problem despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has greatly reduced mortality rates. Due to the unavailability of an effective vaccine and treatment that would completely eradicate the virus in infected individuals, the quest for new therapies continues. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) involves the exposure of cells to low levels of red or infrared light. LLLT has been widely used in different medical conditions, but not in HIV-1 infection. This study aimed to determine the effects of LLLT on HIV-1 infected and uninfected TZM-bl cells. Both infected and uninfected cells were irradiated at a wavelength of 660 nm with different fluences from 2 J/cm to 10 J/cm . Changes in cellular responses were assessed using cell morphology, viability, proliferation, cytotoxicity and luciferase activity assays. Upon data analysis, uninfected irradiated cells showed no changes in cell morphology, viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity, while the infected irradiated cells did. In addition, laser irradiation reduced luciferase activity in infected cells. Finally, laser irradiation had no inhibitory effect in uninfected cells, whereas it induced cell damage in a dose dependent manner in infected cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201600217DOI Listing
October 2017

Hard target UV lidar measurements of isoprene mixing ratios and emission rates from eucalyptus trees.

Appl Opt 2007 Sep;46(25):6344-9

CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.

The application of UV lidar to measure isoprene concentrations for environmental studies has been investigated. With a hard target lidar system at 223 nm, isoprene mixing ratios above eucalyptus trees were measured with a sensitivity of about 1 ppbv. Results over a long timescale were compared with an existing model of isoprene emission for a wide range of temperature and sunlight values. Fast time dependent results yielded a leaf emission rate of 25 microg g(-1) hour(-1), consistent with emission from other eucalyptus species. Requirements for development of the system for range resolved isoprene number density measurements using atmospheric backscatter lidar are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.46.006344DOI Listing
September 2007