Publications by authors named "Satotaka Omori"

3 Publications

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Senolysis by glutaminolysis inhibition ameliorates various age-associated disorders.

Science 2021 01;371(6526):265-270

Division of Cancer Cell Biology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

Removal of senescent cells (senolysis) has been proposed to be beneficial for improving age-associated pathologies, but the molecular pathways for such senolytic activity have not yet emerged. Here, we identified glutaminase 1 () as an essential gene for the survival of human senescent cells. The intracellular pH in senescent cells was lowered by lysosomal membrane damage, and this lowered pH induced kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) expression. The resulting enhanced glutaminolysis induced ammonia production, which neutralized the lower pH and improved survival of the senescent cells. Inhibition of KGA-dependent glutaminolysis in aged mice eliminated senescent cells specifically and ameliorated age-associated organ dysfunction. Our results suggest that senescent cells rely on glutaminolysis, and its inhibition offers a promising strategy for inducing senolysis in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb5916DOI Listing
January 2021

A 3D tissue model-on-a-chip for studying the effects of human senescent fibroblasts on blood vessels.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jan;9(1):199-211

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan.

All human tissues experience aging that eventually causes organ dysfunction and disease. Cellular senescence was discovered in fibroblasts cultured in vitro. In adults, it is a primary defense mechanism against cancer, but also a major contributor to lifespan limits and disorders associated with aging. To assess how human blood vessels change in an aged environment, we developed an elementary tissue model-on-a-chip that comprises an in vitro three-dimensional model of a blood vessel embedded in a collagen gel with young or senescent skin fibroblasts. We found that senescent fibroblasts mechanically altered the surrounding extracellular matrix by exerting excessive traction stress. We then found that senescent fibroblasts induced sprouting angiogenesis of a microvessel via their senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Finally, we gathered evidence that the mechanical changes of the microenvironment play a role in sustaining SASP-induced angiogenesis. The model proved useful in monitoring morphological changes in blood vessels induced by senescent fibroblasts while controlling the proportion of senescent cells, and enabled the study of SASP inhibitors, a class of drugs useful in aging and cancer research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm01297aDOI Listing
January 2021

Generation of a p16 Reporter Mouse and Its Use to Characterize and Target p16 Cells In Vivo.

Cell Metab 2020 Nov 18;32(5):814-828.e6. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Division of Molecular Regulation of Inflammatory and Immune Diseases, Research Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-0022, Japan.

Cell senescence plays a key role in age-associated organ dysfunction, but the in vivo pathogenesis is largely unclear. Here, we generated a p16-Cre-tdTomato mouse model to analyze the in vivo characteristics of p16 cells at a single-cell level. We found tdTomato-positive p16 cells detectable in all organs, which were enriched with age. We also found that these cells failed to proliferate and had half-lives ranging from 2.6 to 4.2 months, depending on the tissue examined. Single-cell transcriptomics in the liver and kidneys revealed that p16 cells were present in various cell types, though most dominant in hepatic endothelium and in renal proximal and distal tubule epithelia, and that these cells exhibited heterogeneous senescence-associated phenotypes. Further, elimination of p16 cells ameliorated nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related hepatic lipidosis and immune cell infiltration. Our new mouse model and single-cell analysis provide a powerful resource to enable the discovery of previously unidentified senescence functions in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.09.006DOI Listing
November 2020