Publications by authors named "Satoru Tokutomi"

71 Publications

Effect of circularly polarized light on germination, hypocotyl elongation and biomass production of arabidopsis and lettuce: Involvement of phytochrome B.

Plant Biotechnol (Tokyo) 2020 Mar;37(1):57-67

Graduate School of Life Science, Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan.

Circular dichroism (CD), defined as the differential absorption of left- and right-handed circularly polarized light (CPL), is a useful spectroscopic technique for structural studies of biological systems composed of chiral molecules. The present study evaluated the effects of CPL on germination, hypocotyl elongation and biomass production of Arabidopsis and lettuce. Higher germination rates were observed when Arabidopsis and lettuce seedlings were irradiated with red right-handed CPL (R-CPL) than with red left-handed CPL (L-CPL). Hypocotyl elongation was effectively inhibited when Arabidopsis and lettuce seedlings were irradiated with red R-CPL than with red L-CPL. This difference was not observed when a phytochrome B (phyB) deficient mutant of Arabidopsis was irradiated, suggesting that inhibition of elongation by red R-CPL was mediated by phyB. White R-CPL induced greater biomass production by adult Arabidopsis plants, as determined by their fresh shoot weight, than white L-CPL. To determine the molecular basis of these CPL effects, CD spectra and the effect of CPL on the photoreaction of a sensory module of Arabidopsis phyB were measured. The red light-absorbing form of phyB showed a negative CD in the red light-absorbing region, consistent with the results of germination, inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and biomass production. L-CPL and R-CPL, however, did not differ in their ability to induce the interconversion of the red light-absorbing and far-red light-absorbing forms of phyB. These findings suggest that these CPL effects involve phyB, along with other photoreceptors and the photosynthetic process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5511/plantbiotechnology.19.1219aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193831PMC
March 2020

Photoreaction Dynamics of Full-Length Phototropin from .

J Phys Chem B 2019 12 13;123(51):10939-10950. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science , Kyoto University , Kyoto , Kyoto 606-8502 , Japan.

Phototropin (phot) is a blue light sensor involved in the light responses of several species from green algae to higher plants. Phot consists of two photoreceptive domains (LOV1 and LOV2) and a Ser/Thr kinase domain. These domains are connected by a hinge and a linker domain. So far, studies on the photochemical reaction dynamics of phot have been limited to short fragments, and the reactions of intact phot have not been well elucidated. Here, the photoreactions of full-length phot and of several mutants from () were investigated by the transient grating and circular dichroism (CD) methods. Full-length phot is in monomeric form in both dark and light states and shows conformational changes upon photoexcitation. When LOV1 is excited, the hinge helix unfolds with a time constant of 77 ms. Upon excitation of LOV2, the linker helix unfolds initially followed by a tertiary structural change of the kinase domain with a time constant of 91 ms. The quantum yield of conformational change after adduct formation of LOV2 is much smaller than that of LOV1, indicating that reactive and nonreactive forms exist. The conformational changes associated with the excitations of LOV1 and LOV2 occur independently and additively, even when they are excited simultaneously. Hence, the role of LOV1 is not to enhance the kinase activity in addition to LOV2 function; we suggest LOV1 has different functions such as regulation of intermolecular interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b09685DOI Listing
December 2019

Measurements of Photoreaction and Kinase Activity of Phototropin, a Photoreceptor Protein for Tropic Response in Plants: Involvement of Kinase Activity in the Photosensitivity of Tropic Response.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1924:175-190

Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan.

Phototropin is a photoreceptor protein responsible for phototropic responses in plants. A phototropin molecule has two photoreceptive domains named LOV1 and LOV2 in the N-terminal region. Blue light absorbed by a chromophore in these domains triggers conformational changes in the protein moiety. The C-terminal region of phototropin forms a Ser/Thr kinase that is activated by these conformational changes. The activated phototropin kinase transmits signals downstream leading to tropic responses. The lifetime of the activated state may concern the sensitivity of the tropic responses to light. Thus, spectrophotometric and kinase activity analyses of phototropin are important to understand the light signaling processes related to the photosensitivity. The preparation of polypeptide samples of Arabidopsis phototropin and the methods of spectroscopic measurements and kinase assay of these samples are shown in this chapter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9015-3_14DOI Listing
June 2019

Photoreaction Dynamics of LOV1 and LOV2 of Phototropin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

J Phys Chem B 2018 02 2;122(6):1801-1815. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University , Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Phototropin is a blue light sensor protein found in higher plants and green algae. Photochemical reactions of a variety of differently truncated constructs of a phototropin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) (LOV1, LOV1-hinge, LOV2, LOV2-linker, and hinge-LOV2) are investigated. In the dark state, LOV1 is in dynamic equilibrium between the monomer and dimer, and the main photochemical reaction is dimerization of the monomer and dissociation of the dimer. On the other hand, LOV1-hinge exists as the monomer and the photochemical reaction is the dimerization reaction associated with the unfolding of the helix of the hinge domain. LOV2 in the dark state is monomeric. The conformation changes after the photoexcitation of LOV2 and LOV2-linker are minor, which differs notably from the reaction of LOV2-Jα and LOV2-linker from Arabidopsis thaliana (At). The linker region, including the Jα helix, is rather stable upon photoexcitation. The helix of the hinge domain of hinge-LOV2 is slightly unfolded in the dark state, and the major photoreaction is the dimerization event. The dark recovery rate of LOV2 was found to decrease significantly in the presence of the hinge domain. These photochemical properties of Cr phot are considerably different from those of At phot regarding conformational changes and their kinetics, although Cr phot has been reported to rescue the phot function in At. The differences and the diversity of phots are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b10266DOI Listing
February 2018

Hydrogen Bonding Environment of the N3-H Group of Flavin Mononucleotide in the Light Oxygen Voltage Domains of Phototropins.

Biochemistry 2017 06 5;56(24):3099-3108. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Department of Life Science and Applied Chemistry, Nagoya Institute of Technology , Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan.

The light oxygen voltage (LOV) domain is a flavin-binding blue-light receptor domain, originally found in a plant photoreceptor phototropin (phot). Recently, LOV domains have been used in optogenetics as the photosensory domain of fusion proteins. Therefore, it is important to understand how LOV domains exhibit light-induced structural changes for the kinase domain regulation, which enables the design of LOV-containing optogenetics tools with higher photoactivation efficiency. In this study, the hydrogen bonding environment of the N3-H group of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) of the LOV2 domain from Adiantum neochrome (neo) 1 was investigated by low-temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Using specifically N-labeled FMN, [1,3-N]FMN, the N3-H stretch was identified at 2831 cm for the unphotolyzed state at 150 K, indicating that the N3-H group forms a fairly strong hydrogen bond. The N3-H stretch showed temperature dependence, with a shift to lower frequencies at ≤200 K and to higher frequencies at ≥250 K from the unphotolyzed to the intermediate states. Similar trends were observed in the LOV2 domains from Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2. By contrast, the N3-H stretch of the Q1029L mutant of neo1-LOV2 and neo1-LOV1 was not temperature dependent in the intermediate state. These results seemed correlated with our previous finding that the LOV2 domains show the structural changes in the β-sheet region and/or the adjacent Jα helix of LOV2 domain, but that such structural changes do not take place in the Q1029L mutant or neo1-LOV1 domain. The environment around the N3-H group was also investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00057DOI Listing
June 2017

Light-Induced Conformational Changes of LOV2-Kinase and the Linker Region in Arabidopsis Phototropin2.

J Phys Chem B 2017 05 19;121(17):4414-4421. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University , Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Phototropins (phots) are blue light sensors found in a variety of higher plants and algae. The photochemical reactions of this family of proteins have attracted much attention since their discovery. Phots have two light sensor domains called light-oxygen-voltage 1 (LOV1) and LOV2. After the formation of the characteristic adduct of the LOV domain, a conformational change of the C-terminal region of the LOV2 domain occurs, and characterizing this change is important for understanding biological function, that is, kinase activation. Here, the reaction dynamics of the Jα-helix and the extended region adjacent to the Jα-helix (connector) have been investigated. The conformation of the connector part and the Jα-helix were found to alter significantly in a two-state manner. Furthermore, the conformational change of the kinase domain was also successfully detected as a change in translational diffusion, although the CD intensity due to the kinase domain movement was almost silent. These observations indicate that the tertiary structure of the kinase domain changes. The rate of the kinase domain change is almost the same as that of the change for the LOV2-linker, suggesting that the conformational change of the linker is the rate-determining step for kinase activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b01552DOI Listing
May 2017

Anomalous pressure effects on the photoreaction of a light-sensor protein from Synechocystis, PixD (Slr1694), and the compressibility change of its intermediates.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2016 Sep;18(37):25915-25925

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

SyPixD (Slr1694) is a blue-light receptor that contains a BLUF (blue-light sensor using a flavin chromophore) domain for the function of phototaxis. The key reaction of this protein is a light-induced conformational change and subsequent dissociation reaction from the decamer to the dimer. In this study, anomalous effects of pressure on this reaction were discovered, and changes in the compressibility of its short-lived intermediates were investigated. While the absorption spectra of the dark and light states are not sensitive to pressure, the formation yield of the first intermediate decreases with pressure to about 40% at 150 MPa. Upon blue-light illumination with a sufficiently strong intensity, the transient grating signal, which represents the dissociation of the SyPixD decamer, was observed at 0.1 MPa, and the signal intensity significantly decreased with increasing pressure. This behavior shows that the dissociation of the decamer from the second intermediate state is suppressed by pressure. However, while the decamer undergoes no dissociation upon excitation of one monomer unit at 0.1 MPa, dissociation is gradually induced with increasing pressure. For solving this strange behavior, the compressibility changes of the intermediates were measured as a function of pressure at weak light intensity. Interestingly, the compressibility change was negative at low pressure, but became positive with increasing pressure. Because the compressibility is related to the volume fluctuation, this observation suggests that the driving force for this reaction is fluctuation of the protein. The relationship between the cavities at the interfaces of the monomer units and the reactivity was also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6cp05091cDOI Listing
September 2016

Time-resolved fluctuation during the photochemical reaction of a photoreceptor protein: phototropin1LOV2-linker.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2016 Feb;18(8):6228-38

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Although the relationship between structural fluctuations and reactions is important for elucidating reaction mechanisms, experimental data describing such fluctuations of reaction intermediates are sparse. In order to investigate structural fluctuations during a protein reaction, the compressibilities of intermediate species after photoexcitation of a phot1LOV2-linker, which is a typical LOV domain protein with the C-terminal linker including the J-α helix and used recently for optogenetics, were measured in the time-domain by the transient grating and transient lens methods with a high pressure optical cell. The yield of covalent bond formation between the chromophore and a Cys residue (S state formation) relative to that at 0.1 MPa decreased very slightly with increasing pressure. The fraction of the reactive species that yields the T state (linker-unfolded state) decreased almost proportionally with pressure (0.1-200 MPa) to about 65%. Interestingly, the volume change associated with the reaction was much more pressure sensitive. By combining these data, the compressibility changes for the short lived intermediate (S state) and the final product (T state) formation were determined. The compressibility of the S state was found to increase compared with the dark (D) state, and the compressibility decreased during the transition from the S state to the T state. The compressibility change is discussed in terms of cavities inside the protein. By comparing the crystal structures of the phot1LOV2-linker at dark and light states, we concluded that the cavity volumes between the LOV domain and the linker domain increase in the S state, which explains the enhanced compressibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5cp07472jDOI Listing
February 2016

The linker between LOV2-Jα and STK plays an essential role in the kinase activation by blue light in Arabidopsis phototropin1, a plant blue light receptor.

FEBS Lett 2016 Jan 29;590(1):139-47. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Department of Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan.

Phototropin (phot), a blue light receptor in plants, is composed of several domains: LOV1, LOV2, and a serine/threonine kinase (STK). LOV2 is the main regulator of light activation of STK. However, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this report, we focused on the linker region between LOV2 and STK excluding the Jα-helix. Spectroscopy and a kinase assay for the substituents in the linker region of Arabidopsis phot1 LOV2-STK indicated that the linker is involved in the activation of STK. A putative module in the middle of the linker would be critical for intramolecular signaling and/or regulation of STK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.12028DOI Listing
January 2016

Reconstitution of an Initial Step of Phototropin Signaling in Stomatal Guard Cells.

Plant Cell Physiol 2016 Jan 26;57(1):152-9. Epub 2015 Dec 26.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 Japan

Phototropins are light-activated receptor kinases that mediate a wide range of blue light responses responsible for the optimization of photosynthesis. Despite the physiological importance of phototropins, it is still unclear how they transduce light signals into physiological responses. Here, we succeeded in reproducing a primary step of phototropin signaling in vitro using a physiological substrate of phototropin, the BLUS1 (BLUE LIGHT SIGNALING1) kinase of guard cells. When PHOT1 and BLUS1 were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant proteins were incubated with ATP, white and blue light induced phosphorylation of BLUS1 but red light and darkness did not. Site-directed mutagenesis of PHOT1 and BLUS1 revealed that the phosphorylation was catalyzed by phot1 kinase. Similar to stomatal blue light responses, the BLUS1 phosphorylation depended on the fluence rate of blue light and was inhibited by protein kinase inhibitors, K-252a and staurosporine. In contrast to the result in vivo, BLUS1 was not dephosphorylated in vitro, suggesting the involvement of a protein phosphatase in the response in vivo. phot1 with a C-terminal kinase domain but devoid of the N-terminal domain, constitutively phosphorylated BLUS1 without blue light, indicating that the N-terminal domain has an autoinhibitory action and prevents substrate phosphorylation. The results provide the first reconstitution of a primary step of phototropin signaling and a clue for understanding the molecular nature of this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcv180DOI Listing
January 2016

Essential role of the A'α/Aβ gap in the N-terminal upstream of LOV2 for the blue light signaling from LOV2 to kinase in Arabidopsis photototropin1, a plant blue light receptor.

PLoS One 2015 17;10(4):e0124284. Epub 2015 Apr 17.

Department of Biological Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan.

Phototropin (phot) is a blue light (BL) receptor in plants and is involved in phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomata opening, etc. A phot molecule has two photo-receptive domains named LOV (Light-Oxygen-Voltage) 1 and 2 in its N-terminal region and a serine/threonine kinase (STK) in its C-terminal region. STK activity is regulated mainly by LOV2, which has a cyclic photoreaction, including the transient formation of a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-cysteinyl adduct (S390). One of the key events for the propagation of the BL signal from LOV2 to STK is conformational changes in a Jα-helix residing downstream of the LOV2 C-terminus. In contrast, we focused on the role of the A'α-helix, which is located upstream of the LOV2 N-terminus and interacts with the Jα-helix. Using LOV2-STK polypeptides from Arabidopsis thaliana phot1, we found that truncation of the A'α-helix and amino acid substitutions at Glu474 and Lys475 in the gap between the A'α and the Aβ strand of LOV2 (A'α/Aβ gap) to Ala impaired the BL-induced activation of the STK, although they did not affect S390 formation. Trypsin digested the LOV2-STK at Lys603 and Lys475 in a light-dependent manner indicating BL-induced structural changes in both the Jα-helix and the gap. The digestion at Lys603 is faster than at Lys475. These BL-induced structural changes were observed with the Glu474Ala and the Lys475Ala substitutes, indicating that the BL signal reached the Jα-helix as well as the A'α/Aβ gap but could not activate STK. The amino acid residues, Glu474 and Lys475, in the gap are conserved among the phots of higher plants and may act as a joint to connect the structural changes in the Jα-helix with the activation of STK.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0124284PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401697PMC
April 2016

Pressure-sensitive reaction yield of the TePixD blue-light sensor protein.

J Phys Chem B 2015 Feb 28;119(7):2897-907. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University , Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

The effect of pressure on the dissociation reaction of the TePixD decamer was investigated by high-pressure transient grating (TG). The TG signal intensity representing the dissociation reaction of the TePixD decamer significantly decreased by applying a relatively small pressure. On the other hand, the reaction rate increased with increasing pressure. The equilibrium between the pentamer and the decamer was investigated by high-pressure dynamic light scattering. The results indicated that the fraction of the decamer slightly increased in the high-pressure region. From these measurements, it was concluded that the pressure-dependent signal intensity originated from the decrease of the quantum yield of the dissociation reaction of the decamer, indicating that this reaction efficiency is very sensitive to pressure. Using densimetry at high pressures, the compressibility was found to be pressure dependent even in a relatively low pressure range. We attributed the origin of the pressure-sensitive reaction yield to the decrease of compressibility at high pressure. Because the compressibility is related to the volume fluctuation, this observation suggests that the driving force for this reaction is fluctuation of the protein. The relationship between the cavities at the interfaces of the monomer units and the reactivity is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp511946uDOI Listing
February 2015

The effects of phytochrome-mediated light signals on the developmental acquisition of photoperiod sensitivity in rice.

Sci Rep 2015 Jan 9;5:7709. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

1] Division of Agronomy and Horticulture Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan [2] Department of Agricultural Regional Vitalization, Kibi International University, Minamiawaji, Hyogo, 656-0484, Japan.

Plants commonly rely on photoperiodism to control flowering time. Rice development before floral initiation is divided into two successive phases: the basic vegetative growth phase (BVP, photoperiod-insensitive phase) and the photoperiod-sensitive phase (PSP). The mechanism responsible for the transition of rice plants into their photoperiod-sensitive state remains elusive. Here, we show that se13, a mutation detected in the extremely early flowering mutant X61 is a nonsense mutant gene of OsHY2, which encodes phytochromobilin (PΦB) synthase, as evidenced by spectrometric and photomorphogenic analyses. We demonstrated that some flowering time and circadian clock genes harbor different expression profiles in BVP as opposed to PSP, and that this phenomenon is chiefly caused by different phytochrome-mediated light signal requirements: in BVP, phytochrome-mediated light signals directly suppress Ehd2, while in PSP, phytochrome-mediated light signals activate Hd1 and Ghd7 expression through the circadian clock genes' expression. These findings indicate that light receptivity through the phytochromes is different between two distinct developmental phases corresponding to the BVP and PSP in the rice flowering process. Our results suggest that these differences might be involved in the acquisition of photoperiod sensitivity in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep07709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287723PMC
January 2015

Transient conformational fluctuation of TePixD during a reaction.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Oct 29;111(41):14764-9. Epub 2014 Sep 29.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan;

Knowledge of the dynamical behavior of proteins, and in particular their conformational fluctuations, is essential to understanding the mechanisms underlying their reactions. Here, transient enhancement of the isothermal partial molar compressibility, which is directly related to the conformational fluctuation, during a chemical reaction of a blue light sensor protein from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (TePixD, Tll0078) was investigated in a time-resolved manner. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of TePixD did not change with the application of high pressure. Conversely, the transient grating signal intensities representing the volume change depended significantly on the pressure. This result implies that the compressibility changes during the reaction. From the pressure dependence of the amplitude, the compressibility change of two short-lived intermediate (I1 and I2) states were determined to be +(5.6 ± 0.6) × 10(-2) cm(3) ⋅ mol(-1) ⋅ MPa(-1) for I1 and +(6.6 ± 0.7) × 10(-2) cm(3) ⋅ mol(-1) ⋅ MPa(-1) for I2. This result showed that the structural fluctuation of intermediates was enhanced during the reaction. To clarify the relationship between the fluctuation and the reaction, the compressibility of multiply excited TePixD was investigated. The isothermal compressibility of I1 and I2 intermediates of TePixD showed a monotonic decrease with increasing excitation laser power, and this tendency correlated with the reactivity of the protein. This result indicates that the TePixD decamer cannot react when its structural fluctuation is small. We concluded that the enhanced compressibility is an important factor for triggering the reaction of TePixD. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing enhanced fluctuations of intermediate species during a protein reaction, supporting the importance of fluctuations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1413222111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4205621PMC
October 2014

A dominant mutation in the light-oxygen and voltage2 domain vicinity impairs phototropin1 signaling in tomato.

Plant Physiol 2014 Apr 10;164(4):2030-44. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Repository of Tomato Genomics Resources, Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, India.

In higher plants, blue light (BL) phototropism is primarily controlled by the phototropins, which are also involved in stomatal movement and chloroplast relocation. These photoresponses are mediated by two phototropins, phot1 and phot2. Phot1 mediates responses with higher sensitivity than phot2, and phot2 specifically mediates chloroplast avoidance and dark positioning responses. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a Nonphototropic seedling1 (Nps1) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The mutant is impaired in low-fluence BL responses, including chloroplast accumulation and stomatal opening. Genetic analyses show that the mutant locus is dominant negative in nature. In dark-grown seedlings of the Nps1 mutant, phot1 protein accumulates at a highly reduced level relative to the wild type and lacks BL-induced autophosphorylation. The mutant harbors a single glycine-1484-to-alanine transition in the Hinge1 region of a phot1 homolog, resulting in an arginine-to-histidine substitution (R495H) in a highly conserved A'α helix proximal to the light-oxygen and voltage2 domain of the translated gene product. Significantly, the R495H substitution occurring in the Hinge1 region of PHOT1 abolishes its regulatory activity in Nps1 seedlings, thereby highlighting the functional significance of the A'α helix region in phototropic signaling of tomato.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.113.232306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3982760PMC
April 2014

Light-induced conformational changes of LOV1 (light oxygen voltage-sensing domain 1) and LOV2 relative to the kinase domain and regulation of kinase activity in Chlamydomonas phototropin.

J Biol Chem 2014 Jan 27;289(1):413-22. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

From the Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.

Phototropin (phot), a blue light (BL) receptor in plants, has two photoreceptive domains named LOV1 and LOV2 as well as a Ser/Thr kinase domain (KD) and acts as a BL-regulated protein kinase. A LOV domain harbors a flavin mononucleotide that undergoes a cyclic photoreaction upon BL excitation via a signaling state in which the inhibition of the kinase activity by LOV2 is negated. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the BL-dependent activation of the kinase, the photochemistry, kinase activity, and molecular structure were studied with the phot of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Full-length and LOV2-KD samples of C. reinhardtii phot showed cyclic photoreaction characteristics with the activation of LOV- and BL-dependent kinase. Truncation of LOV1 decreased the photosensitivity of the kinase activation, which was well explained by the fact that the signaling state lasted for a shorter period of time compared with that of the phot. Small angle x-ray scattering revealed monomeric forms of the proteins in solution and detected BL-dependent conformational changes, suggesting an extension of the global molecular shapes of both samples. Constructed molecular model of full-length phot based on the small angle x-ray scattering data proved the arrangement of LOV1, LOV2, and KD for the first time that showed a tandem arrangement both in the dark and under BL irradiation. The models suggest that LOV1 alters its position relative to LOV2-KD under BL irradiation. This finding demonstrates that LOV1 may interact with LOV2 and modify the photosensitivity of the kinase activation through alteration of the duration of the signaling state in LOV2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.515403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3879564PMC
January 2014

Dynamics of the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal helices of Arabidopsis phototropin 1 LOV2 studied by the transient grating.

J Phys Chem B 2013 Dec 26;117(49):15606-13. Epub 2013 Aug 26.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University , Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Recently, conformational changes of the amino-terminal helix (A'α helix), in addition to the reported conformational changes of the carboxyl-terminal helix (Jα helix), have been proposed to be important for the regulatory function of the light-oxygen-voltage 2 domain (LOV2) of phototropin 1 from Arabidopsis. However, the reaction dynamics of the A'α helix have not been examined. Here, the unfolding reactions of the A'α and Jα helices of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated by the time-resolved transient grating (TG) method. A mutant (T469I mutant) that renders the A'α helix unfolded in the dark state showed unfolding of the Jα helix with a time constant of 1 ms, which is very similar to the time constant reported for the wild-type LOV2-linker sample. Furthermore, a mutant (I608E mutant) that renders the Jα helix unfolded in the dark state exhibited an unfolding process of the A'α helix with a time constant of 12 ms. On the basis of these experimental results, it is suggested that the unfolding reactions of these helices occurs independently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp406109jDOI Listing
December 2013

Photochemistry of Arabidopsis phototropin 1 LOV1: transient tetramerization.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2013 Jul;12(7):1171-9

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

The photochemical reaction of the LOV1 (light-oxygen-voltage 1) domain of phototropin 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated by the time-resolved transient grating method. As with other LOV domains, an absorption spectral change associated with an adduct formation between its chromophore (flavin mononucleotide) and a cysteine residue was observed with a time constant of 1.1 μs. After this reaction, a significant diffusion coefficient (D) change (D of the reactant = 8.2 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1), and D of the photoproduct = 6.4 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1)) was observed with a time constant of 14 ms at a protein concentration of 270 μM. From the D value of the ground state and the peak position in size exclusion chromatography, we have confirmed that the phot1LOV1 domain exists as a dimer in the dark. The D-value and the concentration dependence of the rate indicated that the phot1LOV1 domain associates to form a tetramer (dimerization of the dimer) upon photoexcitation. We also found that the chromophore is released from the binding pocket of the LOV domain when it absorbs two photons within a pulse duration, which occurs in addition to the normal photocycle reaction. On the basis of these results, we discuss the molecular mechanism of the light dependent role of the phot1LOV1 domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3pp50047kDOI Listing
July 2013

Anomalous diffusion of TePixD and identification of the photoreaction product.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2013 Jul;12(7):1180-6

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

TePixD is a blue-light sensor protein from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (TePixD Tll0078). Although the photochemistry has been examined, so far the photoproduct remains unknown. We have measured the diffusion coefficient (D) of TePixD in the dark by dynamic light scattering and have discovered a very peculiar diffusion property; the decamer oligomer has a larger D than that of the pentamer. Furthermore, D of the pentamer was found to be very close to that of the TePixD decamer photoreaction product. In order to investigate this reaction further, elution profiles of size-exclusion chromatography were measured under dark and illuminated conditions at low (40 μM) and high (1.1 mM) TePixD concentrations. On the basis of these results, we have concluded that the main photoreaction of the TePixD decamer is the dissociation into the pentamer. The secondary structure change associated with this reaction was found to be minor according to circular dichroism analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3pp25434hDOI Listing
July 2013

Studies on fish scale collagen of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira).

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2013 Jan 19;33(1):174-81. Epub 2012 Aug 19.

Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570, Japan. Electronic address:

We purified and characterized Type I collagen from the scales of the Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and compared it with collagen from other organisms. Subunit composition of C. saira collagen (2α1+α2) was similar to that of red sea bream (Pagrus major) and porcine collagen. C. saira collagen did not form a firm gel after neutralization of pH in solution. The temperature of denaturation (24-25 °C) of C. saira collagen was slightly lower than that of P. major collagen (26-27 °C). The contents of proline and hydroxyproline were lower in red sea bream and Pacific saury collagen than in porcine collagen. Circular dichroism spectra and Fourier-transformed infrared spectra showed that heat denaturation caused unfolding of the triple helices in all three collagens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2012.08.025DOI Listing
January 2013

Blue light-induced conformational changes in a light-regulated transcription factor, aureochrome-1.

Plant Cell Physiol 2013 Jan 4;54(1):93-106. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 Japan.

Aureochrome-1 (AUREO1) is a blue light (BL) receptor that mediates the branching response in the stramenopile alga, Vaucheria frigida. AUREO1 harbors a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain at the N-terminus and a light-oxygen-voltage-sensing (LOV) domain within the C-terminal region, and has been suggested to function as a light-regulated transcription factor. To understand the molecular mechanism of AUREO1, we have prepared three recombinant proteins: a full-length AUREO1 (FL), an N-terminal truncated construct containing bZIP and LOV (ZL) and a LOV-only (LOV) construct. The constructs showed the same absorption and fluorescent spectra in the dark state and underwent the characteristic cyclic reaction as previously observed in LOV domains upon BL excitation. FL and ZL bound to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. BL appeared to induce a shift of the α-helical structure of the LOV domain to a β-sheet structure, but did not alter the hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) of this domain. ZL formed a dimer possibly through disulfide linkages in the bZIP and the linker region between bZIP and LOV. BL induced an approximately 5% increase in the R(H) of ZL, although its secondary structure was unchanged. These results support a schema where BL-induced changes in the LOV domain may cause conformational changes in the bZIP and/or the linker of a dimeric ZL molecule. Since a 5% increase of the R(H) was also observed with the FL construct, BL may induce global conformational changes similar to those observed for ZL, and formation of the FL dimer may facilitate DNA binding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcs160DOI Listing
January 2013

Photosensitivity of kinase activation by blue light involves the lifetime of a cysteinyl-flavin adduct intermediate, S390, in the photoreaction cycle of the LOV2 domain in phototropin, a plant blue light receptor.

J Biol Chem 2012 Nov 12;287(49):40972-81. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.

Phototropin (phot) is a light-regulated protein kinase that mediates a variety of photoresponses in plants, such as phototropism, chloroplast positioning, and stomata opening. Arabidopsis has two homologues, phot1 and phot2, that share physiological functions depending on light intensity. A phot molecule has two photoreceptive light oxygen voltage-sensing domains, LOV1 and LOV2, and a Ser/Thr kinase domain. The LOV domains undergo a photocycle upon blue light (BL) stimulation, including transient adduct formation between the chromophore and a conserved cysteine (S390 intermediate) that leads to activation of the kinase. To uncover the mechanism underlying the photoactivation of the kinase, we have introduced a kinase assay system composed of a phot1 LOV2-linker-kinase polypeptide as a light-regulated kinase and its N-terminal polypeptide as an artificial substrate (Okajima, K., Matsuoka, D., and Tokutomi, S. (2011) LOV2-linker-kinase phosphorylates LOV1-containing N-terminal polypeptide substrate via photoreaction of LOV2 in Arabidopsis phototropin1. FEBS Lett. 585, 3391-3395). In the present study, we extended the assay system to phot2 and compared the photochemistry and kinase activation by BL between phot1 and phot2 to gain insight into the molecular basis for the different photosensitivities of phot1 and phot2. Photosensitivity of kinase activation by BL and the lifetime of S390 of phot1 were 10 times higher and longer, respectively, than those of phot2. This correlation was confirmed by an amino acid substitution experiment with phot1 to shorten the lifetime of S390. The present results demonstrated that the photosensitivity of kinase activation in phot involves the lifetime of S390 in LOV2, suggesting that the lifetime is one of the key factors for the different photosensitivities observed for phot1 and phot2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.406512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510800PMC
November 2012

Phytochrome Kinase Substrate 4 is phosphorylated by the phototropin 1 photoreceptor.

EMBO J 2012 Aug 10;31(16):3457-67. Epub 2012 Jul 10.

Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Phototropism allows plants to redirect their growth towards the light to optimize photosynthesis under reduced light conditions. Phototropin 1 (phot1) is the primary low blue light-sensing receptor triggering phototropism in Arabidopsis. Light-induced autophosphorylation of phot1, an AGC-class protein kinase, constitutes an essential step for phototropism. However, apart from the receptor itself, substrates of phot1 kinase activity are less clearly established. Phototropism is also influenced by the cryptochromes and phytochromes photoreceptors that do not provide directional information but influence the process through incompletely characterized mechanisms. Here, we show that Phytochrome Kinase Substrate 4 (PKS4), a known element of phot1 signalling, is a substrate of phot1 kinase activity in vitro that is phosphorylated in a phot1-dependent manner in vivo. PKS4 phosphorylation is transient and regulated by a type 2-protein phosphatase. Moreover, phytochromes repress the accumulation of the light-induced phosphorylated form of PKS4 showing a convergence of photoreceptor activity on this signalling element. Our physiological analyses suggest that PKS4 phosphorylation is not essential for phototropism but is part of a negative feedback mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2012.186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3419926PMC
August 2012

Time-resolved tracking of interprotein signal transduction: Synechocystis PixD-PixE complex as a sensor of light intensity.

J Am Chem Soc 2012 May 11;134(20):8336-9. Epub 2012 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Japan.

PixD (Slr1694) is a blue light receptor that contains a BLUF (blue light sensors using a flavin chromophore) domain. A protein-protein interaction between PixD and a response regulator PixE (Slr1693) is essential to achieve light signal transduction for phototaxis of the species. Although the initial photochemical reaction of PixD, the red shift of the flavin absorption spectrum, has been investigated, the subsequent reaction dynamics remain largely unresolved. Only the disassembly of the PixD(10)-PixE(5) dark complex has been characterized by static size exclusion chromatography. In this report, interprotein reaction dynamics were examined using time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy. The dissociation process was clearly observed as the light-induced diffusion coefficient change in the time domain, and the kinetics was determined. More strikingly, disassembly was found to take place only after photoactivation of two PixD subunits in the complex. This result suggests that the biological response of PixD does not follow a linear correlation with the light intensity but appears to be light-intensity-dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja301540rDOI Listing
May 2012

Mutations in N-terminal flanking region of blue light-sensing light-oxygen and voltage 2 (LOV2) domain disrupt its repressive activity on kinase domain in the Chlamydomonas phototropin.

J Biol Chem 2012 Mar 30;287(13):9901-9909. Epub 2012 Jan 30.

Department of Botany, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan,. Electronic address:

Phototropin is a light-regulated kinase that mediates a variety of photoresponses such as phototropism, chloroplast positioning, and stomata opening in plants to increase the photosynthetic efficiency. Blue light stimulus first induces local conformational changes in the chromophore-bearing light-oxygen and voltage 2 (LOV2) domain of phototropin, which in turn activates the serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinase domain in the C terminus. To examine the kinase activity of full-length phototropin conventionally, we employed the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this organism, Ser/Thr kinases (Fpk1p and Fpk2p) that show high sequence similarity to the kinase domain of phototropins exist. First, we demonstrated that the phototropin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrPHOT) could complement loss of Fpk1p and Fpk2p to allow cell growth in yeast. Furthermore, this reaction was blue light-dependent, indicating that CrPHOT was indeed light-activated in yeast cells. We applied this system to a large scale screening for amino acid substitutions in CrPHOT that elevated the kinase activity in darkness. Consequently, we identified a cluster of mutations located in the N-terminal flanking region of LOV2 (R199C, L202L, D203N/G/V, L204P, T207I, and R210H). An in vitro phosphorylation assay confirmed that these mutations substantially reduced the repressive activity of LOV2 on the kinase domain in darkness. Furthermore, biochemical analyses of the representative T207I mutant demonstrated that the mutation affected neither spectral nor multimerization properties of CrPHOT. Hence, the N-terminal flanking region of LOV2, as is the case with the C-terminal flanking Jα region, appears to play a crucial role in the regulation of kinase activity in phototropin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.324723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3322977PMC
March 2012

Light-induced structural changes of the LOV2 domains in various phototropins revealed by FTIR spectroscopy.

Biophysics (Nagoya-shi) 2011 9;7:89-98. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan.

Phototropin (Phot), a blue-light photoreceptor in plants, consists of two FMN-binding domains (named LOV1 and LOV2) and a serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinase domain. We have investigated light-induced structural changes of LOV domains, which lead to the activation of the kinase domain, by means of light-induced difference FTIR spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the reactive cysteine is protonated in both unphotolyzed and triplet-excited states, which is difficult to detect by other methods such as X-ray crystallography. In this review, we describe the light-induced structural changes of hydrogen-bonding environment of FMN chromophore and protein backbone in neo1-LOV2 in the C=O stretching region by use of C-labeled samples. We also describe the comprehensive FTIR analysis of LOV2 domains among phot1, phot2, and neo1 with and without Jα helix domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2142/biophysics.7.89DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5036776PMC
November 2011

LOV2-linker-kinase phosphorylates LOV1-containing N-terminal polypeptide substrate via photoreaction of LOV2 in Arabidopsis phototropin1.

FEBS Lett 2011 Nov 10;585(21):3391-5. Epub 2011 Oct 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.

Phototropin is a blue light receptor in plants and is thought to be a light-regulated protein kinase. Previously, we defined the role of the photoreceptive domains, LOV1 and 2, in the light activation of the kinase in Arabidopsis phototropin2 (phot2). In this study, photoregulation of the kinase in phototropin1 (phot1) was studied using LOV2-linker-kinase polypeptide. We designed a new substrate consisting of the N-terminal part of the phot1 with autophosphorylation sites. The LOV2-linker-kinase had the same spectroscopic properties as those of the LOV2 core and phosphorylated the substrate in a light-dependent manner. Amino acid substitution experiments proved that the phosphorylation comes from the activation of the kinase via photoreaction of LOV2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2011.10.003DOI Listing
November 2011

Light-induced conformational change and transient dissociation reaction of the BLUF photoreceptor Synechocystis PixD (Slr1694).

J Mol Biol 2011 Jun 21;409(5):773-85. Epub 2011 Apr 21.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

The light-induced reaction of the BLUF (blue light photoreceptor using flavin adenine dinucleotide) photoreceptor PixD from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Slr1694) was investigated using the time-resolved transient grating method. A conformational change coupled with a volume contraction of 13 mL mol(-1) was observed with a time constant of 45 ms following photoexcitation. At a weak excitation light intensity, there were no further changes in volume and diffusion coefficient (D). The determined D-value (3.7×10(-11) m(2) s(-1)) suggests that PixD exists as a decamer in solution, and this oligomeric state was confirmed by size-exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Surprisingly, by increasing the excitation laser power, we observed a large increase in D with a time constant of 350 ms following the volume contraction reaction. The D-value of this photoproduct species (7.5×10(-11) m(2) s(-1)) is close to that of the PixD dimer. Combined with transient grating and size-exclusion chromatography measurements under light-illuminated conditions, the light-induced increase in D was attributed to a transient dissociation reaction of the PixD decamer to a dimer. For the M93A-mutated PixD, no volume or D-change was observed. Furthermore, we showed that the M93A mutant did not form the decamer but only the dimer in the dark state. These results indicate that the formation of the decamer and the conformational change around the Met residue are important factors that control the regulation of the downstream signal transduction by the PixD photoreceptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2011.04.032DOI Listing
June 2011

A way to sense light intensity: Multiple-excitation of the BLUF photoreceptor TePixD suppresses conformational change.

FEBS Lett 2011 Mar 22;585(5):786-90. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

TePixD, a cyanobacterial sensor of blue light using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (BLUF) which exists in a decamer form, was found to exhibit photoreaction sensitive to light intensity. While the number of excited molecules increased monotonically as the laser power increased, the number of decamers exhibiting a global conformational change initially increased, and then decreased with the increase of excitation intensity. This unusual power dependence was analyzed based on a Poisson distribution equation, demonstrating that decamers containing more than one excited monomer subunit do not undergo conformational change. Our results suggest that TePixD functions not only as a photosensor, but also by sensing light intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2011.02.003DOI Listing
March 2011
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