Publications by authors named "Satomi Adegawa"

13 Publications

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The base and root of domain II loops of Cry toxins contribute to binding to Bombyx mori ABC transporter C2.

FEBS J 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Japan.

Little information is available regarding the region of Cry toxins involved in binding to their major receptors, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We analyzed which Cry1Aa amino acid residues contribute to binding to Bombyx mori ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2). Several two oxidized double-cysteine substitution mutant toxins were made. In these, two amino acids at distant positions on toxin loop α8 and loop 2 or loop 2 and loop 3 were substituted with cysteine residues and crosslinked. These mutants exhibited a marked reduction in binding affinity to BmABCC2, suggesting that the binding site comprises complex cavities formed by loops α8, 2, and 3. Loop swapping between Cry1Aa and other BmABCC2-incompatible toxins indicated that loop 2 acts as a binding affinity-generating part of Cry1Aa toxin. Using single amino acid substitution mutants, the results of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis and response assays with BmABCC2-expressing Sf9 cells indicated that Y366, R367, R368, and L447 in the Cry1Aa root and base region of loops 2 and 3 play important roles in binding. Furthermore, SPR analyses of these mutants suggested that a two-state binding model fits best the data obtained. Moreover, complex cavities and the above-mentioned amino acid residues contribute to the generation of multiple binding points and high-affinity binding. Finally, we found that the binding site of B. mori cadherin-like protein consists of complex cavities comprising loops 1, 2, and 3, partially overlapping that of BmABCC2, suggesting that the loop region of Cry1Aa toxin acts as a promiscuous binding site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.16224DOI Listing
October 2021

ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C members 2, 3 and cadherin protein are susceptibility-determining factors in Bombyx mori for multiple Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2021 12 22;139:103649. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan. Electronic address:

Field-evolved resistance of insect pests to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins (Cry toxins) is a threat to the efficacy of Bt-based bio-insecticides and transgenic crops. Recent reports have suggested that ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2 (ABCC2) and cadherin-like receptor play important roles in conferring susceptibility to Cry1 toxins. However, the receptors involved in Bt susceptibility in each insect remain unclear. To determine the receptors that are involved in the susceptibility of Bombyx mori to Cry1 toxins (1Ab, 1Ac and 1Fa), we conducted diet overlay bioassay using B. mori strains disrupted with one or two receptor (s) among BmABCC2, BmABCC3, and cadherin-like receptor (BtR175) generated by transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated gene editing. The single-knockout strains for BmABCC2 showed resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, whereas only strains with double knockout of BmABCC2 and BmABCC3 exhibited high resistance to Cry1Fa. Progeny populations generated from the crossing of heterozygotes for BtR175 knockout allele included 25% theoretical homozygotes for the BtR175 knockout allele and they showed resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Then, through a cell swelling assay using Sf9 cells ectopically expressing the receptor, we analyzed the mechanisms underlying the different contributions of BmABCC2, BmABCC3, and BtR175 to larval susceptibility. The receptor activity of BmABCC2 for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was far higher than that of BmABCC3, and BtR175 synergistically enhanced the receptor activity of BmABCC2. This result well explained the important involvement of BmABCC2 and BtR175 in the larval susceptibility to Cry1A toxins. By contrast, the receptor activities of BmABCC2 and BmABCC3 for Cry1Fa were observed at a similar level and synergistic effect of BtR175 was small. This finding explains the equal importance of BmABCC2 and BmABCC3 and very small contribution of BtR175 on larval susceptibility to Cry1Fa. Thus, we demonstrated the different importance of BmABCC2, BmABCC3, and BtR175 to various Cry1 toxins as susceptibility-determining factors in B. mori larvae and the underlying basis for the observed differences. Furthermore, a weak correlation was indicated between the binding affinity and receptor activities of BmABCC2 and BmABCC3 to Cry1 toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2021.103649DOI Listing
December 2021

ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 2 is a Functional Receptor for Cry2A Toxins in , but not for Cry1A, Cry1C, Cry1D, Cry1F, or Cry9A Toxins.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 02 6;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan.

Cry toxins are insecticidal proteins produced by (Bt). They are used commercially to control insect pests since they are very active in specific insects and are harmless to the environment and human health. The gene encoding ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 2 (ABCA2) was identified in an analysis of Cry2A toxin resistance genes. However, we do not have direct evidence for the role of ABCA2 for Cry2A toxins or why Cry2A toxin resistance does not cross to other Cry toxins. Therefore, we performed two experiments. First, we edited the sequence in using transcription activator-like effector-nucleases (TALENs) and confirmed the susceptibility-determining ability in a diet overlay bioassay. Strains with C-terminal half-deleted BmABCA2 showed strong and specific resistance to Cry2A toxins; even strains carrying a deletion of 1 to 3 amino acids showed resistance. However, the C-terminal half-deleted strains did not show cross-resistance to other toxins. Second, we conducted a cell swelling assay and confirmed the specific ability of BmABCA2 to Cry2A toxins in HEK239 cells. Those demonstrated that BmABCA2 is a functional receptor for Cry2A toxins and that BmABCA2 deficiency-dependent Cry2A resistance does not confer cross-resistance to Cry1A, Cry1F, Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, or Cry9Aa toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076765PMC
February 2020

Function and Role of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters as Receptors for 3D-Cry Toxins.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 02 19;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Naka 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan.

When ABC transporter family C2 (ABCC2) and ABC transporter family B1 (ABCB1) were heterologously expressed in non-susceptible cultured cells, the cells swelled in response to Cry1A and Cry3 toxins, respectively. Consistent with the notion that 3D-Cry toxins form cation-permeable pores, ABCC2 (BmABCC2) facilitated cation-permeable pore formation by Cry1A when expressed in oocytes. Furthermore, BmABCC2 had a high binding affinity () to Cry1Aa of 3.1 × 10 M. These findings suggest that ABC transporters, including ABCC2 and ABCB1, are functional receptors for 3D-Cry toxins. In addition, the Cry2 toxins most distant from Cry1A toxins on the phylogenetic tree used ABC transporter A2 as a receptor. These data suggest that 3D-Cry toxins use ABC transporters as receptors. In terms of inducing cell swelling, ABCC2 has greater activity than cadherin-like receptor. The pore opening of ABC transporters was hypothesized to be linked to their receptor function, but this was repudiated by experiments using mutants deficient in export activity. The synergistic relationship between ABCC2 and cadherin-like receptor explains their ability to cause resistance in one species of insect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409751PMC
February 2019

Glucose, some amino acids and a plant secondary metabolite, chlorogenic acid induce the secretion of a regulatory hormone, tachykinin-related peptide, from the silkworm midgut.

Peptides 2018 08 19;106:21-27. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

Enteroendocrine cells in the insect midgut are thought to secrete peptide hormones in response to the nutritional state. However, the role of dietary compounds in inducing peptide hormone secretion from enteroendocrine cells in insects remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that several dietary compounds from mulberry leaves, including glucose, amino acids, and the secondary metabolite chlorogenic acid, induced significant secretion of tachykinin-related peptides from isolated silkworm midguts at the luminal concentrations measured in fed larvae. This study provides evidence that the insect midgut senses a non-nutritious secondary metabolite in addition to nutrient metabolites to monitor luminal food status and secretes a feeding regulatory hormone, suggesting that a unique dietary sensory system modulates insect feeding via enteroendocrine control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2018.06.004DOI Listing
August 2018

Extracellular loop structures in silkworm ABCC transporters determine their specificities for Cry toxins.

J Biol Chem 2018 06 17;293(22):8569-8577. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

From the Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan and

Cry toxins are insecticidal proteins used widely for pest control. They are lethal to a restricted range of insects via specific interactions with insect receptors such as the ABC transporter subfamily members C2 (ABCC2) and C3 (ABCC3). However, it is still unclear how these different receptors contribute to insect susceptibility to Cry1A toxins. Here, we investigated the differences between the silkworm () ABCC2 (BmABCC2_S) and ABCC3 (BmABCC3) receptors in mediating Cry toxicity. Compared with BmABCC2_S, BmABCC3 exhibited 80- and 267-fold lower binding affinities to Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab, respectively, and these decreased affinities correlated well with the lower receptor activities of BmABCC3 for these Cry1A toxins. To identify the amino acid residues responsible for these differences, we constructed BmABCC3 variants containing a partial amino acid replacement with extracellular loops (ECLs) from BmABCC2_S. Replacing three amino acids from ECL 1 or 3 increased BmABCC3 activity toward Cry1Aa and enabled its activity toward Cry1Ab. Meanwhile, BmABCC2_S and BmABCC3 exhibited no receptor activities for Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, and Cry3Bb, correlating with markedly lower binding affinities for these Cry toxins. ABCC2 from a Cry1Ab-resistant strain (BmABCC2_R), which has a tyrosine insertion in ECL 2, displayed 93-fold lower binding affinity to Cry1Ab compared with BmABCC2_S but maintained high binding affinity to Cry1Aa. These results indicate that the Cry toxin-binding affinities of ABCC transporters are largely linked to the level of Cry susceptibility of ABCC-expressing cells and that the ABCC ECL structures determine the specificities to Cry toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.001761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986200PMC
June 2018

Insect taste receptors relevant to host identification by recognition of secondary metabolite patterns of non-host plants.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 05 7;499(4):901-906. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo, 184-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

The taste sensing system is crucial for food recognition in insects and other animals. It is commonly believed that insect gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in gustatory organs are indispensable for host plant selection. Many behavioral studies have shown that mono- or oligo-phagous lepidopteran insects use the balance between feeding attractants and feeding deterrents in host plants and that these are sensed by taste organs for host plant recognition. However, the molecular mechanism underlying taste recognition, especially of feeding deterrents, remains to be elucidated. To better understand this mechanism, we studied orphan Grs, including Bombyx mori Gr (BmGr) 16, BmGr18, and BmGr53, from the mono-phagous insect, Bombyx mori. Using Calcium imaging in mammalian cells, we first confirmed in lepidoptera insects that three of the putative bitter Grs widely responded to structurally different feeding deterrents. Although the phylogenetic distance of these Grs was considerable, they responded to partially overlapping deterrents of plant secondary metabolites. These findings suggest that not only these three Grs but also most of the Grs that have been assigned to putative bitter Grs are feeding-deterrent receptors that play a role in host plant recognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.04.014DOI Listing
May 2018

The intracellular region of silkworm cadherin-like protein is not necessary to mediate the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab toxins.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2018 03 6;94:36-41. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

The cadherin-like protein in lepidopteran insects, known as a receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins, is a single-pass membrane protein that can be divided into extracellular and intracellular regions. The extracellular region is important for toxin binding and oligomerization, whereas the role of the intracellular region during Cry1A intoxication is unclear. In the present study, we generated a deletion mutant of Bombyx mori cadherin-like protein (BtR175) that lacked the intracellular region to investigate its role in mediating Cry1A toxicity. Like wild-type BtR175, the mutant protein conferred susceptibility to Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab toxins in Sf9 cells, suggesting that the intracellular region is not required to mediate intoxication. The deletion mutant maintained another role of cadherin-like proteins; that it, synergistic activity with B. mori ABC transporter C2 (ABCC2) when mediating Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab toxicity. In addition, we evaluated the effects of reagents that have been reported to inhibit Cry1A toxicity (e.g., protein kinase A inhibitors, EDTA, and sucrose) on Cry1A toxicity in BtR175-expressing cells. Our results suggest that Cry1Aa-induced cell death in BtR175-expressing cells was not caused by signal transduction but by osmotic lysis. Overall, our data indicate that BtR175 mediates the toxicity of Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab toxins entirely via its extracellular region. They also indicate that the synergism between cadherin-like protein and ABCC2 occurs outside of cells or in the cell membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2018.01.005DOI Listing
March 2018

Bombyx mori ABC transporter C2 structures responsible for the receptor function of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2017 12 8;91:44-54. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Naka 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

Because Bombyx mori ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2) has 1000-fold higher potential than B. mori cadherin-like protein as a receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin (Tanaka et al., 2013), the gate-opening ability of the latent pore under six extracellular loops (ECLs) of BmABCC2 was expected to be the reason for its higher potential (Heckel, 2012). In this study, cell swelling assays in Sf9 cells showed that BmABCC2 mutants lacking substrate-excreting activity retained receptor activity, indicating that the gate-opening activity of BmABCC2 is not responsible for Cry1Aa toxicity. The analysis of 29 BmABCC2 mutants demonstrated that DYWL of ECL 4 comprise a putative binding site to Cry1Aa. This suggests that specific toxicity of Cry1Aa toxin to a restricted range of lepidopteran insects is dependent on conservation and variation in the amino acid residues around DYWL of ECL 4 in the ABCC2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2017.11.002DOI Listing
December 2017

Cry toxin specificities of insect ABCC transporters closely related to lepidopteran ABCC2 transporters.

Peptides 2017 Dec 14;98:86-92. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

In this study, we examined insect and human ABCC transporters closely related to the lepidopteran ABC transporter C2 (ABCC2), a powerful receptor for the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin, for their responses to various Cry toxins. ABCC2 and the lepidopteran ABC transporter C3 (ABCC3) conferred cultured cells with susceptibility to a lepidopteran-specific Cry1Aa toxin but not to lepidopteran-specific Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. One coleopteran ABCC transporter specifically responded to a coleopteran-specific Cry8Ca toxin. ABCC transporters from a dipteran insect and humans did not respond to any of the tested Cry toxins that are active to lepidopteran and coleopteran insects. These results yield important information for our understanding of insect specificity of Cry toxins and provide the first demonstration of a coleopteran ABCC transporter that serves as a Cry toxin receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2017.04.003DOI Listing
December 2017

Water influx via aquaporin directly determines necrotic cell death induced by the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin.

FEBS Lett 2017 Jan 20;591(1):56-64. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Japan.

The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin causes swelling and necrosis in insect cells, but the route(s) and significance of the water influx involved in its cytotoxicity are unclear. Here, we assessed the role of aquaporins (AQPs), known as water channels, in Cry toxin intoxication. An AQP inhibitor did not interfere with any known process to form the toxin pore, but it diminished the cell swelling and loss of membrane integrity induced by the Cry toxin. Overexpression of AQPs facilitated water influx and cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate that water influx via aquaporin directly determines necrotic cell death induced by the Cry toxin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.12506DOI Listing
January 2017

The domain II loops of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa form an overlapping interaction site for two Bombyx mori larvae functional receptors, ABC transporter C2 and cadherin-like receptor.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2017 Feb 23;1865(2):220-231. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan. Electronic address:

Information about the receptor-interaction region of Cry toxins, insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, is needed to elucidate the mode of action of Cry toxins and improve their toxicity through protein engineering. We analyzed the interaction sites on Cry1Aa with ABC transporter C2 (ABCC2), one of the most important Cry1A toxin receptors. A competitive binding assay revealed that the Bombyx mori ABCC2 (BmABCC2) Cry1A binding site was the same as the BtR175 binding site, suggesting that the loop region of Cry1Aa domain II is a binding site. Next, we constructed several domain II loop mutant toxins and tested their binding affinity in an SPR analysis, and also performed a cell swelling assay to evaluate receptor-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that the loop regions required for BtR175 and BmABCC2 binding and the regions important for cytotoxicity partially overlap. Our results also suggest that receptor binding is necessary but not sufficient for cytotoxicity. This is the first report showing the region of interaction between ABCC2 and Cry1Aa and the cytotoxicity-relevant properties of the Cry1Aa domain II loop region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2016.11.011DOI Listing
February 2017

Functional characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin receptors explains resistance in insects.

FEBS J 2016 12 29;283(24):4474-4490. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan.

Bacillus thuringiensis produces Cry toxins, which are used as insecticides in sprays and in transgenic crops. However, little is known about the function of Cry toxin receptors and the mechanisms that determine their binding specificity and activity. In this study, the cRNAs of Bombyx mori ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2), the toxin-binding region of cadherin-like receptor (BtR175-TBR), or aminopeptidase N1 (BmAPN1) were injected into Xenopus oocytes, and the Cry1Aa-dependent cation-selective pore formation activities of these receptors were analyzed using a two-electrode voltage clamp. Cation current passing through the pores was detected within 25 s, and increased in a linear fashion in BmABCC2-expressing oocytes treated with 88 nm Cry1Aa. This result suggested that Cry1Aa continuously made stable pores with the help of BmABCC2. In contrast, no cation current was observed until 60 min after incubation with 500 nm Cry1Aa in BtR175TBR-expressing oocytes even though oligomerization of Cry1Aa progressed. This result indicated that in the presence of BtR175-TBR most of the oligomerized toxin could not enter the cell membrane. However, oocytes that simultaneously expressed both receptors demonstrated that BtR175-TBR exerted a synergistic effect with BmABCC2 on pore formation in the presence of 22 nm Cry1Aa. These results confirm that the main reason for moderate-level resistance in insects lacking the cadherin-like receptor but expressing ABCC2 is the absence of a similar synergistic promotion of toxin oligomerization. Similar to results from our previous report evaluating ectopic expression in the Sf9/Baculovirus system, BmAPN1 could not by itself cause Cry1A-related pore formation, despite the fact that BmAPN1 gathered toxin on the oocytes as well as BmABCC2 did.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.13952DOI Listing
December 2016
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