Publications by authors named "Sarita Kumari"

57 Publications

Can Subacute Thyroiditis Be a Cause of Fever of Unknown Origin?

Cureus 2021 Jul 15;13(7):e16399. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Internal Medicine, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, IND.

Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a self-limiting, painful, non-suppurative thyroid gland inflammation, which usually develops two to eight weeks after viral upper respiratory tract infections, accompanied by pain and fever. The thyroid gland is large, painful, and tender. It presents with fever, myalgia, arthralgia, weakness, and sore throat. A 37-year-old male presented to medical ward with a history of fever for three weeks along with swelling of neck and difficulty in swallowing. The patient had features of hyperthyroidism. High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUSG) and thyroid scan were suggestive of thyroiditis. Later on, on follow-up, the patient developed hypothyroidism. He was managed with antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and glucocorticoids, and he responded well to the above treatment. The index patient presented as a case of fever which on workup was found to be secondary to subacute thyroiditis (SAT).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.16399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362865PMC
July 2021

Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Pregnancy in Women With Autoimmune Disorder.

Cureus 2021 Jun 29;13(6):e16024. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IND.

Objective Pregnancy with an autoimmune disorder is faced with several risks for mother and fetus. The aim of the present study is to analyze the course and outcome of pregnancy in women with autoimmune disorders (AIDs). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital. The hospital records of 153 pregnancies with autoimmune disorders and 1095 low-risk pregnant women who served as controls were reviewed. An adverse perinatal outcome was defined as the presence of any obstetric complications, including preeclampsia, eclampsia, abruption, antepartum hemorrhage (APH), prematurity, fetal growth restriction (FGR), intrauterine death (IUD), intrapartum event, mode of delivery, birth weight, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay, or disease-specific neonatal complications. For all statistical tests with two-tailed probability, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A high incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes was observed in all women with AIDs when compared with age-matched controls. The highest incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes was observed in women with Takayasu's arteritis. The incidence of abortions was more in women with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and Grave's disease (22.2% and 33.3%, respectively). The incidence of prematurity, fetal growth restriction (FGR), and low birth weight were highest in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Pregnancy with myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis did not have any significant adverse impact on pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion We found a strong association between autoimmune disorders and obstetric complications. The multidisciplinary team approach and pre-pregnancy optimization of the disease improve maternal and fetal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.16024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320712PMC
June 2021

Molecular Associations and Clinical Significance of RAPs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 21;8:677979. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Laboratory Oncology Unit, Dr. BRA-IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive gastrointestinal malignancy with a high rate of mortality. Multiple studies have individually recognized members of RAP gene family as critical regulators of tumor progression in several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. These studies suffer numerous limitations including a small sample size and lack of analysis of various clinicopathological and molecular features. In the current study, we utilized authoritative multi-omics databases to determine the association of RAP gene family expression and detailed molecular and clinicopathological features in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). All five RAP genes were observed to harbor dysregulated expression in HCC compared to normal liver tissues. RAP2A exhibited strongest ability to differentiate tumors from the normal tissues. RAP2A expression was associated with progressive tumor grade, and mutation status. Additionally, RAP2A expression was associated with the alteration of its copy numbers and DNA methylation. RAP2A also emerged as an independent marker for patient prognosis. Further, pathway analysis revealed that RAP2A expression is correlated with tumor-infiltrating immune cell composition and oncogenic molecular pathways, such as cell cycle and cellular metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.677979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255377PMC
June 2021

Cervical Cancer Prevention Efforts in India.

Indian J Gynecol Oncol 2021 2;19(3):41. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Gynaecologic Oncology, Cancer Institute (WIA) Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600020 India.

Purpose: Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers among women in India. Its prevention and control require a concerted effort to improve awareness among women regarding primary and secondary prevention strategies as well as access to care for treatment and palliation. A focused strategy is important to reach the World Health Organization's targets for cervical cancer elimination, due to be completed by 2030.

Methods: Currently available literature was reviewed regarding cervical cancer prevention strategies in India including various national programmes and other initiatives on the part of government, non-governmental organizations and professional organizations. Their applicability to the present situation was assessed.

Results: National programmes need to build on success stories of various states and neighbouring countries as well as to audit the performance. Strengthening of cancer registries and improvement of linkages between different healthcare levels with incorporation of task-shifting, adding digital technology and supporting programmes that promote women's welfare and health will also provide synergy to cancer control programmes. In the current pandemic era, HPV self-sampling can be an ideal method for screening. The development of an affordable, point-of-care HPV test is urgently needed to facilitate its introduction in low- and middle-income countries. HPV vaccination efforts need to be speeded up.

Conclusion: Scaling up of cervical cancer prevention with inclusion of widespread HPV vaccination and primary HPV test should be the new standard of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40944-021-00526-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170054PMC
June 2021

Extrarenal rhabdoid tumour of the vulva: diagnostic and management challenges.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 2;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Extrarenal rhabdoid tumour (ERT) of vulva is a rare gynaecological neoplasm with an aggressive course and no clear management guidelines. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman with a rapidly increasing mass in right vulva suggestive of sarcoma. Wide local excision was done. Histopathology examination revealed ERT of vulva. Six weeks later she manifested lung metastases. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy, the disease progressed and she died 8 months later. We review the literature and briefly discuss the epidemiology, treatment approaches, prognostic factors and expected outcomes of this rare disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-242271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174509PMC
June 2021

Oncologic and reproductive outcomes of borderline ovarian tumors in Indian population.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2021 May 23;36:100756. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Borderline ovarian tumor (BOT) is characterized by atypical epithelial proliferation without stromal invasion and majority are diagnosed at early stages and in women of reproductive age group. A retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed with BOT and on regular follow up at All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, during a five-year study period from March 2014 to March 2019 was performed. Surgical treatment was classified as radical, fertility sparing surgery (FSS) or cystectomy. Surgical staging was defined as complete, partial or unstaged. Median age of seventy-five women was 32 years. Follow up period ranged from 22 to 61 months (median 36 m). Radical surgery was done in 34 (45.3%), FSS in 32 (42.6%) and cystectomy in 9 (12.0%) women. Complete surgical staging was performed in 22 (29.3%), partial staging in 23 (30.6%) and 30 (40%) were unstaged. During the follow up period, 98.7% patients were alive and 90.7% were free of recurrence. Median time to recurrence was 35 months. Recurrence rate was 33.3% in cystectomy vs 6.2% in oophorectomy (p = 0.03). All seven recurrences were in unstaged (six) or partially staged patient (one). Six recurrences in ovary were salvaged by surgery and recurrent disease was of borderline histology. Spontaneous conception and live birth rate was 42.1%. FSS is a safe procedure and should be considered in a young patient with early stage disease and desirous of future fertility. Spontaneous conception and live birth rates after fertility sparing surgery in patients with BOT are modest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2021.100756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050374PMC
May 2021

Understanding of Stigmatization and Death Amid COVID-19 in India: A Sociological Exploration.

Authors:
Sarita Kumari

Omega (Westport) 2021 Apr 22:302228211008753. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Sociology, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

The unanticipated outbreak of Coronavirus had proven detrimental to human existence. It had created waves of panic, anxiety, and fear among people hence facilitating stigmatization toward an infected person. This stigmatization further influences patients health-seeking behaviour due to the trust deficit in the public health system. The virus had placed the world in an impotent situation as people helplessly watched their loved ones pass away in the absence of effective treatment. Dead bodies are denied a dignified death due to mandatory guidelines prescribed by countries to control the pandemic. This article attempts to understand the process of stigmatization of Coronavirus and its mechanism of influencing the health-seeking behaviour of people. Moreover, the way this stigmatization, accompanied by fear and anxiety, led to the denial of having a dignified death in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00302228211008753DOI Listing
April 2021

Physio-biochemical responses of wheat plant towards salicylic acid-chitosan nanoparticles.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 15;162:699-705. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan, 313 001, India. Electronic address:

Sustained source-activity is imperative for vigor plant growth and yield. In present study, physio-biochemical responses of wheat plant contributing to source-activity were measured after application of salicylic acid-chitosan nanoparticles (SA-CS NPs). SA-CS NPs slowly release SA for sustained availability to plant. In seedling bioassay, as compared with salicylic acid (SA), SA-CS NPs incurred up to ~1.5 folds increased activities of seed reserve food remobilizing enzymes for substantial mobilization of reserve food to growing seedlings and enhanced seedling vigor index (SVI) by 1.6 folds. At booting stage, foliar application of SA-CS NPs (0.01-0.08%; w/v) enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (1.94 folds), catalase (1.33 folds), peroxidase (1.99 folds) and polyphenol oxidase (1.04 folds) in flag leaf. SA-CS NPs further contrived cellular homeostasis by comforting reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents in flag leaf. SA-CS NPs (0.08%; w/v) significantly increased chlorophylls (a-b) contents (1.46 folds), spike length without awns, spike lets per spike and grain weight per pot as compared with SA. Study categorically explicates that slow release of SA from SA-CS NPs could exert significant effect on source-activity by maneuvering various physio-biochemical responses of wheat plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.03.021DOI Listing
May 2021

A descriptive audit of healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 at a tertiary care center in India.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Jun 18;153(3):393-397. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objective: To provide a descriptive audit of healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to COVID-19, and their contacts, to understand the dynamics of transmission among HCWs.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of contact tracing data of infected HCWs was done from March 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020 at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Contacts were categorized according to the nature of contact and followed for 14 days.

Results: Qualitative RT-PCR testing was performed on 106 HCWs (from a total of 257) owing to exposure or development of symptoms. Positive results were found in 16 HCWs (6.2%) who were exposed to 120 other HCWs, generating 197 exposure incidents. Of these, 30 (15.2%) exposure incidents were high risk with multiple exposures in 48 (40.0%) HCWs. Exposure to infected HCWs was noted in 3 (18.8%) of 16 positive cases. Of the 197 exposure incidents, 54 (27.4%) were deemed avoidable exposures. Infection prevention and control policies were periodically reviewed, and the department implemented mitigating steps to minimize the risk to healthcare providers.

Conclusion: Instituting appropriate infection prevention and control policies and use of adequate precautions by HCWs is vital to minimize high-risk exposure to COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13691DOI Listing
June 2021

Prognostic Relevance of Expression of , , and Genes in Pediatric B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:606370. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Laboratory Oncology Unit, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar-Insitute Rotary Cancer Hospital (BRAIRCH), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India.

Glucocorticoid (GC), such as prednisolone, is an essential component of multidrug chemotherapy regimen for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Resistance to GC in leukemia cells is associated with disease progression and poor prognosis. Despite the extensive use of GC for many years, molecular mechanisms underlying its resistance in ALL have not been fully uncovered. Recent studies have shown a potential role of , , and genes in prednisolone response. In this study on 148 pediatric B-ALL patients, we studied these three genes to assess their association with prednisolone response measured by day 8 blast count after 7 days of induction therapy with prednisolone. Intriguingly, ALL samples exhibited higher expression of along with a low expression of and compared to disease free normal bone marrow collected from patients with solid tumors. Among the three analyzed genes, only was found to be overexpressed in prednisolone poor responders (p=0.015). Further, a comparison of gene expression between cytogenetic subtypes revealed higher expression of in BCR-ABL subtype. Expression of in multiple gene expression datasets was used for gene set enrichment analysis, which revealed TNF-α, IL-2-STAT5 signaling, inflammatory responses and hypoxia as the major positively associated pathways and E2F targets as negatively associated pathways. Interestingly, the clinical remission rate was higher in high patients (p=0.048). In univariate survival analysis, higher expression was associated with poor prognostic measures while higher expression of and was associated with better prognostic measures in our data. Further, multivariate analysis revealed an independent association of high and with a better prognosis. This study strengthens the available evidence that mRNA expression of , , and may serve as potential biomarkers for risk stratification of pediatric B-ALL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.606370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973229PMC
March 2021

On point identification of species origin of food animals by recombinase polymerase amplification-lateral flow (RPA-LF) assay targeting mitochondrial gene sequences.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Apr 16;58(4):1286-1294. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Division of Livestock Products Technology, GADVASU, Ludhiana, India.

The present study was aimed to develop and standardize Recombinase polymerase amplification-lateral flow (RPA-LF) assays for on point identification of species origin of food animals viz: cattle, buffalo and pig. Species specific RPA primers sets for cattle, buffalo and pig were designed by homology comparisons of the sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and d-loop region from common food species viz: cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig and chicken. The RPA assays for designed primers sets were optimized using the reaction components from Twist Amp basic kit and instructions in its manual. Endpoint detection of species specific amplified RPA products were made by gel electrophoresis and designed species specific RPA-LFA strips. The developed assays were evaluated for their specificity, diagnostic sensitivity, and validated on coded samples and binary meat admixtures with relative percentage of 20, 10, 5 & 1% target species. The developed RPA assays resulted in amplification of DNA template exclusively of cattle, buffalo and pig origin to product sizes of 294, 405 and 283 bp respectively. The diagnostic sensitivities of developed assays were up to 10 pg of genomic DNA and highly correlated with species specific PCR assays taken as gold standard. Developed species specific RPA assays also identified the target species in coded samples and binary meat admixture up to 1%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04637-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925745PMC
April 2021

Assessment of Radiation Exposure and Radioactivity from the Liquid Discharge in a Nuclear Medicine Facility.

Indian J Nucl Med 2020 Oct-Dec;35(4):321-325. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Aim: Radionuclide imaging and therapies produce radioactive liquid waste that may lead to significant radiation exposure to the general public. The study aims to assess the radiation exposure rate to public sewerage from a modified delay tank facility. We shall also evaluate the exposure rates and overall radioactivity at several points.

Materials And Methods: After having appropriate permission from the AERB, we measured the radiation exposure from the radionuclide therapy ward. Ward has three isolation beds and a single delay and decay tank of a capacity of 7500 liters. Effluents from the delay tank are processed at the filtration plant of the institute and subsequently released in the public sewerage. We obtained samples from several sites to determine discharged radioactivity.

Results: A total of 38 patients received 129.4 ± 42 mCi (Range 40- 200) radioiodine therapy during the study. Discharge of the tanks was done two times during the study. The radioactivity discharges into aeration plant were 89.2 and 71.2 mCi that correspond to 440.05 and 351 MBq/m3, respectively. This was diluted by the aeration tank (6 million liters). Finally, at the discharge time, the radioactivity in the discharge was 1.6 and 1.5 MBq/m3, respectively. The highest exposure rates were 14 μSv/h near the delay tank, which rapidly decreased on moving to the surrounding.

Conclusion: Our study indicates that the addition of the dilution method and close monitoring may significantly reduce the radiation exposure and overall radioactivity release from the facility. Old facilities that do not have space to add up the tank capacity may get a benefit from it. A small change in the practice, such as admitting patients alternate months or providing extra decay time for radioactive waste, may lead to a cost-effective alternative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnm.IJNM_113_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905285PMC
October 2020

Paper-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification and lateral flow (LAMP-LF) assay for identification of tissues of cattle origin.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Mar 20;1150:338220. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Livestock Products Technology, CVASc, DUVASU, Mathura, India. Electronic address:

The present study was made with the objectives of development and standardization of cattle specific paper-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification cum lateral flow assay (LAMP-LFA), as a Point-of-care test (POCT) for identification of tissue of cattle origin. The components of standardized LAMP reaction utilizing cattle specific primer sets were lyophilized over paper buttons, identified best as the carrier of LAMP reagents. Based on probable LAMP amplicon, a pair of probes was designed, tagged and its hybridization with the amplified product of paper LAMP reaction was optimized. The components of lateral flow assay for detection of probe hybridized LAMP products were standardized. Analysis of successful amplification was made by using HNB dye, LAMP-LFA strip, and also by the typical ladder-like pattern on gel electrophoresis. The assay was found highly specific for cattle with an analytical sensitivity of 0.1 pg of absolute DNA. Laboratory validation carried out on samples from different individuals of cattle, coded samples, binary meat admixture, and heat-processed cattle tissues substantiated the accuracy of the assay. Comparison with pre-standardized species-specific PCR assay taken as gold standards revealed 100% conformity. The field utility of the developed assay was further established by its compatibility with the commercial kit eliminating the lengthy DNA extraction step and storage stability of LAMP reagent carrier buttons for 4 months under refrigeration. Thus, the developed assay capable of the result within 3 h in resource-limited settings can be used as POCT for identification of tissue of cattle origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338220DOI Listing
March 2021

L-Selectin expression is associated with inflammatory microenvironment and favourable prognosis in breast cancer.

3 Biotech 2021 Feb 8;11(2):38. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Laboratory Oncology Unit, Dr. BRA-IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

L-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule that plays an important role in modulating immune cell trafficking. The expression of L-selectin has been found to be upregulated in several human cancers. However, the association of L-selectin expression with the immune profile and its prognostic value in breast cancer has not been explored in detail. We utilized TCGA and Oncomine datasets to compare (L-selectin gene) expression between tumor and normal breast tissues. The association of expression with its promoter DNA methylation and infiltrating immune cells was evaluated by using Wanderer, TIMER, and CIBERSORT tools. Single cell RNA sequencing data was utilised to determine the cell specific expression of L-selectin in breast cancer. Furthermore, the relationship between expression and patient survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier plotter. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed to determine functional associations of expression. We found that expression was significantly higher in breast tumors and regulated by DNA methylation. L-selectin exhibited a strong positive correlation with markers of the inflammatory microenvironment, including M1 macrophages. Interestingly, single cell sequencing data analysis revealed that B-cells and T-cells exhibited comparable expression levels of , suggesting both B-cells and T cells contribute to expression in breast cancer. Higher expression of was associated with better survival outcome in basal, Her2 + and luminal B subtypes of breast cancer. GSEA revealed association of expression with several immunological features in breast cancer. expression increases in breast tumor tissues with reduced DNA methylation and associated inflammatory microenvironment. Also, high expression is associated with favorable survival outcomes in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02549-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794266PMC
February 2021

Calculation of electronic and optical properties of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite for application in solar cell.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 17;28(20):25382-25389. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Natural and Applied Sciences, Glocal University, Saharanpur, 247232, India.

Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite materials, i.e., ABX (A = methylammonium, B = Pb, X = Cl, Br, I) have been proved to be outstanding for solar energy conversion. They provide a solution to renewable energy problems with good efficiency and cost-effective technology. Here, we report the initial calculations done by solving Kohn-Sham equations by the use of density function theory. The electronic structural and band gap of CHNHPbI material are obtained by using different exchange-correlation potential (PBE, PBE-sol, GGA). Further, solar cell devices with CHNHPbI as absorption layer and CdS/TiO/ZnTe as buffer layer have been modeled; device physics is discussed and performance of solar cell structure is analyzed in terms of short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, efficiency, fill factor, and quantum efficiency. The maximum efficiency of CHNHPbI solar cell is found to be 19.6% with TiO buffer layer, whereas efficiency with ZnTe buffer layer is also comparable which is 19.5%. Further the effect of layer thickness and temperature are analyzed for maximum efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12087-yDOI Listing
May 2021

Downregulation of Brain Enriched Type 2 MAGEs Is Associated With Immune Infiltration and Poor Prognosis in Glioma.

Front Oncol 2020 23;10:573378. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Melanoma associated antigen (MAGE) is an extensively studied family of tumor-associated genes that share a common MAGE homology domain (MHD). Based upon their expression pattern, MAGE genes have been broadly classified into type 1 MAGEs (T1Ms) and type 2 MAGEs (T2Ms) categories. Interestingly, several T2Ms are highly expressed in the brain and involved in the regulation of neuronal development, differentiation, and survival. Available literature suggests possible tumor suppressor functions of a few T2Ms, while information available about their expression, regulation, and clinical significance in glioma is scanty. This prompted us to perform a comprehensive analysis of T2M expression in glioma. Gene expression data from glioma datasets: Oncomine, TCGA, and REMBRANDT study, were used to assess the mRNA expression of T2M genes (, and ), and their association with clinical characteristics and composition of the tumor microenvironment. Further, mutation, copy number alteration, and DNA methylation data from TCGA were assessed for determining potential mechanisms of T2Ms expression in glioma. Expression analysis revealed overexpression of MAGED subfamily genes in glioma, while other genes of this family exhibited reduced expression in advanced grades of this malignancy. Further, the expression of T2Ms exhibited varying extent of positive correlations with each other. Amongst downregulated T2Ms, expression exhibited negative correlations with DNA methylation. Additionally, genes associated with were enriched in Myc and Hedgehog signaling. Furthermore, T2Ms downregulation was associated with immune infiltration in glioma tissues and poor overall survival of glioma patients. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, emerged as an independent prognosticator in lower grade glioma. Conclusively, these results suggest that expression of T2Ms is associated with important clinical and molecular features in glioma. Mechanistic studies may further provide novel insights into their role in glioma progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.573378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787151PMC
December 2020

Chitosan-silicon nanofertilizer to enhance plant growth and yield in maize (Zea mays L.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb 5;159:53-66. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, MO ,63130, USA.

We report a novel chitosan-silicon nanofertilizer (CS-Si NF) wherein chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) nano-matrix has been used to encapsulate silicon (Si) for its slow release. It was synthesied by ionic gelation method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The developed CS-Si NF exhibited slow release of Si and promoted gowth and yield in maize crop. Seeds primed with different concentrations of CS-Si NF (0.04-0.12%, w/v) exhibited up to 3.7 fold increased seedling vigour index (SVI) as compared with SiO. Its foliar spray significantly induced antioxidant-defence enzymes' activities and equilibrated cellular redox homeostasis by balancing O and HO content in leaf as compared with SiO. Application of nanofertilizer (0.01-0.16%, w/v) stirred total chlorophyll content (21.01-25.11 mg/g) and leaf area (159.34-166.96 cm) to expedite photosynthesis as compared with SiO. In field experiment, 0.08% CS-Si NF resulted in 43.4% higher yield/plot and 0.04% concentration gave 45% higher test weight as compared with SiO. Fecund and myriad effects of developed nanofertilizer over SiO could be attributed to slow/protective release of Si from nanofertilizer. Overall, results decipher the enormous potential of CS-Si NF for its use as a next generation nanofertilizer for sustainable agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.11.054DOI Listing
February 2021

expression, but not absence of bi-allelic deletion of TCR gamma chains (ABD), is a predictor of patient outcome in Indian T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Am J Blood Res 2020 15;10(5):294-304. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Laboratory Oncology Unit, Dr. BRAIRCH, AIIMS New Delhi, India.

Emerging evidence suggests existence of three prognostically relevant molecular entities among immature T-ALL-early thymic precursor ALL (ETP-ALL), T-ALL with the absence of biallelic deletion of TCRγ chains (ABD) and (Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C) high T-ALL. However, the usefulness of ETP-ALL immunophenotype and assessment of ABD for this purpose has been questioned and, has not been studied in much detail. In this prospective analysis of 143 T-ALL patients, we evaluated the mutual association of these three entities and also determined how immunophenotypically-defined poor prognosis immature T-ALL relates to these entities. We found that all three of them, especially ABD, nearly completely characterized the immature group. High expression reflected ETP-ALL somewhat poorly and a few ABD and -high patients had non-immature immunophenotype-findings, that though in accord with published literature, call for exploration per T-cell receptor (TCR) classification scheme. ETP-ALL and high but not ABD had a higher frequency of minimal residual disease positivity and poor event-free survival. high, not ETP-ALL immunophenotype or ABD, had poorer overall survival. The value of ETP-ALL immunophenotype and status, as indicators of poor treatment response, needs further evaluation for possible incorporation in standard T-ALL management practice.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675123PMC
October 2020

, Not Is an Independent Prognosticator in Colon Cancer.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 23;7:584053. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Classical Non-homologous End Joining (NHEJ) pathway is the mainstay of cellular response to DNA double strand breaks. While aberrant expression of genes involved in this pathway has been linked with genomic instability and drug resistance in several cancers, limited information is available about its clinical significance in colon cancer. We performed a comprehensive analysis of seven essential genes, including , , , , , , and of this pathway, in colon cancer using multi-omics datasets, and studied their associations with molecular and clinicopathological features, including age, gender, stage, mutation, mutation, microsatellite instability status and promoter DNA methylation in TCGA colon cancer dataset. This analysis revealed upregulation of , , and in colon cancer compared to normal colon tissues, while and (XLF) displayed downregulation. The expression of these genes was independent of age and status, while , , and exhibited reduced expression in mutant tumors. Interestingly, we observed a strong association between , , and overexpression and microsatellite instability status of the tumors. In multivariate analysis, high expression emerged as an independent prognostic marker for poor overall and disease specific survival. We also observed hypomethylation of promoter in tumors, which exhibited a strong correlation with its overexpression. Furthermore, overexpression was also associated with several oncogenic pathways as well as a reduction in numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.584053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649742PMC
October 2020

Stay-at-home isolation modulates sleep pattern associating with depression and anxiety mood disorders.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 02;17(2):343-344

Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.8908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853208PMC
February 2021

Congenital Hydrocolpos: Diagnostic Journey and Management-A Case Report.

J Obstet Gynaecol India 2020 Oct 7;70(5):407-408. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tata Main Hospital, C Road Bistupur, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13224-019-01279-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7515993PMC
October 2020

A Case Report of Twin Pregnancy with Hydatidiform Mole and Co-existing Live Fetus.

Saudi J Med Med Sci 2020 Sep-Dec;8(3):213-216. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India.

Complete hydatidiform mole with co-existing live fetus (CHMF) is a rare and high-risk pregnancy usually seen with ovulation induction protocols. These pregnancies are complicated with vaginal bleeding, pre-eclampsia, miscarriage, preterm delivery, fetal demise and the risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Here, we describe a case of CHMF and a second case of monozygotic twins: partial mole with live fetuses. The pregnancies were conceived after clomiphene citrate ovulation induction. Both cases presented with vaginal bleeding and hyperemesis in the early mid-trimester. The diagnosis was based on history, examination, ultrasound findings and high serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG) levels. A CHMF can be differentiated from a singleton partial molar pregnancy with similar ultrasound appearance by amniocentesis and karyotyping of the live fetus, which is a normal diploid. After adequate counseling, both women refused prenatal karyotyping and underwent the termination of pregnancy. The method of termination needs to be carefully decided. Surgical evacuation maybe difficult due to the well-formed fetus in the second trimester, and uterotonic agents can be associated with the risk of trophoblastic embolization and GTN. Termination with misoprostol followed by ultrasound-guided suction evacuation was successfully done in both cases. Histopathology and karyotyping confirmed the diagnosis of CHMF in the first and partial mole in the second case. βHCG normalized within 7 weeks postevacuation in both, with no increased risk of trophoblastic embolization or GTN. More studies are needed on the methods of termination in such pregnancies. Medical termination with misoprostol appears to be a viable option, though the optimal dosage is yet to be defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_332_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485654PMC
August 2020

Gynaecologic cancer care during COVID-19 pandemic in India: a social media survey.

Authors:
Sarita Kumari

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2020 10 17;3(5):e1280. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Health care services across the globe are undergoing a major transformation to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Regardless of the strength of health care infrastructure across different economies, all countries are diverting their resources toward care for COVID-19 patients.

Aim: The aim of this survey was to evaluate the pattern of care of gynaecologic cancers in a developing country during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: An anonymous survey consisting of 20 questions intended for the gynaecologic cancer care providers with emphasis on their current practice and approach to their patients was distributed online via social media from April 30 to May 31, 2020. Basic descriptive statistics were applied.

Results: Among a total of 61 respondents, 63.9% were gynaecologic oncologists, 18.0% were radiation oncologists and 18.0% were medical oncologists. Majority, that is, 95.1% health care professionals felt that COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant change on their practice pattern and 56.2% practitioners had stopped registering new cases of cancer. In 75.4% centers surgery was being done for gynaecologic cancer cases and among them 60.8% were doing surgery only for cases requiring immediate intervention. Among the centers providing chemotherapy, 39.1% had switched to oral drugs. Among the centers providing radiation, 40.9% were providing radiation to cases based on their type and urgency and 9.0% had implemented hypofractionation. In early stage low risk cases, majority, that is, 34.0% centers were managing as before. In early stage high-risk cases, 32.6% centers were managing as before. In advanced stage endometrial cancer cases, 28.8% had postponed any treatment and 28.8% administered chemotherapy. In early stage, epithelial ovarian cancer 65.9% centers were performing complete staging of the disease. In advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer, 65.9% centers preferred biopsy followed by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 11.3% centers performed primary debulking surgery. In cases of interval debulking surgery, 73.3% centers deferred surgery till all six cycles of chemotherapy was completed. In cases of recurrent ovarian cancer amenable for secondary debulking surgery, 38.6% preferred chemotherapy. In early stage cervical cancer, surgical treatment was provided in 46.5% centers. In locally advanced cervical cancer, chemoradiation was given in 65.9% centers. In cases of metastatic cervical cancer, 46.6% centers were performing palliative radiation.

Conclusion: COVID-19 has affected the treatment of gynecologic cancers patients and health care professionals are trying to mitigate the damage by incorporating new elements which are suited to the current scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnr2.1280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941547PMC
October 2020

Expression pattern, regulation, and clinical significance of TOX in breast cancer.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Feb 5;70(2):349-363. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box protein (TOX) is a transcription factor implicated in the regulation of T cell exhaustion during chronic infection and cancer. While TOX is being targeted for cancer immunotherapy, limited information is available about its significance in breast cancer and other solid tumors. We performed a comprehensive analysis of TOX gene expression, its epigenetic regulation, protein localization, relation to tumor infiltrating immune cell composition, and prognostic significance in breast cancer using publicly available datasets. Our results suggest an inverse correlation between TOX expression and DNA methylation in tumor cells. However, its expression is elevated in tumor infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), which may compensates for the total TOX levels in the tumor as a whole. Furthermore, higher TOX levels in tumors are associated with T cell exhaustion signatures along with presence of active inflammatory response, including elevated levels of T cell effector cytokines. Survival analysis also confirmed that higher expression of TOX is associated with better prognosis in breast cancer. Therefore, expression of TOX may serve as a novel prognostic marker for this malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02689-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Zinc-functionalized thymol nanoemulsion for promoting soybean yield.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Dec 21;145:64-74. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan, 313001, India. Electronic address:

Herein, we report zinc-functionalized thymol nanoemulsion (Zn-TNE) by sonication method and its characterization by DLS, HR-TEM, FEG-SEM-EDS, Cryo-FESEM, FTIR and AAS studies. Zn-TNE treated seeds bestowed better seedling vigor index and higher activities of seed stored food mobilizing enzymes (α-amylase and protease). Foliar application of Zn-TNE (0.01-0.06%, v/v) enhanced defense-antioxidant enzymes activities, balanced reactive oxygen species, induced higher content of chlorophyll-a, b and higher lignin deposition in soybean plants. In the field, Zn-TNE application (0.02-0.06%, v/v) significantly controlled bacterial pustule disease (PEDC value 28-79%) and increased grain yield up to 16.6% as compared with bulk thymol application and up to 50% from control. Disease control and higher yield in soybean could be explained by diverse bioactivities of Zn-TNE in maintaining cellular homeostasis of soybean plants. Study shows that Zn-TNE can further be maneuvered for slow delivery of other micronutrients for higher crop yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.10.022DOI Listing
December 2019

Correlation of fetal blood vessel Doppler measurements with fetal anemia among Rhesus isoimmunized pregnancies after two intrauterine transfusions.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2019 Aug 7;146(2):218-222. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objective: To assess the correlation between fetal blood vessel Doppler measurements and fetal anemia among Rhesus isoimmunized pregnancies after two intrauterine transfusions as a potential guide to therapy.

Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted among 30 women who attended a single hospital in India between April 2, 2015 and October 30, 2016. The participants underwent a third intrauterine transfusion based on a middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) of greater than 1.50 multiples of the median (MoM). Cordocentesis was performed before the third intrauterine transfusion and hematocrit values correlated with the blood vessel Doppler measurements.

Results: The MCA PSV MoM and fetal hematocrit MoM had a correlation coefficient of -0.43 (95% confidence interval -0.68 to 0.08; P=0.017). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 68%, 57%, 83%, and 33%, respectively. The descending aorta PSV δ and fetal hematocrit δ had a correlation coefficient of -0.54 (95% confidence interval -0.75 to -0.23; P=0.001). An area under the curve of 0.80 (standard error 0.085; P=0.017) had 87% sensitivity and 57% specificity for diagnosing fetal anemia.

Conclusion: The descending aorta PSV could offer a useful diagnostic adjunct to MCA PSV after two intrauterine transfusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12825DOI Listing
August 2019

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by and computational profiling of nitrate reductase enzyme involved in production.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2018 Dec 28;16(2):527-536. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Bioprocess Engineering Laboratory, Bio-Engineering Department, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand 835215, India.

Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms has found interest recently since last decade because of their prospect to synthesize nanoparticles of various size, shape and morphology which are eco-friendly. Here, an eco-friendly method for production of silver nanoparticles from cultured from is explored. Along with the biosynthesis and conformity test, studies was done on NADPH dependent nitrate reductase enzymes from the view point of designing a rational enzymatic strategy for the synthesis. The detailed characterization of the nanoparticles was carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) particle size analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Computational profiling and characterization of NADH dependent enzymes was carried out based on literature and work done so far. Nitrate reductase sequence was retrieved from NCBI for characterization. Secondary structure was evaluated and verified by JPred as well as SOPMA Tool. Tertiary structure was also modeled by MODELLER and ITASSER parallel and the best structure was selected based on energy values. Structure validation was done by GROMACS and RMSD, RMSF, temperature variation plot were also plotted. Interactions graphs between nitrate reductase and ligand silver nitrate was done through molecular docking using Hex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353735PMC
December 2018

Species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for identification of tissue of cattle origin by targeting mitochondrial gene sequences.

3 Biotech 2019 Mar 5;9(3):69. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

2Division of Livestock Products Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, 243122 India.

The present study was carried out with the objective of development of species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for identification of tissue of cattle origin. The cattle-specific LAMP primer set was designed by targeting mitochondrial D-loop gene. The conditions for LAMP reaction for amplification of template DNA from cattle using designed cattle-specific primer set were optimized for the components of mixture and temperature of reaction. Amplified products were analysed using SYBR Green I dye and by agarose gel electrophoresis. The developed species-specific LAMP assay was evaluated for its specificity, sensitivity and validated in laboratory on samples from known, coded, binary meat admixture with other than cattle at relative percentage of 20%, 10%, 5% and 1%, Phire tissue direct PCR master mix treated tissues of cattle and on species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay positive samples. The developed LAMP assay using self-designed primer set was highly specific, amplifying the DNA template exclusively from cattle tissue under the optimized LAMP reaction conditions. The sensitivity assay using serially diluted DNA templates revealed lowest level of detection as 0.01 ng of absolute DNA from target species. Laboratory validation substantiated the accuracy of assay in known/unknown (coded) samples and up to the 1% level of admixture in binary meat sample. DNA present in supernatant of Phire Animal tissue kit treated samples were also amplified successfully eliminating the extra step of extraction of genomic DNA. The developed assays exhibited comparable results with previously established species-specific PCR assay taken as gold standards. Thus, it was concluded that developed species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay was effective in identification of tissue of cattle origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1595-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363609PMC
March 2019

Zinc encapsulated chitosan nanoparticle to promote maize crop yield.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 3;127:126-135. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan 313 001, India. Electronic address:

Zinc deficient/or alkaline soil is globally widespread issue and cultivation of cereals in such soil results in severe depression in plant growth, higher disease incidence and lower grain yield. To address such problems, laboratory synthesized Zn-chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated via seed priming and foliar application in maize plants. Zn-chitosan NPs (0.01-0.16%) showed strong in vitro antifungal and seedling growth promotry activities. Further, Zn-chitosan NPs exhibited significant disease control through strengthening of plant innate immunity by elevating antioxidant and defense enzymes, balancing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhancing lignin accumulation. In field, seed treatment and foliar application of developed NPs (0.01-0.16%) significantly controlled Curvularia leaf spot (CLS) disease, increased grain yield from 20.5 to 39.8% and enriched the grain with zinc micronutrient from 41.27 to 62.21 μg/g dw. Results claim that Zn-chitosan NPs could be an effective growth promotry, disease controlling and micronutrient fortifying agent in maize crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.12.274DOI Listing
April 2019
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