Publications by authors named "Saravana Kumar Jaganathan"

52 Publications

Electrospun novel nanocomposite comprising polyurethane integrated with ayurveda amla oil for bone tissue engineering.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2020 30;92(1):e20180369. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia.

Ayurveda oil contains numerous source of biological constituents which plays an important role in reducing the pain relief caused during bone fracture. The aim of the study is to fabricate the polyurethane (PU) scaffold for bone tissue engineering added with ayurveda amla oil using electrospinning technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (758 ± 185.46 nm) than the pristine PU (890 ± 116.91 nm). Fourier Infrared Analysis (FTIR) revealed the existence of amla oil in the PU matrix by hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle results revealed the decreased wettability (116° ± 1.528) of the prepared nanocomposites compared to the pure PU (100° ± 0.5774). The incorporation of amla oil into the PU matrix improved the surface roughness. Further, the coagulation assay indicated that the addition of amla oil into PU delayed the blood clotting times and exhibited less toxic to red blood cells. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposites showed enhanced physicochemical and better blood compatibility parameters which may serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202020180369DOI Listing
April 2020

Multifaceted Characterization And In Vitro Assessment Of Polyurethane-Based Electrospun Fibrous Composite For Bone Tissue Engineering.

Int J Nanomedicine 2019 8;14:8149-8159. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Introduction: Recently several new approaches were emerging in bone tissue engineering to develop a substitute for remodelling the damaged tissue. In order to resemble the native extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human tissue, the bone scaffolds must possess necessary requirements like large surface area, interconnected pores and sufficient mechanical strength.

Materials And Methods: A novel bone scaffold has been developed using polyurethane (PE) added with wintergreen (WG) and titanium dioxide (TiO). The developed nanocomposites were characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), contact angle measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile testing. Furthermore, anticoagulant assays, cell viability analysis and calcium deposition were used to investigate the biological properties of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites.

Results: FESEM depicted the reduced fibre diameter for the electrospun PE/WG and PE/WG/TiO2 than the pristine PE. The addition of WG and TiO resulted in the alteration in peak intensity of PE as revealed in the FTIR. Wettability measurements showed the PE/WG showed decreased wettability and the PE/WG/TiO exhibited improved wettability than the pristine PE. TGA measurements showed the improved thermal behaviour for the PE with the addition of WG and TiO. Surface analysis indicated that the composite has a smoother surface rather than the pristine PE. Further, the incorporation of WG and TiO improved the anticoagulant nature of the pristine PE. In vitro cytotoxicity assay has been performed using fibroblast cells which revealed that the electrospun composites showed good cell attachment and proliferation after 5 days. Moreover, the bone apatite formation study revealed the enhanced deposition of calcium content in the fabricated composites than the pristine PE.

Conclusion: Fabricated nanocomposites rendered improved physico-chemical properties, biocompatibility and calcium deposition which are conducive for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S214646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790118PMC
December 2019

Enriched Mechanical Strength and Bone Mineralisation of Electrospun Biomimetic Scaffold Laden with Ylang Ylang Oil and Zinc Nitrate for Bone Tissue Engineering.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Aug 8;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 8.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia.

Scaffolds supplemented with naturally derived materials seem to be a good choice in bone tissue engineering. This study aims to develop polyurethane (PU) nanofibers added with ylang ylang (YY) and zinc nitrate (ZnNO) using the electrospinning method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the diameter of the PU nanofibers (869 ± 122 nm) was reduced with the addition of YY and ZnNO (PU/YY-467 ± 132 nm and PU/YY/ZnNO-290 ± 163 nm). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the interactions between PU with YY and ZnNO. In addition, a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) study revealed the improved thermal stability for PU/YY and a slight reduction in the thermal stability for PU/YY/ZnNO. A tensile test indicated that the addition of YY and ZnNO3 (PU/YY-12.32 MPa and PU/YY/ZnNO-14.90 MPa) improved the mechanical properties of the pristine PU (6.83 MPa). The electrospun PU/YY (524 nm) and PU/YY/ZnNO (284 nm) showed a reduced surface roughness when compared with the pristine PU (776 nm) as depicted in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. The addition of YY and ZnNO improved the anticoagulant and biocompatibility nature of the pristine PU. Furthermore, the bone mineralization study depicted the improved calcium deposition in the fabricated composites (PU/YY-7.919% and PU/YY/ZnNO-10.150%) compared to the pristine PU (5.323%). Hence, the developed composites with desirable physico-chemical properties, biocompatibility and calcium deposition can serve as plausible candidates for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11081323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723857PMC
August 2019

Electrospinning synthesis and assessment of physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of cobalt nitrate fibers for wound healing applications.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 Jul 29;91(3):e20180237. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia.

The aim of this study was to develop polyurethane (PU) wound dressing incorporated with cobalt nitrate using electrospinning technique. The morphology analysis revealed that the developed composites exhibited reduced fiber and pore diameter than the pristine PU. The electrospun membranes exhibited average porosity in the range of 67% - 71%. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) showed the presence of cobalt in the PU matrix. The interaction of cobalt nitrate with PU matrix was evident in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The contact angle results indicated the improved wettability of the prepared PU/cobalt nitrate composites (82° ± 2) than the pure PU (100° ± 1). The incorporation of cobalt nitrate into the PU matrix enhanced the surface roughness and mechanical strength as evident in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile test analysis. The blood compatibility assays revealed the anticoagulant nature of the prepared composites by displaying prolonged blood clotting time than the PU control. Further, the developed composite exhibited less toxicity nature as revealed in the hemolysis and cytotoxicity studies. It was observed that the PU wound dressing added with cobalt nitrate fibers exhibited enhanced physicochemical, better blood compatibility parameters and enhanced fibroblast proliferation rates which may serve as a potential candidate for wound dressings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180237DOI Listing
July 2019

Blood compatibility assessments of electrospun polyurethane nanocomposites blended with megni oil for tissue engineering applications.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 Jun 19;91(2):e20190018. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

IJNUTM Cardiovascular Engineering Center, School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia.

Tissue engineering holds as a prominent technique to repair or replace the damaged human parts to recreate its native function. In this research, a novel scaffold based on polyurethane (PU) comprising megni oil was electrospun for tissue engineering applications. The obtained polyurethane blended with megni oil nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the blood compatibility of the fabricated nanocomposites evaluated through activated prothrombin time (APTT), partial thromboplastin time (PT) and hemolysis assay to determine the anticoagulant nature. The morphological results showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber size (789 ± 143.106 nm) than the pristine control (890 ± 116.91 nm). The interaction between PU and megni oil was identified by the hydrogen bond formation evident in the FTIR. The incorporation of megni oil in the PU decreased the wettability behavior (113.3° ± 1.528) and improved the surface roughness (646 nm). Preliminary evaluation of blood compatibility assessments was carried out using APTT, PT and hemolysis assay revealed the enhanced antithrombogenicity nature of the fabricated nanocomposites than the PU. Hence, we conclude that the fabricated new nanocomposite membrane with desirable characteristics which might find potential application in the tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920190018DOI Listing
June 2019

Enhanced mechanical, thermal and biocompatible nature of dual component electrospun nanocomposite for bone tissue engineering.

PeerJ 2019 27;7:e6986. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Traditionally, in the Asian continent, oils are a widely accepted choice for alleviating bone-related disorders. The design of scaffolds resembling the extracellular matrix (ECM) is of great significance in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a multicomponent polyurethane (PU), canola oil (CO) and neem oil (NO) scaffold was developed using the electrospinning technique. The fabricated nanofibers were subjected to various physicochemical and biological testing to validate its suitability for bone tissue engineering. Morphological analysis of the multicomponent scaffold showed a reduction in fiber diameter (PU/CO-853 ± 141.27 nm and PU/CO/NO-633 ± 137.54 nm) compared to PU (890 ± 116.911 nm). The existence of CO and NO in PU matrix was confirmed by an infrared spectrum (IR) with the formation of hydrogen bond. PU/CO displayed a mean contact angle of 108.7° ± 0.58 while the PU/CO/NO exhibited hydrophilic nature with an angle of 62.33° ± 2.52. The developed multicomponent also exhibited higher thermal stability and increased mechanical strength compared to the pristine PU. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis depicted lower surface roughness for the nanocomposites (PU/CO-389 nm and PU/CO/NO-323 nm) than the pristine PU (576 nm). Blood compatibility investigation displayed the anticoagulant nature of the composites. Cytocompatibility studies revealed the non-toxic nature of the developed composites with human fibroblast cells (HDF) cells. The newly developed porous PU nanocomposite scaffold comprising CO and NO may serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6542347PMC
May 2019

Engineered Electrospun Polyurethane Composite Patch Combined with Bi-functional Components Rendering High Strength for Cardiac Tissue Engineering.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Apr 17;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Media and Game Innovation Centre of Excellence (MaGICX), Institute of Human Centered Engineering (iHumEn), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia.

Cardiovascular application of nanomaterial's is of increasing demand and its usage is limited by its mechanical and blood compatible properties. In this work, an attempt is made to develop an electrospun novel nanocomposite loaded with basil oil and titanium dioxide (TiO) particles. The composite material displayed increase in hydrophobic and reduced fiber diameter compared to the pristine polymer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed the interaction of the pristine polymer with the added substances. Thermal analysis showed the increased onset degradation, whereas the mechanical testing portrayed the increased tensile strength of the composites. Finally, the composite delayed the coagulation times and also rendered safe environment for red blood cells signifying its suitability to be used in contact with blood. Strikingly, the cellular toxicity of the developed composite was lower than the pristine polymer suggesting its compatible nature with the surrounding tissues. With these promising characteristics, developed material with enhanced physicochemical properties and blood compatibility can be successfully utilized for cardiac tissue applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11040705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523429PMC
April 2019

Electrospun Combination of Peppermint Oil and Copper Sulphate with Conducive Physico-Chemical properties for Wound Dressing Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Apr 1;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 1.

IJNUTM Cardiovascular Engineering center, School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia.

The ultimate goal in tissue engineering is to fabricate a scaffold which could mimic the native tissue structure. In this work, the physicochemical and biocompatibility properties of electrospun composites based on polyurethane (PU) with added pepper mint (PM) oil and copper sulphate (CuSO₄) were investigated. Field Emission Electron microscope (FESEM) study depicted the increase in mean fiber diameter for PU/PM and decrease in fiber diameter for PU/PM/CuSO₄ compared to the pristine PU. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the formation of a hydrogen bond for the fabricated composites as identified by an alteration in PU peak intensity. Contact angle analysis presented the hydrophobic nature of pristine PU and PU/PM while the PU/PM/CuSO₄ showed hydrophilic behavior. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed the increase in the surface roughness for the PU/PM while PU/PM/CuSO₄ showed a decrease in surface roughness compared to the pristine PU. Blood compatibility studies showed improved blood clotting time and less toxic behavior for the developed composites than the pristine PU. Finally, the cell viability of the fabricated composite was higher than the pristine PU as indicated in the MTS assay. Hence, the fabricated wound dressing composite based on PU with added PM and CuSO₄ rendered a better physicochemical and biocompatible nature, making it suitable for wound healing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11040586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523533PMC
April 2019

Corrigendum to "Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid by a novel electrochemical sensor based on N/Ar RF plasma assisted graphene nanosheets/graphene nanoribbons" [Biosensors and Bioelectronics 105 (2018) 236-242].

Biosens Bioelectron 2019 03;129:298

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695547, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.01.021DOI Listing
March 2019

Engineering electrospun multicomponent polyurethane scaffolding platform comprising grapeseed oil and honey/propolis for bone tissue regeneration.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(10):e0205699. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Essential oils play an important role in reducing the pain and inflammation caused by bone fracture.In this study, a scaffold was electrospun based on polyurethane (PU), grape seed oil, honey and propolis for bone tissue-engineering applications. The fiber diameter of the electrospun PU/grape seed oil scaffold and PU/grape seed oil/honey/propolis scaffold were observed to be reduced compared to the pristine PU control. FTIR analysis revealed the existence of grape seed oil, honey and propolis in PU identified by CH band peak shift and also hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle of PU/grape seed oil scaffold was found to increase owing to hydrophobic nature and the contact angle for the PU/grape seed/honey oil/propolis scaffold were decreased because of hydrophilic nature. Further, the prepared PU/grape seed oil and PU/grape seed oil/honey/propolis scaffold showed enhanced thermal stability and reduction in surface roughness than the control as revealed in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Further, the developed nanocomposite scaffold displayed delayed blood clotting time than the pristine PU in the activated prothrombin time (APTT) and partial thromboplastin time (PT) assay. The hemolytic assay and cytocompatibility studies revealed that the electrospun PU/grape seed oil and PU/grape seed oil/honey/propolis scaffold possess non-toxic behaviour to red blood cells (RBC) and human fibroblast cells (HDF) cells indicating better blood compatibility and cell viability rates. Hence, the newly developed electrospun nanofibrous composite scaffold with desirable characteristics might be used as an alternative candidate for bone tissue engineering applications.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205699PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205588PMC
April 2019

Electrospun polyurethane nanofibrous composite impregnated with metallic copper for wound-healing application.

3 Biotech 2018 Aug 18;8(8):327. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

4Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300 Skudai, Johor Malaysia.

In this study, a wound dressing based on polyurethane (PU) blended with copper sulphate nanofibers was developed using an electrospinning technique. The prepared PU and PU nanocomposites showed smooth fibers without any bead defects. The prepared nanocomposites showed smaller fiber (663 ± 156.30 nm) and pore (888 ± 70.93 nm) diameter compared to the pristine PU (fiber diameter 1159 ± 147.48 nm and pore diameter 1087 ± 62.51 nm). The interaction of PU with copper sulphate was evident in the infrared spectrum through hydrogen-bond formation. Thermal analysis displayed enhanced weight residue at higher temperature suggesting interaction of PU with copper sulphate. The contact angle measurements revealed the hydrophilic nature of the prepared nanocomposites (71° ± 2.309°) compared with pure PU (100° ± 0.5774°). The addition of copper sulphate into the PU matrix increased the surface roughness, as revealed in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Mechanical testing demonstrated the enhanced tensile strength behavior of the fabricated nanocomposites (18.58 MPa) compared with the pristine PU (7.12 MPa). The coagulation assays indicated the enhanced blood compatibility of the developed nanocomposites [activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)-179 ± 3.606 s and partial thromboplastin time (PT)-105 ± 2.646 s] by showing a prolonged blood clotting time compared with the pristine PU (APTT-147.7 ± 3.512 s and PT-84.67 ± 2.517 s). Furthermore, the hemolysis and cytotoxicity studies suggested a less toxicity nature of prepared nanocomposites by displaying low hemolytic index and enhanced cell viability rates compared with the PU membrane. It was observed that the fabricated novel wound dressing possesses better physicochemical and enhanced blood compatibility properties, and may be utilized for wound-healing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1356-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6051948PMC
August 2018

Development and blood compatibility assessment of electrospun polyvinyl alcohol blended with metallocene polyethylene and plectranthus amboinicus (PVA/mPE/PA) for bone tissue engineering.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 11;13:2777-2788. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department for Management of Science and Technology Development.

Introduction: Currently, the design of extracellular matrix (ECM) with nanoscale properties in bone tissue engineering is challenging. For bone tissue engineering, the ECM must have certain properties such as being nontoxic, highly porous, and should not cause foreign body reactions.

Materials And Methods: In this study, the hybrid scaffold based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended with metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and plectranthus amboinicus (PA) was fabricated for bone tissue engineering via electrospinning. The fabricated hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and hemolytic assays were used to investigate the blood compatibility of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites.

Results: The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (238±45 nm) and also increased porosity (87%) with decreased pore diameter (340±86 nm) compared with pure PVA. The interactions between PVA, mPE, and PA were identified by the formation of the additional peaks as revealed in FTIR. Furthermore, the prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed a decreased contact angle of 51°±1.32° indicating a hydrophilic nature and exhibited lower thermal stability compared to pristine PVA. Moreover, the mechanical results revealed that the electrospun scaffold showed an improved tensile strength of 3.55±0.29 MPa compared with the pristine PVA (1.8±0.52 MPa). The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed delayed blood clotting as noted in APTT and PT assays indicating better blood compatibility. Moreover, the hemolysis assay revealed that the hybrid nanocomposites exhibited a low hemolytic index of 0.6% compared with pure PVA, which was 1.6% suggesting the safety of the developed nanocomposite to red blood cells (RBCs).

Conclusion: The prepared nanocomposites exhibited better physico-chemical properties, sufficient porosity, mechanical strength, and blood compatibility, which favors it as a valuable candidate in bone tissue engineering for repairing the bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S151242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5955049PMC
June 2018

Fabrication and Testing of Electrospun Polyurethane Blended with Chitosan Nanoparticles for Vascular Graft Applications.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 09 26;9(3):503-513. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

In this study, a small vascular graft based on polyurethane (PU) blended with chitosan (Ch) nanoparticles was fabricated using electrospinning technique. Initially, the chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized using ionic gelation method. UV-Vis spectrophotometer confirmed the presence of synthesized Ch nanoparticles by exhibiting absorption peak at 288 nm and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the existence of the chitosan. Further, the synthesized Ch nanoparticles showed size diameter in the range of 134 ± 58 nm as measured using ImageJ. In the electrospun PU/chitosan graft, the fiber diameter and pore size diameter was found to be reduced compared to the pure PU owing to incorporation of chitosan into PU matrix. The FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of chitosan in the prepared nanocomposite membrane by the formation of the hydrogen bond and peak shift of CH and NH stretching. Moreover, the contact angle measurements revealed that the prepared graft showed decreased contact angle indicating hydrophilic nature compared to the pristine PU. The cytocompatibility studies revealed the non-toxic behavior of the fabricated graft. Hence, the prepared graft exhibiting significant physiochemical and non-toxic properties may be a plausible candidate for cardiovascular graft applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0357-yDOI Listing
September 2018

Enhanced Catalytic Activity, Facile Synthesis and Characterization Studies of Spinel Mn-Co Aluminate Nano-Catalysts.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 Feb;18(2):1388-1395

PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Presidency College, Chennai 600005, Tamil Nadu, India.

Undoped and Mn2+ doped CoAl2O4 (MnxCo1-xAl2O4; x = 0.0 to 1.0) spinel nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a microwave heating method using glycine as the fuel. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was confirmed the cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite size of the samples was found to be in the range of 16.46 nm to 20.25 nm calculated by Scherrer's formula. The nano-sized particle-like morphology of the samples was confirmed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed the pure form of spinel aluminate structure. The band gap energy (Eg) of pure CoAl2O4 was estimated to be 3.68 eV from UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and the Eg values increased with increase of Mn2+ ions, due to the smaller grain size. The magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loop showed the superparamagnetic nature, and the magnetization and coercivity values increased with increasing Mn2+ ions, which was confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). All compositions of the nano-catalysts were tested as catalyst successfully for the conversion of benzyl alcohol into benzaldehyde and observed good catalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2018.14112DOI Listing
February 2018

Novel Synthesis and Characterization Studies of Spinel Ni Co Al₂O₄ ( = 0.0 to 1.0) Nano-Catalysts for the Catalytic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 Feb;18(2):1019-1026

Department of Chemistry, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research Bharath University, Chennai 600073, India.

Ni-doped cobalt aluminate NixCo1-xAl2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) spinel nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method using urea as the fuel and as well as reducing agent. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was confirmed the formation of single phase, cubic spinel cobalt-nickel aluminate structure without any other impurities. Average crystallite sizes of the samples were found to be in the range of 18.93 nm to 21.47 nm by Scherrer's formula. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral analysis was confirmed the corresponding functional groups of the M-O, Al-O and M-Al-O (M = Co and Ni) bonds of spinel NixCo1-xAl2O4 structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images was confirmed the particle like nanostructured morphology. Energy band gap (Eg) value was calculated using UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and the Eg values increased with increasing Ni2+ dopant from x = 0.2 (3.58 eV) to x = 1.0 (4.15 eV). Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements exposed that undoped and Ni-doped CoAl2O4 samples have superparamagnetic behavior and the magnetization (Ms) values were increased with increasing Ni2+ ions. Spinel NixCo1-xAl2O4 samples has been used for the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol into benzaldehyde and was found that the sample Ni0.6Co0.4Al2O4 showed higher conversion 94.37% with 100% selectivity than other samples, which may be due to the smaller particle size and higher surface area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2018.13960DOI Listing
February 2018

Comparative Study of Structural, Morphological, Magneto-Optical and Photo-Catalytic Properties of Magnetically Reusable Spinel MnFe₂O₄ Nano-Catalysts.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 May;18(5):3523-3531

Department of Software Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Bharath University, Chennai 600073, Tamil Nadu, India.

Spinel MnFe2O4 nanostructures were synthesized by simple, economical and eco-friendly microwave combustion (MCM) and conventional combustion (CCM) methods using metal nitrates and glycine used as the fuel, instead of toxic inorganic/organic catalyst, template and surfactant. Powder XRD and FT-IR, EDX and SAED results were confirmed the products have a cubic phase spinel structure. EDX and SAED results confirmed purity and high crystallinity without any other secondary phase impurities. HR-SEM and HR-TEM analysis indicate that the MCM and CCM products consist of nano- and microstructures, respectively. The optical band gap (Eg) was measured using Kubelka-Munk model and it shows higher value (2.37 eV) for MnFe2O4-MCM than MnFe2O4-CCM (2.15 eV), due to the smaller particle size of MnFe2O4-MCM. VSM results showed a superparamagnetic behavior and the magnetization (Ms) value of MnFe2O4-MCM is higher i.e., 39.68 emu/g than MnFe2O4-CCM (33.59 emu/g). It was found that the sample MnFe2O4-MCM have higher surface area than MnFe2O4-CCM, which in turn leads to the improved performance towards the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue (MB) and it was found that the sample MnFe2O4-MCM show higher PCD efficiency (96.48%) than MnFe2O4-CCM (84.95%). Also, MnFe2O4 show higher activity with good reusability, and eco-friendly materials for industrial and technological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2018.14669DOI Listing
May 2018

Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid by a novel electrochemical sensor based on N/Ar RF plasma assisted graphene nanosheets/graphene nanoribbons.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 May;105:236-242

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695547, India. Electronic address:

A novel nitrogen/argon (N/Ar) radio frequency (RF) plasma functionalized graphene nanosheet/graphene nanoribbon (GS/GNR) hybrid material (N/Ar/GS/GNR) was developed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). Various nitrogen mites introduced into GS/GNR hybrid structure was evidenced by a detailed microscopic, spectroscopic and surface area analysis. Owing to the unique structure and properties originating from the enhanced surface area, nitrogen functional groups and defects introduced on both the basal and edges, N/Ar/GS/GNR/GCE showed high electrocatalytic activity for the electrochemical oxidations of AA, DA, and UA with the respective lowest detection limits of 5.3, 2.5 and 5.7 nM and peak-to-peak separation potential (ΔE) (vs Ag/AgCl) in DPV of 220, 152 and 372 mV for AA/DA, DA/UA and AA/UA respectively. Moreover, the selectivity, stability, repeatability and excellent performance in real time application of the fabricated N/Ar/GS/GNR/GCE electrode suggests that it can be considered as a potential electrode material for simultaneous detection of AA, DA, and UA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2018.01.040DOI Listing
May 2018

Cancer-related fatigue treatment: An overview.

J Cancer Res Ther 2017 Oct-Dec;13(6):916-929

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington 76019, TX, United States of America.

Cancer-related fatigue is a symptom of cancer where most patients or the general practitioners tend to misinterpret due to the insufficient understanding or knowledge of cancer-related fatigue (CRF). This paper will provide a better perspective for the patients and the health professionals on how to manage and handle CRF for both mild and severe fatigue patients. Articles were selected from the searches of PubMed database that had the terms "randomized controlled trials," "cancer," "fatigue," "pharmacologic treatment," and "nonpharmacologic treatment" using both Mesh terms and keywords. The authors have reviewed the current hypothesis and evidence of the detailed etiology of the CRF present in the literature for healthier management, directives, and strategies to improve the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. An algorithm has been blueprinted on screening, and management, of the CRF, and various kinds of effective treatments and assessment tools have been briefly studied and explained. Although many strategies seemed promising, the quality of randomized controlled trials is generally quite low in studies, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of each self-care strategies. Therefore, future studies require better design and reporting of methodological issues to ensure evidence-based self-care recommendations for people receiving cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_50_17DOI Listing
July 2018

Surface, thermal and hemocompatible properties of novel single stage electrospun nanocomposites comprising polyurethane blended with bio oilTM.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2017 26;89(3 Suppl):2411-2422. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Department of Physics, Sri Sakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641062, Tamil Nadu, India.

In this work, the physicochemical and blood compatibility properties of prepared PU/Bio oil nanocomposites were investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies revealed the reduction of mean fiber diameter (709 ± 211 nm) compared to the pristine PU (969 nm ± 217 nm). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis exposed the characteristic peaks of pristine PU. Composite peak intensities were decreased insinuating the interaction of the bio oilTM with the PU. Contact angle analysis portrayed the hydrophobic nature of the fabricated patch compared to pristine PU. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) depicted the better thermal stability of the novel nanocomposite patch and its different thermal behavior in contrast with the pristine PU. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed the increase in the surface roughness of the composite patch. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) signified the novel nanocomposite patch ability in reducing the thrombogenicity and promoting the anticoagulant nature. Finally the hemolytic percentage of the fabricated composite was in the acceptable range revealing its safety and compatibility with the red blood cells. To reinstate, the fabricated patch renders promising physicochemical and blood compatible nature making it a new putative candidate for wound healing application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201720170230DOI Listing
May 2018

Preparation, characterization and blood compatibility assessment of a novel electrospun nanocomposite comprising polyurethane and ayurvedic-indhulekha oil for tissue engineering applications.

Biomed Tech (Berl) 2018 Jun;63(3):245-253

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering college, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India.

Electrospun polyurethane based nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by mixing with indhulekha oil. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) portrayed the nanofibrous nature of the composite and the average diameters of the composite scaffold were smaller than the pristine scaffolds. The fabricated scaffold was found to be hydrophobic (114°) due to the inclusion of indhulekha oil, which was displayed in contact angle measurement analysis. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that the indhulekha oil was dispersed in PU matrix identified by formation of hydrogen bond and peak shifting of CH group. The PU/indhulekha oil nanocomposite exhibits a higher decomposition onset temperature and also residual weight percentage at 900°C was more compared to the pure PU. Surface roughness was found to be increased in the composite compared to the pristine PU as indicated by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. In order to investigate the blood compatibility of electrospun nanocomposites the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, prothrombin time (PT) assay and hemolytic assay were performed. The blood compatibility results APTT and PT revealed that the developed nanocomposites demonstrated delayed clotting time indicating the anticoagulant nature of the composite in comparison with the pristine PU. Further, it was also observed that the hemolytic index of nanocomposites was reduced compared to pure PU suggesting the non-hemolytic nature of the fabricated scaffold. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposites might be considered as a potent substitute for scaffolding damaged tissue due to their inherent physicochemical and blood compatibility properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2017-0022DOI Listing
June 2018

Fabrication and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles and collagen-loaded polyurethane nanocomposite membrane coated with heparin for atrial septal defect (ASD) closure.

3 Biotech 2017 Jul 29;7(3):174. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Department of Chemistry, Bharat Institute of Higher Education and Research, Bharat University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600073, India.

Atrial septal defect (ASD) constitutes 30-40% of all congenital heart diseases in adults. The most common complications in the treatment of ASD are embolization of the device and thrombosis formation. In this research, an occluding patch was developed for ASD treatment using a well-known textile technology called electrospinning. For the first time, a cardiovascular occluding patch was fabricated using medical grade polyurethane (PU) loaded with bioactive agents namely chitosan nanoparticles (Cn) and collagen (Co) which is then coated with heparin (Hp). Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents and changes in the absorbance due to the inclusion of active ingredients in the patch. The contact angle analysis demonstrated no significant decrease in contact angle compared to the control and the composite patches. The structure of the electrospun nanocomposite (PUCnCoHp) was examined through scanning electron microscopy. A decrease in nanofiber diameter between control PU and PUCnCoHp nanocomposite was observed. Water uptake was found to be decreased for the PUCnCoHp nanocomposite against the control. The hemocompatibility properties of the PUCnCoHp ASD occluding patch was inferred through in vitro hemocompatibility tests like activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and hemolysis assay. It was found that the PT and APTT time was significantly prolonged for the fabricated PUCnCoHp ASD occluding patch compared to the control. Likewise, the hemolysis percentage was also decreased for the PUCnCoHp ASD patch against the control. In conclusion, the developed PUCnCoHp patch demonstrates potential properties to be used for ASD occlusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-017-0830-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5489446PMC
July 2017

Manufacturing and Characterization of Novel Electrospun Composite Comprising Polyurethane and Mustard Oil Scaffold with Enhanced Blood Compatibility.

Polymers (Basel) 2017 May 4;9(5). Epub 2017 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600073, India.

The objective of this work is to characterize and investigate the blood compatibility of polyurethane (PU)/mustard oil composites fabricated using electrospinning technique. The fabricated scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and contact angle measurements. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APPT), prothrombin time (PT) and the hemolytic assay were done to investigate the blood compatibility of the developed composites. The SEM results revealed that the fiber diameter of the composites (761 ± 123 nm) was reduced compared to pristine PU control. The interaction between PU and mustard oil was confirmed by FTIR as evident through the shifting of peaks. The fabricated composites depicted hydrophobic behavior as insinuated by the increase in contact angle measurements. PU/mustard composites displayed improved crystallinity as confirmed by TGA. Atomic force micrographs suggested that developed PU/mustard oil composites showed an increase in the surface roughness (a) compared to pure PU. The Ra of pure PU was observed to be 723 nm but for the fabricated PU/mustard oil composite the a was found to be 1298 nm (a). The hemolytic index value for pure PU and fabricated composites was observed to be 2.73% and 1.15% indicating that developed composites showed a non-hemolytic behavior signifying the safety of the composites with red blood cells. Hence the newly developed composites with improved physicochemical and blood compatibility properties may be considered as a potential candidate for fabricating cardiac patches and grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym9050163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432176PMC
May 2017

Fabrication and hemocompatibility assessment of novel polyurethane-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey and Carica papaya extract for the management of burn injuries.

Int J Nanomedicine 2016;11:4339-55. Epub 2016 Sep 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Building and Mechanical Sciences, Kongu Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, India.

Management of burn injury is an onerous clinical task since it requires continuous monitoring and extensive usage of specialized facilities. Despite rapid improvizations and investments in burn management, >30% of victims hospitalized each year face severe morbidity and mortality. Excessive loss of body fluids, accumulation of exudate, and the development of septic shock are reported to be the main reasons for morbidity in burn victims. To assist burn wound management, a novel polyurethane (PU)-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey (HN) and Carica papaya (PA) fruit extract was fabricated using a one-step electrospinning technique. The developed dressing material had a mean fiber diameter of 190±19.93 nm with pore sizes of 4-50 µm to support effective infiltration of nutrients and gas exchange. The successful blending of HN- and PA-based active biomolecules in PU was inferred through changes in surface chemistry. The blend subsequently increased the wettability (14%) and surface energy (24%) of the novel dressing. Ultimately, the presence of hydrophilic biomolecules and high porosity enhanced the water absorption ability of the PU-HN-PA nanofiber samples to 761.67% from 285.13% in PU. Furthermore, the ability of the bio-nanofibrous dressing to support specific protein adsorption (45%), delay thrombus formation, and reduce hemolysis demonstrated its nontoxic and compatible nature with the host tissues. In summary, the excellent physicochemical and hemocompatible properties of the developed PU-HN-PA dressing exhibit its potential in reducing the clinical complications associated with the treatment of burn injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S112265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5015880PMC
February 2017

Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231.

PLoS One 2016 13;11(7):e0158942. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

Bioprocess Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184). The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract) and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL) and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL). The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158942PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4943642PMC
July 2017

Gallic acid induced apoptotic events in HCT-15 colon cancer cells.

World J Gastroenterol 2016 Apr;22(15):3952-61

Aruna Priyadharshni Subramanian, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Eko Supriyanto, Ida Idayu Muhamad, IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia.

Aim: To investigate the inhibitory action of diet-derived phenolic compound gallic acid (GA) against HCT-15 colon cancer cells.

Methods: The antiproliferative effect of GA against colon cancer cells was determined by performing thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The colony forming ability of GA treated colon cancer cells was evaluated using the colony forming assay. The cell cycle changes induced by GA in HCT-15 cells were analyzed by propidium iodide staining. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential of HCT-15 exposed to GA was assessed using 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate and rhodamine-123 respectively, with the help of flow cytometry. Morphological changes caused by GA treatment in the colon cancer cells were identified by scanning electron microscope and photomicrograph examination. Apoptosis was confirmed using flow cytometric analysis of GA treated HCT-15 cells after staining with Yo-Pro-1.

Results: MTT assay results illustrated that GA has an inhibitory effect on HCT-15 cells with IC50 value of 740 μmol/L. A time-dependent inhibition of colony formation was evident with GA treatment. Cell cycle arrest was evident from the accumulation of GA treated HCT-15 cells at sub-G1 phase (0.98 ± 1.03 vs 58.01 ± 2.05) with increasing exposure time. Flow cytometric analysis of GA treated HCT-15 cells depicted early events associated with apoptosis like lipid layer breakage and fall in mitochondrial membrane potential apart from an increase in the generation of ROS which were in a time dependent manner. SEM and photomicrograph images of the GA-treated cells displayed membrane blebbing and cell shrinking characteristics of apoptosis. Further apoptosis confirmation by Yo-Pro-1 staining also showed the time-dependent increase of apoptotic cells after treatment.

Conclusion: These results show that GA induced ROS dependent apoptosis and inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v22.i15.3952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823245PMC
April 2016

Unravelling the potential of nitric acid as a surface modifier for improving the hemocompatibility of metallocene polyethylene for blood contacting devices.

PeerJ 2016 19;4:e1388. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia , Malaysia.

Design of blood compatible surfaces is obligatory to minimize platelet surface interactions and improve the thromboresistance of foreign surfaces when they are utilized as biomaterials particularly for blood contacting devices. Pure metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and nitric acid (HNO3) treated mPE antithrombogenicity and hydrophilicity were investigated. The contact angle of the mPE treated with HNO3 decreased. Surface of mPE and HNO3 treated mPE investigated with FTIR revealed no major changes in its functional groups. 3D Hirox digital microscopy, SEM and AFM images show increased porosity and surface roughness. Blood coagulation assays prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) for HNO3 treated mPE. Hemolysis assay and platelet adhesion of the treated surface resulted in the lysis of red blood cells and platelet adherence, respectively indicating improved hemocompatibility of HNO3 treated mPE. To determine that HNO3 does not deteriorate elastic modulus of mPE, the elastic modulus of mPE and HNO3 treated mPE was compared and the result shows no significant difference. Hence, the overall observation suggests that the novel HNO3 treated mPE may hold great promises to be exploited for blood contacting devices like grafts, catheters, and etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4727976PMC
January 2016

On-Demand Guided Bone Regeneration with Microbial Protection of Ornamented SPU Scaffold with Bismuth-Doped Single Crystalline Hydroxyapatite: Augmentation and Cartilage Formation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Feb 4;8(6):4086-100. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Indian Institute of Technology , Rubber Technology Centre, Kharagpur 721302, India.

Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are futile in many clinical applications due to infection problems. In this work, we fabricated GBR with an anti-infective scaffold by ornamenting 2D single crystalline bismuth-doped nanohydroxyapatite (Bi-nHA) rods onto segmented polyurethane (SPU). Bi-nHA with high aspect ratio was prepared without any templates. Subsequently, it was introduced into an unprecedented synthesized SPU matrix based on dual soft segments (PCL-b-PDMS) of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, undoped pristine nHA rods were also ornamented into it. The enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segments of PCL-b-PDMS copolymers of SPU. Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is done by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Bi-nHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (155%) in the mechanical properties with excellent antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Various histological sections reveal the signatures of early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks of the critical defects filled with ornamented scaffold compared to SPU scaffold. This implies osteogenic potential and ability to provide an adequate biomimetic microenvironment for mineralization for GBR of the scaffolds. Organ toxicity studies further confirm that no tissue architecture abnormalities were observed in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissue sections. This finding manifests the feasibility of fabricating a mechanically adequate nanofibrous SPU scaffold by a biomimetic strategy and the advantages of Bi-nHA ornamentation in promoting osteoblast phenotype progression with microbial protection (on-demand) for GBR applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b11723DOI Listing
February 2016

Evaluation of cardiac signals using discrete wavelet transform with MATLAB graphical user interface.

Indian Heart J 2015 Nov-Dec;67(6):549-51. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, PSNACET, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India.

Aim: To process the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals using MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI) and to classify the signals based on heart rate.

Method: The subject condition was identified using R-peak detection based on discrete wavelet transform followed by a Bayes classifier that classifies the ECG signals. The GUI was designed to display the ECG signal plot.

Results: Obtained from MIT database 18 patients had normal heart rate and 9 patients had abnormal heart rate; 14.81% of the patients suffered from tachycardia and 18.52% of the patients have bradycardia.

Conclusion: The proposed GUI display was found useful to analyze the digitized ECG signal by a non-technical user and may help in diagnostics. Further improvement can be done by employing field programmable gate array for the real time processing of cardiac signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2015.07.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699950PMC
January 2017

Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

Int J Nanomedicine 2015 18;10:5909-23. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Institut Jantung Negara-Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S84307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4583113PMC
August 2016