Publications by authors named "Saraniya Tharmarajah"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Effect of Lutein/Zeaxanthin Intake on Human Macular Pigment Optical Density: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Adv Nutr 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids found in the human macula and may have a role in visual function. These carotenoids are reported to protect the retina, and thus vision, as antioxidants and by acting as a blue light filter. Our objective was to determine a minimum concentration of lutein/zeaxanthin intake that is associated with a statistically significant and/or clinically important change in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) among adults with healthy eyes. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and the Commonwealth of Agriculture Bureau for English-language studies through to July 2020. Two reviewers screened results to identify studies that evaluated supplements or dietary sources of lutein/zeaxanthin on MPOD among adults with healthy eyes. One reviewer extracted data and assessed strength of evidence, which was confirmed by a second reviewer. Two independent reviewers assessed the risk of bias. Meta-analyses were stratified by total lutein/zeaxanthin dose. We included 46 studies (N = 3189 participants; mean age = 43 y; 42% male). There was no statistically significant change in MPOD among studies evaluating <5 mg/d of total lutein/zeaxanthin intake which primarily assessed dietary interventions for 3-6 mo (pooled mean difference, 0.02; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.05). The pooled mean increase in MPOD was 0.04 units (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.07) among studies evaluating 5 to <20 mg/d of lutein/zeaxanthin and was 0.11 units (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.16) among studies evaluating ≥20 mg/d of lutein/zeaxanthin for 3-12 mo. MPOD increased with lutein/zeaxanthin intake, particularly at higher doses, among adults with healthy eyes. The effects of lutein/zeaxanthin intake at doses <5 mg/d or from dietary sources is less clear. Increased lutein/zeaxanthin intake can help with maintaining ocular health. Future research is needed to determine the minimum dose and duration of lutein/zeaxanthin intake that is associated with a clinically important change in MPOD or visual function.
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June 2021

Safety Planning With Marginalized Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: Challenges of Conducting Safety Planning Intervention Research With Marginalized Women.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2021 May 6:15248380211013136. Epub 2021 May 6.

1466Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) disproportionately affects marginalized women in the United States. This calls for effective safety planning strategies to reduce the risk for future revictimization and address safety needs of survivors from marginalized groups. This review identified types of interventions that incorporated safety planning and were successful in reducing the risk for future revictimization among IPV survivors from diverse groups, examined elements of safety planning in effective interventions, and described challenges or limitations in safety planning intervention research with marginalized women. A systematic search of five databases was performed. The search resulted in inclusion of 17 studies for synthesis. The included studies were quantitative, U.S.-based, evaluated interventions with a safety planning component, and had an outcome of change in IPV. Effective interventions that incorporated safety planning were empowerment and advocacy focused. Elements included were comprehensive assessments of survivors' unique needs and situations, educating them about IPV, helping them identify threats to safety, developing a concrete safety plan, facilitating linkage with resources, providing advocacy services as needed, and conducting periodic safety check-ins. For survivors with mental and behavioral health issues, effective interventions included psychotherapeutic approaches along with safety planning to address survivors' co-occurring health care needs. Although most studies reported positive findings, there were limitations related to designs, methods, adequate inclusion, and representation of marginalized women and cultural considerations. This calls for additional research using rigorous and culturally informed approaches to establish an evidence base for effective interventions that specifically address the safety planning needs of marginalized survivors of IPV.
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May 2021