Publications by authors named "Sarah Rowell"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Semi-quantitative, high throughput analysis of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies: Measuring the level and duration of immune response antibodies post infection/vaccination.

Vaccine 2021 09 6;39(39):5688-5698. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Kaiser Permanente, 1795 A Second Street, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA.

The question associated with efficacy and longevity of SARS-CoV-2 protection post-vaccination is paramount. The cPass surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) has gained popularity globally as a dual application assay for: 1. Accurate SARS-CoV-2 population surveillance (seroprevalence) analysis and 2. Revealing the presence of antibodies that block and effectively neutralize the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain and the host cell ACE2 receptor in recovered or vaccinated individuals. This study describes an approach for accurate quantification of neutralizing antibodies using the cPass sVNT with an automated workflow on the Tecan EVO and Dynex Agility platforms that is applicable to other liquid handling systems. This methodology was used to assess the stability of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies between freeze/thaw and refrigerated sample storage conditions. Furthermore, a subset of twenty-five samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected/recovered individuals revealed a 600-fold difference in the neutralizing antibody response where low titers were represented in about half of the samples. Finally, pre- and post-vaccination samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies using the qualitative and semi-quantitative cPass sVNT protocols revealing undetectable or relatively low levels after the first vaccine dose and a decline in levels longitudinally over the months following the second dose. This wide range in neutralizing (blocking) antibodies from both natural infection and vaccination supports a differential immune response that may be attributed to several physiological and genetic factors underlining the potential for measuring SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titer levels post-vaccination to help ensure robust and prolonged immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.07.098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8343386PMC
September 2021

Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

Genetics 2015 Aug 19;200(4):1051-60. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, Oakland, California 94612.

The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California-San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The project, which generated >70 billion genotypes, represents the first large-scale use of the Affymetrix Axiom Genotyping Solution. Because genotyping took place over a short 14-month period, creating a near-real-time analysis pipeline for experimental assay quality control and final optimized analyses was critical. Because of the multi-ethnic nature of the cohort, four different ethnic-specific arrays were employed to enhance genome-wide coverage. All assays were performed on DNA extracted from saliva samples. To improve sample call rates and significantly increase genotype concordance, we partitioned the cohort into disjoint packages of plates with similar assay contexts. Using strict QC criteria, the overall genotyping success rate was 103,067 of 109,837 samples assayed (93.8%), with a range of 92.1-95.4% for the four different arrays. Similarly, the SNP genotyping success rate ranged from 98.1 to 99.4% across the four arrays, the variation depending mostly on how many SNPs were included as single copy vs. double copy on a particular array. The high quality and large scale of genotype data created on this cohort, in conjunction with comprehensive longitudinal data from the KP electronic health records of participants, will enable a broad range of highly powered genome-wide association studies on a diversity of traits and conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.115.178905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4574249PMC
August 2015

Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

Genetics 2015 Aug 19;200(4):1061-72. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158-2517

The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system for TL analysis and informatics. Samples were run in triplicate, along with control samples, in a randomized design. As part of quality control, we determined the within-sample variability and employed thresholds for the elimination of outlying measurements. Of 106,902 samples assayed, 105,539 (98.7%) passed all quality control (QC) measures. As expected, TL in general showed a decline with age and a sex difference. While telomeres showed a negative correlation with age up to 75 years, in those older than 75 years, age positively correlated with longer telomeres, indicative of an association of longer telomeres with more years of survival in those older than 75. Furthermore, while females in general had longer telomeres than males, this difference was significant only for those older than age 50. An additional novel finding was that the variance of TL between individuals increased with age. This study establishes reliable assay and analysis methodologies for measurement of TL in large, population-based human studies. The GERA cohort represents the largest currently available such resource, linked to comprehensive electronic health and genotype data for analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.115.178624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4574243PMC
August 2015

Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

Genetics 2015 Aug 19;200(4):1285-95. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158-2549 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, Oakland, California 94612-2304

Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.115.178616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4574246PMC
August 2015

Design and coverage of high throughput genotyping arrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity using imputation and a novel hybrid SNP selection algorithm.

Genomics 2011 Dec 28;98(6):422-30. Epub 2011 Aug 28.

Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0794, USA.

Four custom Axiom genotyping arrays were designed for a genome-wide association (GWA) study of 100,000 participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health. The array optimized for individuals of European race/ethnicity was previously described. Here we detail the development of three additional microarrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity. For these arrays, we decreased redundancy of high-performing SNPs to increase SNP capacity. The East Asian array was designed using greedy pairwise SNP selection. However, removing SNPs from the target set based on imputation coverage is more efficient than pairwise tagging. Therefore, we developed a novel hybrid SNP selection method for the African American and Latino arrays utilizing rounds of greedy pairwise SNP selection, followed by removal from the target set of SNPs covered by imputation. The arrays provide excellent genome-wide coverage and are valuable additions for large-scale GWA studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3502750PMC
December 2011

Next generation genome-wide association tool: design and coverage of a high-throughput European-optimized SNP array.

Genomics 2011 Aug 30;98(2):79-89. Epub 2011 Apr 30.

Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0794, CA, USA.

The success of genome-wide association studies has paralleled the development of efficient genotyping technologies. We describe the development of a next-generation microarray based on the new highly-efficient Affymetrix Axiom genotyping technology that we are using to genotype individuals of European ancestry from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH). The array contains 674,517 SNPs, and provides excellent genome-wide as well as gene-based and candidate-SNP coverage. Coverage was calculated using an approach based on imputation and cross validation. Preliminary results for the first 80,301 saliva-derived DNA samples from the RPGEH demonstrate very high quality genotypes, with sample success rates above 94% and over 98% of successful samples having SNP call rates exceeding 98%. At steady state, we have produced 462 million genotypes per week for each Axiom system. The new array provides a valuable addition to the repertoire of tools for large scale genome-wide association studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146553PMC
August 2011

Is pregnancy after breast cancer safe?

Breast J 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):404-11. Epub 2010 May 26.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

The impact of treatment on subsequent fertility and the safety of childbearing are major complicating factors for young women diagnosed with breast cancer. As national data indicate women are postponing first pregnancy to older ages; therefore, many young patients are seeking clinical guidance regarding the safety of conception and treatment options that may not prevent subsequent pregnancy. Newly developed chemotherapy protocols of brief duration have improved life expectancy enabling some women to consider childbearing. This study was conducted to compare prognosis among breast cancer patients with and without a subsequent pregnancy. Medical record review of female members of a Northern California prepaid health care plan enabled the identification of 107 women with one or more subsequent pregnancies and 344 cases without a pregnancy, who were diagnosed between 1968 and 1995. Sets were matched on age, year and stage at diagnosis, months of survival and recurrence status at conception. Among the matched sets, neither risk of recurrence nor death differed significantly by subsequent pregnancy history during an average 12 years of follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] recurrence: 1.2 [0.8, 2.0]; adjusted HR death: 1.0 [0.6, 1.9]). Women interested in preserving their fertility and considering pregnancy are a self-selected population; therefore, to reduce potential bias, cases were matched on recurrence status at time of conception. Although the number of cases was limited, subgroup analyzes indicated a small, nonsignificant adverse effect among women who conceived within 12 months of diagnosis. This analysis of carefully matched cases provides reassurance that long-term prognosis was not adversely affected by subsequent pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4741.2010.00939.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5518743PMC
November 2010

California Men's Health Study (CMHS): a multiethnic cohort in a managed care setting.

BMC Public Health 2006 Jun 30;6:172. Epub 2006 Jun 30.

Department of Research & Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Pasadena, CA 91188, USA.

Background: We established a male, multiethnic cohort primarily to study prostate cancer etiology and secondarily to study the etiologies of other cancer and non-cancer conditions.

Methods/design: Eligible participants were 45-to-69 year old males who were members of a large, prepaid health plan in California. Participants completed two surveys on-line or on paper in 2002-2003. Survey content included demographics; family, medical, and cancer screening history; sexuality and sexual development; lifestyle (diet, physical activity, and smoking); prescription and non-prescription drugs; and herbal supplements. We linked study data with clinical data, including laboratory, hospitalization, and cancer data, from electronic health plan files. We recruited 84,170 participants, approximately 40% from minority populations and over 5,000 who identified themselves as other than heterosexual. We observed a wide range of education (53% completed less than college) and income. PSA testing rates (75% overall) were highest among black participants. Body mass index (BMI) (median 27.2) was highest for blacks and Latinos and lowest for Asians, and showed 80.6% agreement with BMI from clinical data sources. The sensitivity and specificity can be assessed by comparing self-reported data, such as PSA testing, diabetes, and history of cancer, to health plan data. We anticipate that nearly 1,500 prostate cancer diagnoses will occur within five years of cohort inception.

Discussion: A wide variety of epidemiologic, health services, and outcomes research utilizing a rich array of electronic, biological, and clinical resources is possible within this multiethnic cohort. The California Men's Health Study and other cohorts nested within comprehensive health delivery systems can make important contributions in the area of men's health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-6-172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1569841PMC
June 2006
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