Publications by authors named "Sarah Quinton"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Patient Perspectives on Medical Trauma Related to Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Clin Psychol Med Settings 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N. Saint Clair Street, Suite 1400, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in response to medical trauma are understudied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Two studies identify surgery, hospitalizations, and disease severity as risk factors. We aimed to document IBD-related patient experiences and how these relate to PTSS via a qualitative study. Adult patients with confirmed IBD recruited from two gastroenterology clinics underwent a semi-structured interview with a psychologist and completed the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale for DSM5 (PSSI-5). Interviews were analyzed using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Themes and subthemes with representative quotations were documented based on thematic saturation. 16 participants, five met PSSI-5 criteria for PTSD. Five themes emerged: disease uncertainty, information exchange/quality, medical procedures, surgery, and coping. Patients with IBD may experience medical PTSS from several sources. Information, communication, and trust in clinicians is vital but may be sub-optimal. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies are used to mitigate PTSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10880-021-09805-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Posttraumatic Stress in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Prevalence and Relationships to Patient-Reported Outcomes.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Patients with chronic illness are at increased risk for traumatic stress because of medical trauma. Initial studies of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have found that approximately one-third of patients may experience significant PTS symptoms including flashbacks, nightmares, hypervigilance, disrupted sleep, and low mood. We aim to better characterize PTS in IBD and its relationship with patient outcomes in a large cohort of patients with IBD.

Methods: Adult patients registered with the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation/University of North Carolina IBD Partners database were invited to complete a supplementary survey between February and July 2020. The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5th edition was administered as a supplemental survey. Additional data from IBD Partners included disease severity, surgery and hospital history, demographics, and health care utilization.

Results: A total of 797 patients participated (452 with Crohn disease, 345 with ulcerative colitis). No impacts on response patterns because of the COVID-19 pandemic were found. Although 5.6% of the sample reported an existing PTS diagnosis because of IBD experiences, 9.6% of participants met the full IBD-related PTS diagnostic criteria per the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5th edition. Female patients, younger patients, those with less educational attainment, non-White patients, and Hispanic patients reported higher levels of PTS symptoms. Patients with higher PTS symptoms were more likely to have been hospitalized, have had surgery, have more severe symptoms, and not be in remission. Increased PTS was also associated with increased anxiety, depression, pain interference, fatigue, and health care utilization.

Conclusions: The present findings support prior research that approximately one-quarter to one-third of patients with IBD report significant symptoms of PTS directly from their disease experiences, and certain demographic groups are at higher risk. In addition, PTS is associated with several IBD outcomes. Patients with higher PTS symptoms are less likely to be in remission and may utilize more outpatient gastrointestinal services. Intervention trials to mitigate PTS symptoms in patients with IBD are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izab152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8344426PMC
June 2021

Evaluation of the safety of inter-hospital transfers of critically ill patients led by advanced critical care practitioners.

Br J Nurs 2021 Apr;30(8):470-476

Intensive Care Consultant Intensive Care Unit, Heartlands Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham Foundation Trust, Birmingham.

Introduction: Ten thousand inter-hospital transfers of critically ill adults take place annually in the UK. Studies highlight deficiencies in experience and training of staff, equipment, stabilisation before departure, and logistical difficulties. This article is a quality improvement review of an advanced critical care practitioner (ACCP)-led inter-hospital transfer service.

Methods: The tool was used as the format for the review, combined with clinical audit of advanced critical care practitioner-led transfers over a period of more than 3 years.

Results: The transfer service has operated for 8 years; ACCPs conducted 934 critical care transfers of mechanically ventilated patients, including 286 inter-hospital transfers, between January 2017 and September 2020. The acuity of transfer patients was high, 82.2% required support of more than one organ, 49% required more than 50% oxygen. Uneventful transfer occurred in 81.4% of cases; the most common patient-related complication being hypotension, logistical issues were responsible for half of the complications.

Conclusion: This quality improvement project provides an example of safe and effective advanced practice in an area that is traditionally a medically led domain. ACCPs can provide an alternative process of care for critically ill adults who require external transfer, and a benchmark for audit and quality improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2021.30.8.470DOI Listing
April 2021

Naldemedine for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adults with chronic noncancer pain.

Pain Manag 2020 Sep 19;10(5):301-306. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Division of Gastroenterology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

This review aims to summarize the efficacy data for naldemedine, a member of the novel peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs), which gained US FDA approval for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adults with chronic noncancer pain-related syndromes in 2017. In Phase III trials, patients receiving naldemedine were significantly more likely to meet the primary end point ≥3 spontaneous bowel movements/week and an increase of ≥1 spontaneous bowel movement/week from baseline for at least 9/12 weeks compared to placebo (p < 0.0001). The most frequent adverse events were abdominal pain (8%) and diarrhea (7%). Based on available data, naldemedine appears to be an effective and safe first-line therapy for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adults with chronic noncancer pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pmt-2020-0019DOI Listing
September 2020

The provision of central venous access, transfer of critically ill patients and advanced airway management.: Are advanced critical care practitioners safe and effective?

J Intensive Care Soc 2019 Aug 1;20(3):248-254. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Critical Care Unit, Heartlands Hospital, University Hospitals, Birmingham, UK.

Advanced critical care practitioners are a new and growing component of the critical care multidisciplinary team in the United Kingdom. This audit considers the safety profile of advanced critical care practitioners in the provision of central venous catheterisation and transfer of ventilated critical care patients without direct supervision and supervised drug assisted intubation of critically ill patients. The audit showed that advanced critical care practitioners can perform central venous cannulation, transfer of critically ill ventilated patients and intubation with parity to published UK literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1751143718801706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693111PMC
August 2019

U.K. Intensivists' Preferences for Patient Admission to ICU: Evidence From a Choice Experiment.

Crit Care Med 2019 11;47(11):1522-1530

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Deciding whether to admit a patient to the ICU requires considering several clinical and nonclinical factors. Studies have investigated factors associated with the decision but have not explored the relative importance of different factors, nor the interaction between factors on decision-making. We examined how ICU consultants prioritize specific factors when deciding whether to admit a patient to ICU.

Design: Informed by a literature review and data from observation and interviews with ICU clinicians, we designed a choice experiment. Senior intensive care doctors (consultants) were presented with pairs of patient profiles and asked to prioritize one of the patients in each task for admission to ICU. A multinomial logit and a latent class logit model was used for the data analyses.

Setting: Online survey across U.K. intensive care.

Subjects: Intensive care consultants working in NHS hospitals.

Measurements And Main Results: Of the factors investigated, patient's age had the largest impact at admission followed by the views of their family, and severity of their main comorbidity. Physiologic measures indicating severity of illness had less impact than the gestalt assessment by the ICU registrar. We identified four distinct decision-making patterns, defined by the relative importance given to different factors.

Conclusions: ICU consultants vary in the importance they give to different factors in deciding who to prioritize for ICU admission. Transparency regarding which factors have been considered in the decision-making process could reduce variability and potential inequity for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6798748PMC
November 2019

Letter to the Editor: Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Demonstrate an Inherent Lack of Psychopathology.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019 08;25(9):e114

Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izz080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6701509PMC
August 2019

Initial Assessment of Post-traumatic Stress in a US Cohort of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019 08;25(9):1577-1585

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Post-traumatic stress (PTS), or the psycho-physiological response to a traumatic or life-threatening event, is implicated in medical patient outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests a complex relationship between PTS, the brain-gut axis, the gut microbiome, and immune function. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be susceptible to PTS and its subsequent impacts. To date, no study has evaluated PTS in IBD in the United States.

Methods: Adult patients with IBD were recruited from an outpatient gastroenterology practice, via social media, and via a research recruitment website. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were recruited as a comparison group. Participants completed demographic and disease information, surgical and hospitalization history, and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Statistical analyses evaluated rates of PTS in IBD and IBS, including differences between groups for PTS severity. Regression analyses determined potential predictors of PTS.

Results: One hundred eighty-eight participants (131 IBD, 57 IBS) completed the study. Thirty-two percent of IBD and 26% of IBS patients met the criteria for significant PTS symptoms based on PCL-C cutoffs. Inflammatory bowel disease patients are more likely to attribute PTS to their disease than IBS patients. Crohn's disease (CD) patients appear to be the most likely to experience PTS, including those being hospitalized or undergoing ileostomy surgery. Symptom severity is the greatest predictor of PTS for ulcerative colitis and IBS.

Conclusions: Although PTS is relevant in both IBS and IBD, IBD patients are seemingly more susceptible to PTS due their disease experiences, especially CD patients. The nature of PTS symptoms may contribute to IBD disease processes, most notably through sleep disturbance and ANS arousal. Clinicians should assess for PTS in IBD patients as standard of care, especially after a hospitalization or surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izz032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7534390PMC
August 2019

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient Experiences with Psychotherapy in the Community.

J Clin Psychol Med Settings 2019 06;26(2):183-193

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

This study aimed to characterize patient expectations for integrating mental health into IBD treatment, describe experiences with psychotherapy, and evaluate therapy access and quality. Adults with IBD were recruited online and via a gastroenterology practice. Participants, 162 adults with IBD, completed online questionnaires. The sample was primarily middle-aged, White, and female. Sixty percent had Crohn's Disease. Disease severity was mild to moderate; 38% reported utilizing therapy for IBD-specific issues. The greatest endorsed barrier to psychotherapy was its cost. Psychotherapy was perceived as leading to modest gains in quality of life, emotional well-being, and stress reduction. Participants reported a disparity between their desire for mental health discussions and their actual interactions with providers. The majority of participants (81%) stated there are insufficient knowledgeable therapists. A significant number of patients with IBD endorsed the desire for mental health integration into care. Disparities exist in reported provider-patient communication on these topics. There appears to be a dearth of IBD-knowledgeable therapists in the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10880-018-9576-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386621PMC
June 2019

Endosonographers' approach to delivering a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer: obligated but undertrained.

Endosc Int Open 2016 Mar 11;4(3):E242-8. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background And Study Aims: No data are available on the practice patterns of endosonographers as they pertain to the disclosure of a pancreatic cancer diagnosis. We sought to understand the current practice and coping strategies of physicians who perform endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) procedures in patients with suspected pancreatic cancer.

Methods: This study used a nonexperimental, cross-sectional survey design. A total of 707 endosonographers were contacted and asked to complete an online survey encompassing both demographic and practice data. In addition, participants had the option to complete a second survey assessing common coping strategies.

Results: A total of 152 physicians (22 %) participated in the study. The sample was split between community (47 %) and academic centers (53 %). A total of 92 % of the respondents felt an obligation to share a cancer diagnosis when it was available to them; however, only 45 % felt they were adequately trained to do so. Comfort levels were higher in those who performed more than 200 EUS procedures annually and in those practicing for longer than 5 years (P = 0.044). A total of 98 physicians (64.5 %) also completed the Brief COPE questionnaire, and the results indicated that the more experienced endosonographers were less likely to experience emotional distress when disclosing a cancer diagnosis.

Conclusion: The comfort level for disclosing a pancreatic cancer diagnosis after EUS appears to be higher in experienced endosonographers (> 5 years in practice) and in those who conduct a higher volume of procedures. Although the majority of endosonographers feel obligated to disclose a cancer diagnosis, the lack of time and proper training is limiting. Formal communication skills training within a gastrointestinal fellowship should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-109085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4798836PMC
March 2016

The System-Wide Effect of Real-Time Audiovisual Feedback and Postevent Debriefing for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: The Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality Improvement Initiative.

Crit Care Med 2015 Nov;43(11):2321-31

1Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom. 3Center for Resuscitation Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. 4School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of implementing real-time audiovisual feedback with and without postevent debriefing on survival and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality at in-hospital cardiac arrest.

Design: A two-phase, multicentre prospective cohort study.

Setting: Three UK hospitals, all part of one National Health Service Acute Trust.

Patients: One thousand three hundred and ninety-five adult patients who sustained an in-hospital cardiac arrest at the study hospitals and were treated by hospital emergency teams between November 2009 and May 2013.

Interventions: During phase 1, quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and patient outcomes were measured with no intervention implemented. During phase 2, staff at hospital 1 received real-time audiovisual feedback, whereas staff at hospital 2 received real-time audiovisual feedback supplemented by postevent debriefing. No intervention was implemented at hospital 3 during phase 2.

Measurements And Main Results: The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation. Secondary endpoints included other patient-focused outcomes, such as survival to hospital discharge, and process-focused outcomes, such as chest compression depth. Random-effect logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for baseline patient characteristics, were used to analyze the effect of the interventions on study outcomes. In comparison with no intervention, neither real-time audiovisual feedback (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.31-1.22; p=0.17) nor real-time audiovisual feedback supplemented by postevent debriefing (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.35-1.21; p=0.17) was associated with a statistically significant improvement in return of spontaneous circulation or any process-focused outcome. Despite this, there was evidence of a system-wide improvement in phase 2, leading to improvements in return of spontaneous circulation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.06-3.30; p=0.03) and process-focused outcomes.

Conclusions: Implementation of real-time audiovisual feedback with or without postevent debriefing did not lead to a measured improvement in patient or process-focused outcomes at individual hospital sites. However, there was an unexplained system-wide improvement in return of spontaneous circulation and process-focused outcomes during the second phase of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000001202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4603366PMC
November 2015

Negative aspects of close relationships are more strongly associated than supportive personal relationships with illness burden of irritable bowel syndrome.

J Psychosom Res 2013 Jun 30;74(6):493-500. Epub 2013 Apr 30.

Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14215, United States.

Objective: This study assessed the relative magnitude of associations between IBS outcomes and different aspects of social relationships (social support, negative interactions).

Method: Subjects included 235 Rome III diagnosed IBS patients (M age=41yrs, F=78%) without comorbid GI disease. Subjects completed a testing battery that included the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (Social Support or SS), Negative Interaction (NI) Scale, IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS), IBS-QOL, BSI Depression, STAI Trait Anxiety, SOMS-7 (somatization), Perceived Stress Scale, and a medical comorbidity checklist.

Results: After controlling for demographic variables, both SS and NI were significantly correlated with all of the clinical variables (SS r's=.20 to .36; NI r's=.17 to .53, respectively; ps<.05) save for IBS symptom severity (IBS-SSS). NI, but not SS, was positively correlated with IBS-SSS. After performing r-to-z transformations on the correlation coefficients and then comparing z-scores, the correlation between perceived stress, and NI was significantly stronger than with SS. There was no significant difference between the strength of correlations between NI and SS for depression, somatization, trait anxiety, and IBSQOL. A hierarchical linear regression identified both SS and NI as significant predictors of IBS-QOL.

Conclusions: Different aspects of social relationships - support and negative interactions - are associated with multiple aspects of IBS experience (e.g. stress, QOL impairment). Negative social relationships marked by conflict and adverse exchanges are more consistently and strongly related to IBS outcomes than social support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3673032PMC
June 2013

The effect of real-time CPR feedback and post event debriefing on patient and processes focused outcomes: a cohort study: trial protocol.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2011 Oct 18;19:58. Epub 2011 Oct 18.

Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, Bordesley Green East, Birmingham, B9 5SS, UK.

Background: Cardiac arrest affects 30-35, 000 hospitalised patients in the UK every year. For these patients to be given the best chance of survival, high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) must be delivered, however the quality of CPR in real-life is often suboptimal. CPR feedback devices have been shown to improve CPR quality in the pre-hospital setting and post-event debriefing can improve adherence to guidelines and CPR quality. However, the evidence for use of these improvement methods in hospital remains unclear. The CPR quality improvement initiative is a prospective cohort study of the Q-CPR real-time feedback device combined with post-event debriefing in hospitalised adult patients who sustain a cardiac arrest.

Methods/design: The primary objective of this trial is to assess whether a CPR quality improvement initiative will improve rate of return of sustained spontaneous circulation in in-hospital-cardiac-arrest patients. The study is set in one NHS trust operating three hospital sites. Secondary objectives will evaluate: any return of spontaneous circulation; survival to hospital discharge and patient cerebral performance category at discharge; quality of CPR variables and cardiac arrest team factors.

Methods: All three sites will have an initial control phase before any improvements are implemented; site 1 will implement audiovisual feedback combined with post event debriefing, site 2 will implement audiovisual feedback only and site 3 will remain as a control site to measure any changes in outcome due to any other trust-wide changes in resuscitation practice. All adult patients sustaining a cardiac arrest and receiving resuscitation from the hospital cardiac arrest team will be included. Patients will be excluded if; they have a Do-not-attempt resuscitation order written and documented in their medical records, the cardiac arrest is not attended by a resuscitation team, the arrest occurs out-of-hospital or the patient has previously participated in this study. The trial will recruit a total of 912 patients from the three hospital sites.

Conclusion: This trial will evaluate patient and process focussed outcomes following the implementation of a CPR quality improvement initiative using real-time audiovisual feedback and post event debriefing.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN56583860.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1757-7241-19-58DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214886PMC
October 2011

Promoting patient safety using an early warning scoring system.

Nurs Stand 2008 Jul 9-15;22(44):35-40

Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham.

Recognising when a patient's condition is deteriorating is a key aspect of patient safety and the use of early warning scoring systems is integral to this. Compliance with such systems can often be poor. Through the introduction of a competency framework and audit system, the Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust has demonstrated improvements in compliance with a modified early warning scoring tool, which has had significant benefits in terms of patient safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ns2008.07.22.44.35.c6586DOI Listing
September 2008

Safety and tolerability of nonbronchoscopic lavage in ARDS.

Chest 2005 Apr;127(4):1358-63

MB ChB, Clinical Research Block, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Study Objective: This study compared the safety profiles of bronchoscopic lavage with nonbronchoscopic lavage in the investigation of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS.

Design: Single-center, randomized, cross-over study.

Setting: General ICU in the United Kingdom.

Participants: Fourteen patients with ALI or ARDS.

Interventions: Bronchoscopic BAL and nonbronchoscopic BAL 1 h apart.

Measurements And Results: Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were recorded during and for 1 h following each procedure. On average, bronchoscopic lavage took longer to perform than nonbronchoscopic lavage (7 min and 6 s vs 2 min and 28 s, p < 0.001). During the procedures, bronchoscopic lavage increased heart rate and systolic BP more than nonbronchoscopic lavage (23% vs 10% [p < 0.01] and 18% vs 7% [p < 0.01]). Three patients had ST-segment depression during bronchoscopic, and one patient had ST-segment depression during nonbronchoscopic lavage (p = 0.298). Bronchoscopic lavage reduced minute ventilation by 63 +/- 17.3%, while nonbronchoscopic lavage only reduced it by 36 +/- 21.9% (p < 0.001). Paco(2) rose more after bronchoscopic lavage than after nonbronchoscopic lavage.

Conclusion: Nonbronchoscopic lavage is associated with less marked physiologic derangements than bronchoscopic lavage. Further studies are required to validate the hypothesis that nonbronchoscopic lavage may be safer in patients with unstable coronary heart disease or head injury/raised intracranial pressure who are at risk from unpredictable fluctuations in hemodynamic and ventilatory profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.127.4.1358DOI Listing
April 2005
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