Publications by authors named "Sarah N Johnson"

6 Publications

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Predicting probable eating disorder case-status in men using the Clinical Impairment Assessment: Evidence for a gender-specific threshold.

Eat Behav 2021 08 20;42:101541. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

The Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) is a widely used self-report measure of the psychosocial impairment associated with eating-disorder symptoms. Past studies recommended a global CIA score of 16 to identify clinically significant impairment associated with a probable eating disorder (ED). However, to date, research on the properties of the CIA has been conducted in majority-women samples. Preliminary research on gender differences in CIA scores suggested men with EDs report less impairment on the CIA relative to women with EDs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test if a different impairment threshold is needed to identify cases of men with EDs. We hypothesized that a lower CIA threshold, relative to that identified in majority-women samples, would most accurately identify men with EDs. Participants (N = 162) were men from our university-based and general community-based ED participant registry who completed the CIA and Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Both precision-recall and receiver operating characteristic curves assessed what CIA global score threshold most accurately identified men with EDs. Both analytic approaches indicated that a CIA global score of 13 best predicted ED case-status in men. Consistent with past research, men with a clinically significant ED appear to report lower impairment on the CIA. Results have implications for screening and assessing for substantial ED-related impairment in men. Additionally, past research using the CIA to identify men with EDs may have under-identified men with clinically significant symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101541DOI Listing
August 2021

An empirical evaluation of the diagnostic threshold between full-threshold and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa.

Eat Behav 2021 08 13;42:101540. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

University of Kansas, United States of America.

Previous research has failed to find differences in eating disorder and general psychopathology and impairment between people with sub- and full-threshold bulimia nervosa (BN). The purpose of the current study was to test the validity of the distinction between sub- and full-threshold BN and to determine the frequency of objective binge episodes and inappropriate compensatory behaviors that would best distinguish between sub- and full-BN. Community-recruited adults (83.5% female) with current sub-threshold (n = 105) or full-threshold BN (n = 99) completed assessments of eating-disorder psychopathology, clinical impairment, internalizing problems, and drug and alcohol misuse. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate whether eating-disorder psychopathology, clinical impairment, internalizing problems, and drug and alcohol misuse could empirically discriminate between sub- and full-threshold BN. The frequency of binge episodes and inappropriate compensatory behaviors (AUC = 0.94) was "highly accurate" in discriminating between sub- and full-threshold BN; however, only objective binge episodes was a significant predictor of BN status. Internalizing symptoms (AUC = 0.71) were "moderately accurate" at distinguishing between sub- and full-BN. Neither clinical impairment (AUC = 0.60) nor drug (AUC = 0.56) or alcohol misuse (AUC = 0.52) discriminated between groups. Results suggested that 11 episodes of binge eating and 17 episodes of inappropriate compensatory behaviors optimally distinguished between sub- and full-BN. Overall, results provided mixed support for the distinction between sub- and full-threshold BN. Future research to clarify the most meaningful way to discriminate between sub- and full-threshold is warranted to improve the criterion-related validity of the diagnostic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101540DOI Listing
August 2021

Measurement invariance of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) in adolescents and adults.

Eat Behav 2021 08 2;42:101538. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Recovery Record, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA.

Adolescence is a common period for eating disorder (ED) onset. The availability of psychometrically sound measures of ED psychopathology enables clinicians to accurately assess symptoms and monitor treatment outcomes continuously from adolescence and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to assess if the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) is invariant across adolescents and adults. Participants (N = 29,821) were adolescent (n = 5250) and adult (n = 24,571) users of the Recovery Record (RR) mobile phone application who provided EPSI responses through the application. Measurement invariance testing was conducted to assess invariance of the EPSI Body Dissatisfaction, Restricting, Excessive Exercise, Purging, Cognitive Restraint, and Binge Eating scales across adolescents (age 13 through 17) and adults (age 18 and older). Findings indicated that all EPSI factors administered in the RR app replicated in both adolescent and adult users. The EPSI factor structure was largely equivalent in adolescents and adults, demonstrating evidence for configural and metric invariance, as well as some evidence for scalar invariance. Our results indicated that EPSI scales measured the same constructs across development. Clinicians and researchers may benefit from utilizing the EPSI to measure ED psychopathology in adolescents and for continued progress monitoring into adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101538DOI Listing
August 2021

Energetics and Vibrational Signatures of Nucleobase Argyrophilic Interactions.

ACS Omega 2018 Oct 10;3(10):12936-12943. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677-1848, United States.

This study investigates the interactions of both purine (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine, and uracil) nucleobases with a pair of silver atoms (Ag). Full geometry optimizations were performed on several structures of each nucleobase/Ag complex and the corresponding isolated monomers using the M06-2X density functional with a correlation consistent triple-ζ basis set augmented with diffuse functions on all atoms and a relativistic pseudopotential on Ag (aug-cc-pVTZ for H, C, N, and O and aug-cc-pVTZ-PP for Ag; denoted aVTZ). Harmonic vibrational frequency computations indicate that each optimized structure corresponds to a minimum on the M06-2X/aVTZ potential energy surface. Relative electronic energies for interactions between Ag and each nucleobase were compared to elucidate energetic differences between isomers. Further analysis of the changes in vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, and Raman scattering activities reveals how different Ag binding sites might be differentiated spectroscopically. These results provide molecular-level insight into the interactions between nucleobases and silver, which may lead to better understanding and interpretation of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy experiments on nucleobases and related systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6645001PMC
October 2018

Oxalate Content of Enteral Nutrition Formulas.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2019 11;69(5):e135-e140

Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health.

Objectives: Patients requiring oral and/or enteral nutrition support, delivered via nasogastric, gastric, or intestinal routes, have a relatively high incidence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones. Nutrition formulas are frequently made from corn and/or or soy, both of which contain ample oxalate. Excessive oxalate intake contributes to hyperoxaluria (>45 mg urine oxalate/day) and CaOx stones especially when unopposed by concomitant calcium intake, gastrointestinal malabsorption is present, and/or oxalate degrading gut bacteria are limiting or absent. Our objective was to assess the oxalate content of commonly used commercial enteral nutrition formulas.

Methods: Enteral nutrition formulas were selected from the formulary at our clinical inpatient institution. Multiple samples of each were assessed for oxalate concentration with ion chromatography.

Results: Results from 26 formulas revealed highly variable oxalate concentration ranging from 4 to 140 mg oxalate/L of formula. No definitive patterns for different types of formulas (eg, flavored vs unflavored, high protein vs not) were evident. Coefficients of variation for all formulas ranged from 0.68% to 43% (mean ± SD 19% ± 12%; median 18%).

Conclusions: Depending on the formula and amount delivered, patients requiring nutrition support could obtain anywhere from 12 to 150 mg oxalate/day or more and are thus at risk for hyperoxaluria and CaOx stones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000002472DOI Listing
November 2019

Hydrogen bonding in the mixed HF/HCl dimer: Is it better to give or receive?

J Comput Chem 2018 May 9;39(14):839-843. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, 38677.

The ClH⋯FH and FH⋯ClH configurations of the mixed HF/HCl dimer (where the donor⋯acceptor notation indicates the directionality of the hydrogen bond) as well as the transition state connecting the two configurations have been optimized using MP2 and CCSD(T) with correlation consistent basis sets as large as aug-cc-pV(5 + d)Z. Harmonic vibrational frequencies confirmed that both configurations correspond to minima and that the transition state has exactly one imaginary frequency. In addition, anharmonic vibrational frequencies computed with second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) are within 6 cm of the available experimental values and deviate by no more than 4 cm for the complexation induced HF frequency shifts. The CCSD(T) electronic energies obtained with the largest basis set indicate that the barrier height is 0.40 kcal mol and the FH⋯ClH configuration lies 0.19 kcal mol below the ClH⋯FH configuration. While only modestly attenuating the barrier height, the inclusion of either the harmonic or anharmonic zero-point vibrational energy effectively makes both minima isoenergetic, with the ClH⋯FH configuration being lower by only 0.03 kcal mol . © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcc.25157DOI Listing
May 2018
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